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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813329/ego-depletion-in-sports-highlighting-the-importance-of-self-control-strength-for-high-level-sport-performance
#1
REVIEW
Chris Englert
Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813282/autonomy-promotion-responsiveness-and-emotion-regulation-promote-effective-social-support-in-times-of-stress
#2
REVIEW
Carolyn E Cutrona, Daniel W Russell
Adult attachment theory provides guidance for providing optimal social support in intimate relationships. According to attachment theory, facilitating autonomy (secure base support) sometimes is more important than providing nurturance (safe haven support). In addition, it is important that couples celebrate one another's triumphs and successes (another form of secure base support). A key construct that explains the development of attachment is responsiveness to the individual's needs. Support that is delivered in a responsive manner (i...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#3
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813068/cultural-adaptation-of-the-short-self-regulation-questionnaire-suggestions-for-the-speech-area
#4
Anna Alice Almeida, Mara Behlau
Purpose: To present the translated and linguistic and culturally adapted version of the Short self-regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ) for the Brazilian Portuguese and to check its applicability to patients with dysphonia. Methods: The SSRQ is a tool used to evaluate the ability to self-regulate behavior; it has 31 items and generates three scores: total index of individual self-regulation capacity and partial scores for goal setting and impulse control. Each item should be scored by means of a Likert-type 5-point scale; the total score ranges from 29 to 145 points...
August 14, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812444/a-psychometric-analysis-of-the-ottawa-self-injury-inventory-f
#5
Joshua T Brown, Fred Volk, Gabrielle L Gearhart
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory-Functions (OSI-F) for assessing non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a condition for further study in the DSM-5. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 345 students who indicated a history of self-injury in a university counseling center over six semesters from August 2009 - May 2012. METHOD: Participants completed the OSI-F as a measure on the psychological intake for the university counseling center...
August 16, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811509/determining-causal-mirnas-and-their-signaling-cascade-in-diseases-using-an-influence-diffusion-model
#6
Joseph J Nalluri, Pratip Rana, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Thang N Dinh, Vladimir Vladimirov, Preetam Ghosh
In recent studies, miRNAs have been found to be extremely influential in many of the essential biological processes. They exhibit a self-regulatory mechanism through which they act as positive/negative regulators of expression of genes and other miRNAs. This has direct implications in the regulation of various pathophysiological conditions, signaling pathways and different types of cancers. Studying miRNA-disease associations has been an extensive area of research; however deciphering miRNA-miRNA network regulatory patterns in several diseases remains a challenge...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811192/relative-reinforcing-effects-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-acquisition-of-self-administration-and-fixed-ratio-dose-response-curves-in-rats
#7
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
"Bath salts" preparations contain synthetic cathinones which interact with monoamine transporters and function as either monoamine uptake inhibitors or releasers. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) were three of the most common cathinones (i.e., "first-generation" cathinones); however, after the US Drug Enforcement Administration placed them under Schedule I regulations, they were replaced with structurally related cathinones that were not subject to regulations (i...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#8
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811079/neuroleptic-free-youth-at-ultrahigh-risk-for-psychosis-evidence-diminished-emotion-reactivity-that-is-predicted-by-depression-and-anxiety
#9
June Gruber, Gregory P Strauss, Laure Dombrecht, Vijay A Mittal
Although abnormalities in emotional response have long been considered a core feature of the chronic phase of schizophrenia, few investigations have examined emotional response in individuals at ultrahigh-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We investigated whether neuroleptic-free UHR (n=29) and healthy control (n=32) participants differed in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on a laboratory-based task that required reporting levels of positive and negative affect to pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral stimuli...
August 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810497/shame-and-emotion-regulation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-effects-on-psychosocial-functioning
#10
Inês A Trindade, Cláudia Ferreira, José Pinto-Gouveia
Although patients with inflammatory bowel disease seem to be prone to high levels of shame, the mechanisms behind the impact of chronic illness-related shame on patients' functioning have not been explored yet. This study aims to address these gaps using a sample of 161 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who completed self-report measures on an online survey. The results from path analyses showed that chronic illness-related shame presented direct and indirect effects on psychological health ( R(2) = ...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810473/the-effect-of-self-compassion-on-the-self-regulation-of-health-behaviors-a-systematic-review
#11
David D Biber, Rebecca Ellis
The purpose of this review was to systematically review the published research on the effect of self-compassion interventions on health behaviors. A self-regulation intervention was defined as participants engaged in goal-setting behavior, goal-directed behavior, monitoring, and/or adjusting health behavior. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this review. Self-compassion interventions were just as effective as other behavior change techniques at improving self-regulation of health behavior...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810399/identification-and-regulation-of-emotions-in-adults-of-varying-weight-statuses
#12
Andrea E Kass, Jennifer E Wildes, Emil F Coccaro
Comparing individuals of varying weight statuses on their identification and regulation of emotions may increase our understanding of mechanisms that drive excess weight gain and highlight more precise weight regulation targets. In Study I ( N = 1333), adults with obesity had reduced self-reported attention to and repair of emotions compared to adults with overweight or normal weight. In Study II ( N = 85), adults with obesity had deficits in assessor-administrated tasks of strategic emotional intelligence (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810359/the-role-of-motivation-in-predicting-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-china
#13
Taryn Vian, Mary Bachman DeSilva, Howard J Cabral, Geoffrey C Williams, Allen L Gifford, Li Zhong, Wubin Xie, Christopher J Gill, Lora L Sabin
Patient motivation is important in managing medication regimens such as antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS. We tested whether self-determination theory could predict adherence behavior among 115 HIV-positive patients in the China Adherence through Technology Study, a randomized controlled trial of an intervention using text reminders and supportive counseling to increase adherence. Being in the treatment group had a significant effect on improving adherence; however, we did not find evidence that self-determination theory predicts adherence in this population of HIV-positive patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809965/hill-kinetics-as-a-noise-filter-the-role-of-transcription-factor-autoregulation-in-gene-cascades
#14
Anna Ochab-Marcinek, Jakub Jędrak, Marcin Tabaka
An intuition based on deterministic models of chemical kinetics is that population heterogeneity of transcription factor levels in cells is transmitted unchanged downstream to the target genes. We use a stochastic model of a two-gene cascade with a self-regulating upstream gene to show that, counter to the intuition, there is no simple mapping (bimodal to bimodal, unimodal to unimodal) between the shapes of the distributions of transcription factor numbers and target protein numbers in cells. Due to the presence of the two regulations, the system contains two nonlinear transfer functions, defined by the Hill kinetics of transcription factor binding...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809828/bioengineering-of-humanized-bone-marrow-microenvironments-in-mouse-and-their-visualization-by-live-imaging
#15
Diana Passaro, Ander Abarrategi, Katie Foster, Linda Ariza-McNaughton, Dominique Bonnet
Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) niche, an intricate, multifactorial network of components producing cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix. The ability of HSCs to remain quiescent, self-renew or differentiate, and acquire mutations and become malignant depends upon the complex interactions they establish with different stromal components. To observe the crosstalk between human HSCs and the human BM niche in physiological and pathological conditions, we designed a protocol to ectopically model and image a humanized BM niche in immunodeficient mice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809059/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-of-healthcare-professionals-regarding-child-maltreatment-in-china
#16
X Li, Q Yue, S Wang, H Wang, J Jiang, L Gong, W Liu, X Huang, T Xu
BACKGROUND: A new, recently issued national law and regulation in China conferred the responsibility of healthcare professionals in child maltreatment intervention. However, few studies have reported on the recognition and reporting of child maltreatment by healthcare professionals in China. The aim of this study was to assess healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceived behaviour in terms of identifying, assessing, and reporting child maltreatment cases in China...
August 15, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808337/microrna-214-modulates-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-by-targeting-quaking-during-cerebral-cortex-development
#17
Pengcheng Shu, Hongye Fu, Xiangyu Zhao, Chao Wu, Xiangbin Ruan, Yi Zeng, Wei Liu, Ming Wang, Lin Hou, Pan Chen, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Xiaozhong Peng
The accurate generation of an appropriate number of different neuronal and glial subtypes is fundamental to normal brain functions and requires tightly orchestrated spatial and temporal developmental programmes to maintain the balance between the proliferation and the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanism governing this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that miR-214-3p was highly expressed in neural progenitor cells and dynamically regulated during neocortical development...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808035/fission-yeast-myosin-myo2-is-down-regulated-in-actin-affinity-by-light-chain-phosphorylation
#18
Luther W Pollard, Carol S Bookwalter, Qing Tang, Elena B Krementsova, Kathleen M Trybus, Susan Lowey
Studies in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided the basis for the most advanced models of the dynamics of the cytokinetic contractile ring. Myo2, a class-II myosin, is the major source of tension in the contractile ring, but how Myo2 is anchored and regulated to produce force is poorly understood. To enable more detailed biochemical/biophysical studies, Myo2 was expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system with its two native light chains, Rlc1 and Cdc4. Milligram yields of soluble, unphosphorylated Myo2 were obtained that exhibited high actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro actin filament motility...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808032/mechanical-constraint-from-growing-jaw-facilitates-mammalian-dental-diversity
#19
Elodie Renvoisé, Kathryn D Kavanagh, Vincent Lazzari, Teemu J Häkkinen, Ritva Rice, Sophie Pantalacci, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad, Jukka Jernvall
Much of the basic information about individual organ development comes from studies using model species. Whereas conservation of gene regulatory networks across higher taxa supports generalizations made from a limited number of species, generality of mechanistic inferences remains to be tested in tissue culture systems. Here, using mammalian tooth explants cultured in isolation, we investigate self-regulation of patterning by comparing developing molars of the mouse, the model species of mammalian research, and the bank vole...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808012/bdnf-trkb-controls-cocaine-induced-dendritic-spines-in-rodent-nucleus-accumbens-dissociated-from-increases-in-addictive-behaviors
#20
Ethan M Anderson, Anne Marie Wissman, Joyce Chemplanikal, Nicole Buzin, Daniel Guzman, Erin B Larson, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Chronic cocaine use is associated with prominent morphological changes in nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) neurons, including increases in dendritic spine density along with enhanced motivation for cocaine, but a functional relationship between these morphological and behavioral phenomena has not been shown. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in NACsh neurons is necessary for cocaine-induced dendritic spine formation by using either localized TrkB knockout or viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative, kinase-dead TrkB mutant...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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