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self- regulation

Leah H Somerville
In the brain, the striatum and prefrontal cortex interact to gauge the value of actions and the self-regulatory demands in a given environment. New research, involving manipulation of the neural circuitry, has revealed multiple routes by which 'imbalances' in circuit function cause regulation deficits.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
The maintenance of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) involves manifold pathways of ontogeny and homeostasis that have been the subject of intense study in recent years. The concept of a peripheral mononuclear phagocyte system continually renewed by blood-borne monocytes has been modified to include specialized DC pathways of development that do not involve monocytes, and longevity through self-renewal of tissue macrophages. The study of development remains difficult owing to the plasticity of phenotypes and misconceptions about the fundamental structure of hematopoiesis...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Lu Han, Xiong Lu, Menghao Wang, Donglin Gan, Weili Deng, Kefeng Wang, Liming Fang, Kezhi Liu, Chun Wai Chan, Youhong Tang, Lu-Tao Weng, Huipin Yuan
A graphene oxide conductive hydrogel is reported that simultaneously possesses high toughness, self-healability, and self-adhesiveness. Inspired by the adhesion behaviors of mussels, our conductive hydrogel shows self-adhesiveness on various surfaces and soft tissues. The hydrogel can be used as self-adhesive bioelectronics, such as electrical stimulators to regulate cell activity and implantable electrodes for recording in vivo signals.
October 25, 2016: Small
Mei-Chuan Huang, Chich-Hsiu Hung, Ching-Yun Yu, Diane C Berry, Shyi-Jang Shin, Yu-Yun Hsu
AIMS: To explore the effectiveness of two types of health education on improving knowledge concerning diabetes and insulin injection, insulin injection skills and self-efficacy, satisfaction with health education and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and creatinine levels among patients with type 2 diabetes who began insulin therapy using a pen injector. BACKGROUND: Insulin therapy is recommended to facilitate the regulation of plasma glucose; however, patient's acceptance of insulin therapy is generally low...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Weizhong Sheng, Yusheng Chen, Yuda Gong, Tiangeng Dong, Bo Zhang, Weidong Gao
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is aggressive and lethal with extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional therapies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rate in ATC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found as an important class of cellular regulators of ATC carcinogenesis. Identification of CSC-related miRNAs and targets is therefore a priority for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. Patient-derived ATC cells were cultured in conditional media on poly-hema-treated dish...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Bridget C O'Brien, Win May, Tanya Horsley
This supplement includes the eight research papers accepted by the 2016 Research in Medical Education Program Planning Committee. In this Commentary, the authors use "conversations in medical education" as a guiding metaphor to explore what these papers contribute to the current scholarly discourse in medical education. They organize their discussion around two domains: the topic of study and the methodological approach. The authors map the eight research papers to six "hot topics" in medical education: (1) curriculum reform, (2) duty hours restriction, (3) learner well-being, (4) innovations in teaching and assessment, (5) self-regulated learning, and (6) learning environment, and to three purposes commonly served by medical education research: (1) description, (2) justification, and (3) clarification...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
A Rybicka, C Eyileten, B Taciak, J Mucha, K Majchrzak, E Hellmen, M Krol
Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Natália Dias, Joana Senger, Ana Paula Cervi Colling, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Rochele Paz Fonseca
This systematic review aimed to characterize empirical studies on neuropsychological interventions to stimulate executive functions in children with typical development. Searches were conducted according to the PRISMA method. Nineteen (19) studies on the analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in pre-school and school children were obtained. There was a predominance of studies that used computerized cognitive training, most of them involving the stimulation of working memory. Others used pen and paper forms, or hybrid tasks, and some programs used a school curriculum approach aiming to improve self-regulation...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Carine Meslot, Aurélie Gauchet, Martin S Hagger, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Audrey Lehmann, Benoît Allenet
BACKGROUND: Low levels of adherence to medication prescribed to treat and manage chronic disease may lead to maladaptive health outcomes. Theory-based, easy-to-administer interventions that promote patients' effective self-regulation of their medication-taking behaviour are needed if adherence is to be maximised. We tested the effectiveness of an intervention adopting planning techniques to promote medication adherence. METHODS: Outpatients with cardiovascular disease (N = 71) were allocated to either an experimental condition, in which participants were asked to form implementation intentions and coping plans related to their treatment, or to a no-planning control condition, in which participants received no treatment...
October 25, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Ivy Shiue
Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, pesticides, etc. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the relationships of urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons and adult respiratory health conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based setting in recent years...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Koji Shimozaki
Adult neurogenesis originates from neural stem cells (NSCs) in specific regions of the adult brain. The molecular mechanisms that control the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs have not been fully elucidated. In recent years, emerging evidence has revealed that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family DNA dioxygenases TET1 and TET2 play important roles in the central nervous system. Here, I present evidence that Tet1 and Tet2 are expressed in cultured NSCs derived from adult mouse brain and play an important role in the proliferative self-renewal of NSCs in an undifferentiated state...
October 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Janet Hoek, Jude Ball, Rebecca Gray, El-Shadan Tautolo
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco companies often assert that adults should be free to make an 'informed choice' about smoking; this argument influences public perceptions and shapes public health policy agendas by promoting educative interventions ahead of regulation. Critically analysing 'informed choice' claims is pivotal in countries that have set endgame goals and require new, more effective policies to achieve their smoke-free aims. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 15 New Zealand politicians, policy analysts and tobacco control advocates examined how they interpreted 'informed choice' arguments...
October 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
Evangelos C Karademas, Panagiotis Simos, Ioannis Zaganas, Sofia Tziraki, Simeon Panagiotakis, Maria Basta, Alexandros N Vgontzas
This study examined whether mild cognitive impairment affects the associations between personal expectations (i.e. optimism and self-efficacy), illness-related coping, and quality of life. In total, two groups of older adults participated: 127 persons diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and 225 cognitively healthy older persons (cognitively non-impaired group). Several significant relationships observed in the cognitively non-impaired group did not reach significance among mild cognitive impairment patients, with the opposite trend noted for others (e...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Miri Danan-Gotthold, Clotilde Guyon, Matthieu Giraud, Erez Y Levanon, Jakub Abramson
BACKGROUND: In order to become functionally competent but harmless mediators of the immune system, T cells undergo a strict educational program in the thymus, where they learn to discriminate between self and non-self. This educational program is, to a large extent, mediated by medullary thymic epithelial cells that have a unique capacity to express, and subsequently present, a large fraction of body antigens. While the scope of promiscuously expressed genes by medullary thymic epithelial cells is well-established, relatively little is known about the expression of variants that are generated by co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes...
October 24, 2016: Genome Biology
Nelly Rahkonen, Aki Stubb, Maia Malonzo, Sanna Edelman, Maheswara Reddy Emani, Elisa Närvä, Harri Lähdesmäki, Hannele Ruohola-Baker, Riitta Lahesmaa, Riikka Lund
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are central regulators of diverse biological processes and are important in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal. One of the widely studied miRNA-protein regulators is the Lin28-Let-7 pair. In this study, we demonstrate that contrary to the well-established models of mouse ES cells (mESC) and transformed human cancer cells, the pluripotent state of human ES cells (hESC) involves expression of mature Let-7 family miRNAs with concurrent expression of all LIN28 proteins. We show that mature Let-7 miRNAs are regulated during hESC differentiation and have opposite expression profile with LIN28B...
September 24, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Gertjan Vancoillie, Richard Hoogenboom
Boronic acid-containing (co)polymers have fascinated researchers for decades, garnering attention for their unique responsiveness toward 1,2- and 1,3-diols, including saccharides and nucleotides. The applications of materials that exert this property are manifold including sensing, but also self-regulated drug delivery systems through responsive membranes or micelles. In this review, some of the main applications of boronic acid containing (co)polymers are discussed focusing on the role of the boronic acid group in the response mechanism...
October 19, 2016: Sensors
Jalie A Tucker, JeeWon Cheong, Susan D Chandler, Brice H Lambert, Brittney Pietrzak, Heather Kwok, Susan L Davies
BACKGROUND: As interventions have expanded beyond clinical treatment to include brief interventions for persons with less severe alcohol problems, predicting who can achieve stable moderation drinking has gained importance. Recent behavioral economic (BE) research on natural recovery has shown that active problem drinkers who allocate their monetary expenditures on alcohol and saving for the future over longer time horizons tend to have better subsequent recovery outcomes, including maintenance of stable moderation drinking...
October 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
María-Victoria Hinckelmann, Amandine Virlogeux, Christian Niehage, Christel Poujol, Daniel Choquet, Bernard Hoflack, Diana Zala, Frédéric Saudou
The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
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