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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#1
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526969/glycaemia-and-phosphatemia-after-oral-glucose-and-maltitol-ingestion-in-subjects-from-two-different-race-groups-preliminary-evidence-of-inter-race-differences-in-metabolism-and-possible-implications-for-urinary-stone-disease
#2
Takalani Theka, Allen Rodgers
PURPOSE: Glucose (Glu) and maltitol (Mal) ingestion affect calciuria and phosphaturia. Renal phosphate leak involving hypophosphatemia is thought to be a mechanism. Inter-race differences in carbohydrate metabolism are known. We investigated the effects of Glu and Mal ingestion on glycaemia and phosphatemia in subjects from two race groups to better understand potential implications for nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Healthy black (B) (n = 8) and white (W) (n = 8) males followed a self-selected standardized diet for 7 days and a strictly controlled standardized diet on Day 8...
May 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526587/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-adult-mammalian-epithelial-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Kai Kretzschmar, Hans Clevers
Adult stem cells self-renew and replenish differentiated cells in various organs and tissues throughout a mammal's life. Over the last 25 years an ever-growing body of knowledge has unraveled the essential regulation of adult mammalian epithelia by the canonical Wnt signaling with its key intracellular effector β-catenin. In this review, we discuss the principles of the signaling pathway and its role in adult epithelial stem cells of the intestine and skin during homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We further highlight the research that led to the identification of new stem cell markers and methods to study adult stem cells ex vivo...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526415/lnk-deficiency-aggregates-palmitate-induced-preadipocyte-apoptosis
#4
Jie-Yi Du, Chen-Chen Jin, Guo-Hao Wang, Xiong-Qing Huang, Jian-Ding Cheng, Xue-Jun Wen, Xiao-Miao Zhao, Guan-Lei Wang
LNK (SH2B3) is an intracellular adaptor protein that negatively regulates cellular proliferation or self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and some other progenitor cells. LNK is also recognized as a key regulator of insulin resistance and inflammatory responses in several tissues and organs. It is unknown the function of LNK in adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mouse model had elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs) levels and increased preadipocyte apoptosis in visceral fat tissue, showing the occurrence of lipotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526259/the-impact-of-daytime-light-exposures-on-sleep-and-mood-in-office-workers
#5
Mariana G Figueiro, Bryan Steverson, Judith Heerwagen, Kevin Kampschroer, Claudia M Hunter, Kassandra Gonzales, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
BACKGROUND: By affecting the internal timing mechanisms of the brain, light regulates human physiology and behavior, perhaps most notably the sleep-wake cycle. Humans spend over 90% of their waking hours indoors, yet light in the built environment is not designed to affect circadian rhythms. OBJECTIVE: Using a device calibrated to measure light that is effective for the circadian system (circadian-effective light), collect personal light exposures in office workers and relate them to their sleep and mood...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526256/perceived-sleep-quality-the-interplay-of-neuroticism-affect-and-hyperarousal
#6
Nicola Cellini, Katherine A Duggan, Michela Sarlo
INTRODUCTION: Many adults experience poor sleep quality, and personality traits have emerged as important predictors of self-reported sleep. However, it is still unclear whether personality predicts sleep quality independent of other correlates, including mood, emotion regulation, and hyperarousal. AIMS AND METHOD: The aim of this study was twofold. First, using an online survey, we assessed the relationship between perceived sleep quality (defined here as the total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and personality in 498 Italians (M age=26...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#7
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525754/regulated-intron-removal-integrates-motivational-state-and-experience
#8
Jason Gill, Younshim Park, J P McGinnis, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Marco Blanchette, Kausik Si
Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#9
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525588/diving-and-long-term-cardiovascular-health
#10
K Åsmul, Å Irgens, M Grønning, A Møllerløkken
Background: Short-term cardiovascular effects from ambient pressure exposure are known. However, long-term cardiovascular effects from diving in humans have been less studied. Aims: To examine possible long-term cardiovascular health effects from occupational diving. Methods: We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in former divers to non-divers. We obtained data on male former divers with a certificate valid for professional diving after 1980, from the Norwegian Diver 2011 project, and matched data on the general male population from the HUNT3 Survey...
May 19, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525300/regulation-of-cell-polarity-in-motility-and-cell-division-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#11
Dominik Schumacher, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524913/periodic-oscillation-of-ion-conduction-of-nanofluidic-diodes-using-a-chemical-oscillator
#12
Huacheng Zhang, Jue Hou, Ranwen Ou, Yaoxin Hu, Huanting Wang, Lei Jiang
Periodic ion-conduction oscillation of biological ion channels in a living system is essential for numerous life processes. Here we report an oscillatory nanofluidic system that can self-regulate its ion-conduction states under constant conditions. The oscillatory nanofluidic system is constructed by integrating a chemical oscillator into an artificial single nanochannel system. Oscillating chemical reactions of the pH oscillator carried out inside the nanochannel are used to switch the surface properties of the channel between highly and lowly charged states, thus realizing an autonomous, continuous and periodic oscillation of the ion conductance of the channel between high and low ion-conduction states...
May 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#13
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523938/-it-was-like-i-had-to-fit-into-a-category-care-seekers-experiences-of-gender-regulation-in-the-swedish-trans-specific-healthcare
#14
Ida Linander, Erika Alm, Isabel Goicolea, Lisa Harryson
The few previous studies investigating regulation of gender in trans-specific healthcare are mainly based on text material and interviews with care-providers or consist solely of theoretical analyses. There is a lack of studies analysing how the regulation of gender is expressed in the care-seeker's own experiences, especially in a Nordic context. The aim of this study is to analyse narratives of individuals with trans experiences (sometimes called transgender people) to examine how gender performances can be regulated in trans-specific care in Sweden...
May 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522599/engineering-macrophages-to-eat-cancer-from-marker-of-self-cd47-and-phagocytosis-to-differentiation
#15
REVIEW
Cory Alvey, Dennis E Discher
The ability of a macrophage to engulf and break down invading cells and other targets provides a first line of immune defense in nearly all tissues. This defining ability to "phagos" or devour can subsequently activate the entire immune system against foreign and diseased cells, and progress is now being made on a decades-old idea of directing macrophages to phagocytose specific targets, such as cancer cells. Engineered T cells provide precedence with recent clinical successes against liquid tumors, but solid tumors remain a challenge, and a handful of clinical trials seek to exploit the abundance of tumor-associated macrophages instead...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522307/using-temporal-self-regulation-theory-to-understand-healthy-and-unhealthy-eating-intentions-and-behaviour
#16
Rachel Evans, Paul Norman, Thomas L Webb
OBJECTIVES: The present research investigated whether Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) can be used to help understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour. DESIGN: A prospective design with two waves of data collection one week apart. METHOD: An online survey measured the key components of TST (i.e., connectedness, timing and valence beliefs, intentions, past behaviour, habit strength, perceived environmental cues, and self-control) with respect to eating fruit and vegetables (F&V; N = 133) or unhealthy snacks (N = 125)...
May 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521573/students-motivation-toward-feedback-seeking-in-the-clinical-workplace
#17
Lubberta H de Jong, Robert P Favier, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Harold G J Bok
In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be distinguished. In this study, we investigated the intentions (defined as level and orientation of motivation) of different performing students (low, average, and high performing students) to seek feedback in the clinical workplace using Self-Determination Theory. We conducted a quantitative study with students in their clinical clerkships and grouped them based on their performance...
May 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521367/driving-problems-in-the-elderly-and-cognitively-impaired
#18
Robert Haussmann, Maria Buthut, Markus Donix
Driving ability in the elderly and cognitively impaired is of growing demographic relevance. Driving represents a complex task for which multiple central resources are needed. In mild cognitive impairment and dementia, we need to closely monitor driving ability, as it gets irrecoverably lost in the course of the disease. In normal aging, people are often able to self-regulate driving behavior with respect to their medical conditions. Some studies demonstrated that older drivers perform well compared with younger drivers...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521274/detection-of-regulated-herbs-and-plants-in-plant-food-supplements-and-traditional-medicines-using-infrared-spectroscopy
#19
E Deconinck, C A Sokeng Djiogo, J L Bothy, P Courselle
The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521114/msc-ecm-cellular-complexes-induce-periodontal-tissue-regeneration
#20
M Takewaki, M Kajiya, K Takeda, S Sasaki, S Motoike, N Komatsu, S Matsuda, K Ouhara, N Mizuno, T Fujita, H Kurihara
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess self-renewing properties and multipotency, into a periodontal defect is thought to be a useful option for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, developing more reliable and predictable implantation techniques is still needed. Recently, we generated clumps of an MSC/extracellular matrix (ECM) complex (C-MSC), which consisted of cells and self-produced ECM. C-MSCs can regulate their cellular functions in vitro and can be grafted into a defect site, without any artificial scaffold, to induce bone regeneration...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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