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Osteoporosis management review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885621/primary-hyperparathyroidism
#1
REVIEW
Marcella D Walker, Shonni J Silverberg
In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a focus on recent advances in the field. PHPT is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal serum levels of parathyroid hormone. Most often, the presentation of PHPT is asymptomatic in regions of the world where serum levels of calcium are routinely measured. In addition to mild hypercalcaemia, PHPT can manifest with osteoporosis and hypercalciuria as well as with vertebral fractures and nephrolithiasis, both of which can be asymptomatic...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860416/estrogen-progestin-therapy-causes-a-greater-increase-in-spinal-bone-mineral-density-than-estrogen-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials-with-direct-randomization
#2
J C Prior, V R Seifert-Klauss, D Giustini, J D Adachi, S Kalyan, A Goshtasebi
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether progesterone (P4) or osteoblast P4 receptor-acting progestin (P) contributed to estrogen (E) therapy-related increased areal bone mineral density (BMD) in randomized controlled trials (RCT) with direct randomization to estrogen (ET) or estrogen-progestin (EPT) therapy. METHODS: Systematic literature searches in biomedical databases identified RCT with direct randomization and parallel estrogen doses that measured spinal BMD change/year...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857846/utility-of-trabecular-bone-score-in-the-evaluation-of-osteoporosis
#3
Patrick Martineau, Barbara C Silva, William D Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a lumbar spine dual-energy absorptiometry texture index which provides information on skeletal quality partially independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A body of work has emerged demonstrating the relationship between TBS and fracture risk, with lower TBS values associated with increased risk for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women and older men. TBS is derived from standard DXA images; however, the information provided by TBS is complementary to that provided by BMD...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829987/closed-reduction-and-percutaneous-periarticular-single-k-wire-fixation-for-displaced-unstable-transverse-fractures-of-the-proximal-phalanx-in-elderly-osteoporotic-women-a-case-series-of-five-patients
#4
Abdulaziz Alazzam, Mohammad M Al-Qattan
INTRODUCTION: A literature review did not reveal any study investigating the results of surgical management of fractures of the proximal phalanx in elderly osteoporotic women. We present a case series of five patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five consecutive cases with seven fractures of the shaft/base of the proximal phalanx were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the study group was 72.4 years (range, 70-76 years). All patients were on treatment for osteoporosis at the time of injury...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#5
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789921/discontinuation-of-denosumab-therapy-for-osteoporosis-a-systematic-review-and-position-statement-by-ects
#6
REVIEW
Elena Tsourdi, Bente Langdahl, Martine Cohen-Solal, Bérengere Aubry-Rozier, Erik Fink Eriksen, Nuria Guañabens, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Stuart H Ralston, Richard Eastell, M Carola Zillikens
INTRODUCTION: The optimal duration of osteoporosis treatment is controversial. As opposed to bisphosphonates, denosumab does not incorporate into bone matrix and bone turnover is not suppressed after its cessation. Recent reports imply that denosumab discontinuation may lead to an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures. METHODS: The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) formed a working group to perform a systematic review of existing literature on the effects of stopping denosumab and provide advice on management...
August 5, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780676/erratum-to-osteoporosis-obesity-and-sarcopenia-on-abdominal-ct-a-review-of-epidemiology-diagnostic-criteria-and-management-strategies-for-the-reporting-radiologist
#7
Timothy É Murray, David Williams, Michael J Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762126/systematic-scoping-review-of-patients-perceived-needs-of-health-services-for-osteoporosis
#8
REVIEW
L Chou, P Shamdasani, A M Briggs, F M Cicuttini, K Sullivan, K L M D Seneviwickrama, A E Wluka
Health service planners, administrators and providers need to understand the patients' perspective of health services related to osteoporosis to optimise health outcomes. The aims of this study were to systematically identify and review the literature regarding patients' perceived health service needs relating to osteoporosis and osteopenia. A systematic scoping review was performed of publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO (1990-2016). Descriptive data regarding study design and methodology were extracted and risk of bias assessed...
July 31, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744736/management-of-bone-health-in-postmenopausal-women-on-aromatase-inhibitors-ais-a-single-health-care-system-experience
#9
Douglas Tremblay, Vaibhav Patel, Kenneth M Fifer, Jessica Caro, Olivia Kolodka, John Mandelli, Charles L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the preferred therapy for postmenopausal women with early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. However, their use causes bone loss and increased risks of osteoporosis and fractures. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all postmenopausal women with breast cancer diagnosed and treated with AI between 2010 and 2015. Of the 564 women identified, 319 were eligible. RESULTS: The median age at AI initiation was 65 years (range 51-85 years), and the median duration of AI therapy was 28 months (1-72 months)...
July 26, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740372/pharmacological-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-the-oldest-old
#10
REVIEW
A Vandenbroucke, F P Luyten, J Flamaing, E Gielen
The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases with age. Consequently, the global prevalence of osteoporotic fractures will increase with the aging of the population. In old age, osteoporosis is associated with a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, osteoporosis in old age continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. This may, at least partly, be explained by the fact that evidence of the antifracture efficacy of osteoporosis treatments comes mainly from randomized controlled trials in postmenopausal women with a mean age of 70-75 years...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739478/an-overview-of-clinical-guidelines-for-the-management-of-vertebral-compression-fracture-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Patrícia Parreira, Chris G Maher, Rodrigo Z Megale, Lyn March, Manuela L Ferreira
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Vertebral compression fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture comprising approximately 1.4 million cases worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines can be powerful tools for promoting evidence-based practice, as they integrate research findings in order to support decision-making. However, currently available clinical guidelines and recommendations, established by different medical societies, are sometimes contradictory. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to appraise the recommendations and methodological quality of international clinical guidelines for the management of VCFs...
July 21, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735575/negotiating-the-complexities-of-exocrine-and-endocrine-dysfunction-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#12
Sinead N Duggan
Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterised by irreversible morphological change and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function. This progressive, irreversible disease results in destruction of healthy pancreatic tissue and the development of fibrous scar tissue. Gradual loss of exocrine and endocrine function follows, along with clinical manifestations such as steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and diabetes. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis has been described as a problem area and, until recently, there was little research on the topic...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734710/use-of-trabecular-bone-score-tbs-as-a-complementary-approach-to-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-for-fracture-risk-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#13
Enisa Shevroja, Olivier Lamy, Lynn Kohlmeier, Fjorda Koromani, Fernando Rivadeneira, Didier Hans
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by low bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture, resulting in decreased bone strength with an increased risk of fractures. In clinical practice, physicians can assess the risk of fracture for a patient based on several risk factors. Some such as age, weight, and history of fractures after 50 years of age, parental fracture, smoking status, and alcohol intake are incorporated into FRAX, an assessment tool that estimates the 10-year probability of hip fracture and major osteoporotic fractures based on the individual's risk factors profile...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734709/worldwide-fracture-prediction
#14
Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Marlene Chakhtoura, Jane A Cauley, Nariman Chamoun
The substantial increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases in general and osteoporosis in particular, necessitates the establishment of efficient and targeted diagnosis and treatment strategies. This chapter reviews and compares different tools for osteoporosis screening and diagnosis; it also provides an overview of different treatment guidelines adopted by countries worldwide. While access to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density (BMD) is limited in most areas in the world, the introduction of risk calculators that combine risk factors, with or without BMD, have resulted in a paradigm shift in osteoporosis screening and management...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#15
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720988/non-surgical-management-of-acute-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fracture-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Bhavuk Garg, Vivek Dixit, Sahil Batra, Rajesh Malhotra, Alok Sharan
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. Last decade has seen rise in osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Pragmatic management of osteoporotic VCF is challenging to the surgeons. In clinical settings, the situation becomes more complex when it comes to managing painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) due to various co-morbid factors that may limit aggressive interventions. Patients with Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are often characterized by general/relative immobility and physical frailty...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714404/current-and-emerging-strategies-in-osteoporosis-management
#17
Stefka Ivanova, Liliya Vasileva
The abnormal loss of bone tissue is defined as osteoporosis. Increased risk of fractures, low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and biomechanical properties of the bone tissue characterize this pathological condition. Physiologically bone undergoes a continuous remodeling process involving balance between the activity of osteoblast and osteoclast. Disruption in this balanced condition increases the risk of osteoporosis. Both sexes are affected, but with higher prevalence in women after menopause...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712982/fracture-risk-prediction-modeling-and-statistics-what-should-clinical-researchers-journal-reviewers-and-clinicians-know
#18
John T Schousboe, Lisa Langsetmo, Brent C Taylor, Kristine E Ensrud
Fractures are binary events (they either occur or they do not), and predicting whether fractures may occur involves assigning probabilities of one or more of those events occurring over time to populations and to individuals. Fracture risk prediction has become central to the management of osteoporosis and fracture prevention in clinical practice, and the ultimate clinical usefulness of the prediction tools used to estimate these risks depends, at a minimum, on the validity and accuracy of those tools. In this paper, we will describe how fracture prediction models are developed and validated, and how their performance characteristics are assessed...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709566/selected-comorbidities-of-atopic-dermatitis-atopy-neuropsychiatric-and-musculoskeletal-disorders
#19
Jonathan I Silverberg
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease with substantial morbidity and quality of life impairment. There are a number of comorbid health problems that occur in patients with AD, aside from the cutaneous signs and symptoms. Chronic pruritus and inflammation can lead to sleep disturbances and mental health symptoms, which are not mutually exclusive. AD is associated with and may predispose to higher risk of other atopic disorders, including asthma and hay fever. Persons with AD appear to be at higher risk for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, speech disorders in childhood, headaches, and seizures...
July 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693144/denosumab-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-in-a-patient-with-bone-metastases-of-prostate-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Hitoshi Yoshimura, Seigo Ohba, Hisato Yoshida, Kyoko Saito, Kazuyoshi Inui, Rie Yasui, Dai Ichikawa, Minako Aiki, Junichi Kobayashi, Shinpei Matsuda, Yoshiaki Imamura, Kazuo Sano
Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL), is used for the treatment of patients with metastatic cancer of the bone or osteoporosis. Recent reports have demonstrated that denosumab can induce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), but reported cases of this are uncommon. The present study reports the case of an 86-year-old male with prostate cancer patient exhibiting bone metastases who developed ONJ whilst receiving denosumab. To elucidate the influence of denosumab on the development of ONJ, the present study also reviewed the literature, including clinical trials and case reports...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
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