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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821943/xcc2366-a-gene-encoding-a-putative-tetr-family-transcriptional-regulator-is-required-for-acriflavin-resistance-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#1
Chao-Tsai Liao, Hsueh-Hsia Lo, Weng-Ting Peng, Wan-Ling Song, Shin-Chiao Du, Yi-Min Hsiao
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in cruciferous plants. The XCC2366 gene product is annotated as a protein belonging to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. In this study, we evaluated the function and expression of the XCC2366 gene. Mutational analysis demonstrated that XCC2366 is involved in the resistance to acriflavin and is necessary for virulence in Xcc. In addition, the XCC2366 transcription initiation site was mapped at nucleotide A, 63 nucleotide upstream of the XCC2366 translation start codon...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821783/the-nadph-oxidase-nox2-mediates-loss-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-traumatic-brain-injury-human-autoptic-immunohistochemical-evidence
#2
Stefania Schiavone, Margherita Neri, Luigia Trabace, Emanuela Turillazzi
Pharmacological interventions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited. Together with parvalbumin (PV) loss, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase NOX enzymes represents a key step in TBI. Here, we investigated the contribution of NOX2-derived oxidative stress to the loss of PV immunoreactivity associated to TBI, performing immunohistochemistry for NOX2, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and PV on post mortem brain samples of subjects died following TBI, subjects died from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) and controls (CTRL)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#3
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821102/microencapsulation-of-sardine-oil-application-of-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-as-a-bio-functional-wall-material
#4
K V Vishnu, Niladri S Chatterjee, K K Ajeeshkumar, R G K Lekshmi, C S Tejpal, Suseela Mathew, C N Ravishankar
Vanillic acid grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch) was evaluated as a new antioxidant wall material for microencapsulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid rich sardine oil. A high grafting ratio of 305mg vanillic acid equivalent/g of polymer was achieved using a free radical mediated grafting reaction. Oil in water emulsion was prepared with an optimised combination of Va-g-Ch and Tween 20 (3.2:1). Sardine oil loaded microparticles (SO-M) were produced (∼75% yield) by spray drying. The average diameter and polydispersity Index (PDI) of the particles were found to be 2...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818214/treatment-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-bowel-infarction-in-patients-with-acute-superior-mesenteric-venous-thrombosis
#5
Hyung-Kee Kim, Deokbi Hwang, Sujin Park, Jong-Min Lee, Seung Huh
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (SMVT) remains obscure. We aimed to investigate the treatment outcomes and possible risk factors for bowel infarction in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively included 66 patients with acute SMVT between January 2002 and June 2016. Each patient underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography as part of the initial diagnosis. The standard protocol for management included a nonsurgical approach with early anticoagulation and selective exploration...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816601/stomate-based-defense-and-environmental-cues
#6
Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants. For instance, many bacterial disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata. Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. Recently, we found that high humidity compromises stomatal defense, which is accompanied by regulation of the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways in guard cells...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#7
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815581/th1-polarizing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-scavenger-receptors-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-vulgaris
#8
Dayasagar Das, Vivek Anand, Sujay Khandpur, V K Sharma, Alpana Sharma
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) and Scavenger receptors are key innate immune machinery playing significant role in regulating immune homeostasis at epithelial surface. The roles of these immune components are not yet characterized for the autoimmune skin disorder Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). Phenotyping and frequency of γδ T cells estimated by Flowcytometry has shown increased frequency of γδ T cells (6.7% vs. 4.4%) producing IFN-γ (35.2% vs. 26.68%), in circulation of patients compared to controls. Dual cytokine (IFN-γ & IL-4) secreting γδ T cells indicate plasticity of these cells...
August 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815300/holaphyllamine-a-steroid-is-able-to-induce-defense-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increases-resistance-against-bacterial-infection
#9
Abderrakib Zahid, Rim Jaber, Ferdousse Laggoun, Arnaud Lehner, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Olivier Pamlard, Sandra Beaupierre, Jérome Leprince, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Xavier Latour, Vincent Richard, Catherine Guillou, Patrice Lerouge, Azeddine Driouich, Jean-Claude Mollet
A chemical screen of plant-derived compounds identified holaphyllamine, a steroid, able to trigger defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and improve resistance against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. A chemical screen of 1600 plant-derived compounds was conducted and allowed the identification of a steroid able to activate defense responses in A. thaliana at a concentration of 1 µM without altering growth. The identified compound is holaphyllamine (HPA) whose chemical structure is similar to steroid pregnanes of mammals...
August 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814495/right-ventricular-pulmonary-vascular-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Diana M Tabima, Jennifer L Philip, Naomi C Chesler
Accurate and comprehensive evaluation of right ventricular (RV)-pulmonary vascular (PV) interactions is critical to the assessment of cardiopulmonary function, dysfunction, and failure. Here, we review methods of quantifying RV-PV interactions and experimental results from clinical trials as well as large- and small-animal models based on pressure-volume analysis. We conclude by outlining critical gaps in knowledge that should drive future studies.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814272/identification-of-new-protein-coding-genes-with-a-potential-role-in-the-virulence-of-the-plant-pathogen-xanthomonas-euvesicatoria
#11
Ulrike Abendroth, Norman Adlung, Andreas Otto, Benjamin Grüneisen, Dörte Becher, Ulla Bonas
BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are economically important plant pathogens. Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas spp. depends on the type III-secretion system and additional virulence determinants. The number of sequenced Xanthomonas genomes increases rapidly, however, accurate annotation of these genomes is difficult, because it relies on gene prediction programs. In this study, we used a mass-spectrometry (MS)-based approach to identify the proteome of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) strain 85-10 also known as X...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812948/age-related-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-involves-the-mads-domain-transcription-factor-short-vegetative-phase-and-direct-action-of-salicylic-acid-on-pseudomonas-syringae
#12
Daniel C Wilson, Christine J Kempthorne, Philip Carella, David K Liscombe, Robin Cameron
Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a developmentally regulated disease-resistance response known as Age-Related Resistance (ARR), a process that requires intercellular accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which is thought to act as an antimicrobial agent. ARR is characterized by enhanced resistance to some pathogens at the late adult-vegetative and reproductive stages. While the transition to flowering does not cause the onset of ARR, both processes involve the MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811752/occurrence-and-epidemics-of-bacterial-canker-of-kiwifruit-in-korea
#13
REVIEW
Gyoung Hee Kim, Jae Sung Jung, Young Jin Koh
Bacterial canker is the largest limiting factor in the cultivation and production of kiwifruit worldwide. Typical symptoms comprise necrotic spots on leaves, canker and dieback on canes and trunks, twig wilting, and blossom necrosis. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), which is the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker, is divided into four biovars based on multilocus sequence analysis of different genes, additional PCR testing of pathogenic genes (argKtox cluster, cfl, and various effector genes), and biochemical and physiological characterization...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811473/plant-made-polio-type-3-stabilized-vlps-a-candidate-synthetic-polio-vaccine
#14
Johanna Marsian, Helen Fox, Mohammad W Bahar, Abhay Kotecha, Elizabeth E Fry, David I Stuart, Andrew J Macadam, David J Rowlands, George P Lomonossoff
Poliovirus (PV) is the causative agent of poliomyelitis, a crippling human disease known since antiquity. PV occurs in two distinct antigenic forms, D and C, of which only the D form elicits a robust neutralizing response. Developing a synthetically produced stabilized virus-like particle (sVLP)-based vaccine with D antigenicity, without the drawbacks of current vaccines, will be a major step towards the final eradication of poliovirus. Such a sVLP would retain the native antigenic conformation and the repetitive structure of the original virus particle, but lack infectious genomic material...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810197/photochemical-formation-of-chitosan-stabilized-near-infrared-absorbing-silver-nanoworms-a-green-synthetic-strategy-and-activity-on-gram-negative-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Sreekar Marpu, Samar S Kolailat, Daniel Korir, Brian L Kamras, Ratnesh Chaturvedi, Abel Joseph, Christopher M Smith, Misael C Palma, Jyoti Shah, Mohammad A Omary
A facile, single-step, non-seeded photochemical protocol for producing a new type of anisotropic silver nanostructure, "nanoworms", with curved longer dimensions and smooth, rounded edges. The nanoworms exhibit surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption in the near-infrared window (NIRW) region and are stabilized using biocompatible polymer chitosan, rendering biocompatibility and amplified safety for biological utility of the composition. Both NIRW-absorbing nanoworms and visible-absorbing nanospheres herein are attained exclusively by employing green chemistry principles...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809843/tuning-in-the-hippocampal-theta-band-in-vitro-methodologies-for-recording-from-the-isolated-rodent-septohippocampal-circuit
#16
Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams
This protocol outlines the procedures for preparing and recording from the isolated whole hippocampus, of WT and transgenic mice, along with recent improvements in methodologies and applications for the study of theta oscillations. A simple characterization of the isolated hippocampal preparation is presented whereby the relationship between internal hippocampal theta oscillators is examined together with the activity of pyramidal cells, and GABAergic interneurons, of the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) and subiculum (SUB) areas...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808761/the-underappreciated-risk-of-thrombosis-and-bleeding-in-patients-with-myelofibrosis-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Devendra Kc, Lorenzo Falchi, Srdan Verstovsek
Bleeding and thrombosis are long recognized complications of myelofibrosis (MF) and contribute significantly to its morbidity and mortality. However, so far, few studies have evaluated the frequency of these events, their characteristics, and their prognostic impact. Based on these studies, thrombotic events in MF are about as common as in essential thrombocytemia (ET) but less common than in polycythemia vera (PV), while bleeding events are relatively more common in MF than in ET or PV. The emergence of the concept of prefibrotic primary MF (PMF), which is associated with a higher frequency of thrombohemorrhagic complications than ET, and the growing evidence that prefibrotic PMF may also have a different thrombotic and bleeding risk profiles than fibrotic (overt) PMF have emphasized the need for a reappraisal of the risk of thrombosis and hemorrhage in patients with MF...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808482/the-chinese-herb-prunella-vulgaris-promotes-apoptosis-in-human-well-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-cells-via-the-b-cell-lymphoma-2-bcl-2-associated-x-protein-caspase-3-signaling-pathway
#18
De-Tao Yin, Mengyuan Lei, Jianhui Xu, Hongqiang Li, Yongfei Wang, Zhen Liu, Runsheng Ma, Kun Yu, Xianghua Li
Prunella vulgaris (PV), a traditional Chinese herb, has been shown to be rich in bioactive chemicals and possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells. The effect of PV on human well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC), which accounts for the majority of common endocrine malignancies, remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the function of PV on WDTC cell lines and apoptosis-associated signaling pathway activity. Additional studies demonstrated that PV may induce apoptosis in WDTC TPC-1 and FTC-133 cell lines, using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay...
August 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808225/congestive-preconditioning-by-portal-venous-clamping-a-novel-preventive-concept-for-small-intestinal-congestive-re-outflow-injury
#19
Hironori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Takamura, Ryosuke Gabata, Yoshinao Ohbatake, Shinichi Nakanuma, Tomoharu Miyashita, Hidehiro Tajima, Itasu Ninomiya, Sachio Fushida, Tetsuo Ohta
BACKGROUND Congestion of the small intestine, which induces mucosal damage via apoptosis, is a common pathophysiological change in hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery, including liver transplantation. Small intestinal mucosal damage can trigger postoperative complications via various pathways. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of intermittent portal venous clamping, which we named congestive preconditioning (CPC), for decreasing congestive re-outflow injury (CRoI) of the small intestine. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small intestinal CRoI was induced in rats by clamping the portal vein (PV) for 30 min, followed by re-outflow...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808003/signaling-from-the-plasma-membrane-localized-plant-immune-receptor-rpm1-requires-self-association-of-the-full-length-protein
#20
Farid El Kasmi, Eui-Hwan Chung, Ryan G Anderson, Jinyue Li, Li Wan, Timothy K Eitas, Zhiyong Gao, Jeffery L Dangl
Plants evolved intracellular immune receptors that belong to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family to recognize the presence of pathogen-derived effector proteins. NLRs possess an N-terminal Toll-like/IL-1 receptor (TIR) or a non-TIR domain [some of which contain coiled coils (CCs)], a central nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). Activation of NLR proteins results in a rapid and high-amplitude immune response, eventually leading to host cell death at the infection site, the so-called hypersensitive response...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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