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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733878/role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-self-peptide-regulation-of-autoimmunity
#1
REVIEW
Bhagirath Singh, Michael D Krawetz, Rachel M De Lima, Rinee Mukherjee, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Edwin Lee-Chan, Edward H Leiter, Kelly L Summers
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These include multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins...
July 21, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733386/mir-99-regulates-normal-and-malignant-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#2
Mona Khalaj, Carolien M Woolthuis, Wenhuo Hu, Benjamin H Durham, S Haihua Chu, Sarah Qamar, Scott A Armstrong, Christopher Y Park
The microRNA-99 (miR-99) family comprises a group of broadly conserved microRNAs that are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (LSCs) compared with their differentiated progeny. Herein, we show that miR-99 regulates self-renewal in both HSCs and LSCs. miR-99 maintains HSC long-term reconstitution activity by inhibiting differentiation and cell cycle entry. Moreover, miR-99 inhibition induced LSC differentiation and depletion in an MLL-AF9-driven mouse model of AML, leading to reduction in leukemia-initiating activity and improved survival in secondary transplants...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#3
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732378/acetylation-and-deacetylation-in-cancer-stem-like-cells
#4
REVIEW
Na Liu, Shiqi Li, Nan Wu, Kin-Sang Cho
Cancer stem-like cell (CSC) model has been established to investigate the underlying mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression. The imbalance between acetylation and deacetylation of histone or non-histone proteins, one of the important epigenetic modification processes, is closely associated with a wide variety of diseases including cancer. Acetylation and deacetylation are involved in various stemness-related signal pathways and drive the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in normal developmental processes...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731931/renal-function-and-its-association-with-blood-pressure-in-middle-eastern-immigrants-and-native-swedes
#5
Christopher Nilsson, Anders Christensson, Peter M Nilsson, Louise Bennet
BACKGROUND: Iraqi-born immigrants residing in Sweden are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with native Swedes. Paradoxically, hypertension is less prevalent in this immigrant population. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in renal function and further if differences in blood pressure (BP) levels were associated with differences across ethnicities in renal function as a possible explanation to the paradox. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of men and women, born in Iraq or Sweden, aged 30-75 years was conducted in Malmö, Sweden, from 2010 to 2012...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#6
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730717/measuring-the-contribution-of-art-therapy-in-multidisciplinary-treatment-of-personality-disorders-the-construction-of-the-self-expression-and-emotion-regulation-in-art-therapy-scale-serats
#7
Suzanne Haeyen, Susan van Hooren, William M van der Veld, Giel Hutschemaekers
Despite the use of art therapy in clinical practice, its appreciation and reported beneficial results, no instruments are available to measure specific effects of art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C in multidisciplinary treatment. In the present study, we described the development and psychometric evaluation of the Self-expression and Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS). Structural validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were examined using two independent databases (n = 335; n = 34) of patients diagnosed with personality disorders cluster B/C...
July 21, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730449/rational-engineering-of-a-modular-group-i-ribozyme-to-control-its-activity-by-self-dimerization
#8
Takahiro Tanaka, Yoshiya Ikawa, Shigeyoshi Matsumura
We designed and constructed a dimer of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme the activity of which is regulated by self-dimerization. This dimer was rationally designed by utilizing the P5abc and ΔP5abc domains as large RNA motifs. This strategy enabled us to install large ribozyme functions into an RNA structure. This is a step toward expanding the field of RNA nanotechnology beyond the limitation of using only relatively small functional motifs. Self-dimerization can also be rationally programmed by modular engineering of RNA interaction motifs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730447/construction-and-in-vivo-testing-of-prokaryotic-riboregulators
#9
Alexander A Green
RNAs that are transcribed and self-assemble within living cells are valuable tools for regulating and organizing cellular activities. Riboregulators, in particular, have been widely used for modulating translation and transcription in response to cognate transactivating or trigger RNAs, enabling cells to evaluate logic operations and to respond to environmental cues. Herein we detail a set of methods for the rapid construction and testing of prokaryotic riboregulators in Escherichia coli. These methods enable construction of dozens of riboregulator plasmids at the same time without the use of restriction enzymes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729872/plc-mediated-signaling-pathway-in-pollen-tubes-regulates-the-gametophytic-self-incompatibility-of-pyrus-species
#10
Haiyong Qu, Yaqin Guan, Yongzhang Wang, Shaolin Zhang
Among the Rosaceae species, the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multi-allelic S locus, which is composed of the pistil-S and pollen-S genes. The pistil-S gene encodes a polymorphic ribonuclease (S-RNase), which is essential for identifying self-pollen. However, the S-RNase system has not been fully characterized. In this study, the self-S-RNase inhibited the Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity at pollen tube apices and the selectively decreased phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the plasma membrane of Pyrus pyrifolia pollen tubes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729418/myc-regulated-mevalonate-metabolism-maintains-brain-tumor-initiating-cells
#11
Xiuxing Wang, Zhi Huang, Qiulian Wu, Briana C Prager, Stephen C Mack, Kailin Yang, Leo J Y Kim, Ryan C Gimple, Yu Shi, Sisi Lai, Qi Xie, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Anne Song, Zhen Dong, Wenchao Zhou, Xiaoguang Fang, Zhe Zhu, Vaidehi Mahadev, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Metabolic dysregulation drives tumor initiation in a subset of glioblastomas harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, but metabolic alterations in glioblastomas with wildtype IDH are poorly understood. MYC promotes metabolic reprogramming in cancer, but targeting MYC has proven notoriously challenging. Here, we link metabolic dysregulation in patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) to a nexus between MYC and mevalonate signaling, which can be inhibited by statin or 6-fluoromevalonate treatment...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729299/notch2-blockade-enhances-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-and-homing
#12
Weihuan Wang, Shuiliang Yu, Jay Myers, Yiwei Wang, William W Xin, Marwah Alkabri, Alison W Xin, Ming Li, Alex Y Huang, Wei Xin, Christian W Siebel, Hillard M Lazarus, Lan Zhou
Despite use of newer approaches, some patients being considered for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation may mobilize limited numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells into blood, precluding use of the procedure, or being placed at increased risk for complications due to slow hematopoietic reconstitution. Developing more efficacious hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization regimens and strategies may enhance the mobilization process and improve patient outcome. Although Notch signaling is dispensable for homeostasis of adult hematopoietic stem cells, Notch-ligand adhesive interaction maintains hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and niche retention...
July 20, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728679/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-role-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-in-development-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alexander J Hale, Eline Ter Steege, Jeroen den Hertog
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) remove phosphate groups from tyrosine residues, and thereby propagate or inhibit signal transduction, and hence influence cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The importance of tightly controlled PTP activity is reflected by the numerous mechanisms employed by the cell to control PTP activity, including a variety of post-translational modifications, and restricted subcellular localization. This review highlights the strides made in the last decade and discusses the important role of PTPs in key aspects of embryonic development: the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, gastrulation and somitogenesis during early embryonic development, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727410/exosomes-mediate-epithelium-mesenchyme-crosstalk-in-organ-development
#14
Nan Jiang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Guodong Yang, Jinxuan Zheng, Chenglin Wang, Yimei Zhang, Sainan Wang, Yue Zhou, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Jiaqian Wu, Kenian Chen, Paulo G Coelho, Nicky M Tovar, Shin Hye Kim, Mo Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Organ development requires complex signaling by cells in different tissues. Epithelium and mesenchyme interactions are crucial for the development of the skin, hair follicles, kidney, lungs, prostate, major glands and the teeth. Despite myriad literature on cell-cell interactions and ligand-receptor binding, the roles extracellular vesicles in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that ~100 nm exosomes were secreted by the epithelium and mesenchyme of a developing tooth organ, and diffused through the basement membrane...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727247/acceptability-of-a-very-low-energy-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-patient-experiences-and-behaviour-regulation
#15
L Rehackova, V Araújo-Soares, A J Adamson, S Steven, R Taylor, F F Sniehotta
AIMS: To evaluate the acceptability of an 8-week very-low-energy diet for remission of Type 2 diabetes, and to identify the barriers and facilitators of adherence and the behavioural strategies used by participants of the Counterbalance study. METHODS: Eighteen of the 30 participants in the Counterbalance study (ISRCTN88634530) took part in semi-structured interviews. Of these, 15 participants were interviewed before and after the 8-week very-low-energy diet intervention...
July 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727223/effect-of-abacus-training-on-executive-function-development-and-underlying-neural-correlates-in-chinese-children
#16
Chunjie Wang, Jian Weng, Yuan Yao, Shanshan Dong, Yuqiu Liu, Feiyan Chen
Executive function (EF) refers to a set of cognitive abilities involved in self-regulated behavior. Given the critical role of EF in cognition, strategies for improving EF have attracted intensive attention in recent years. Previous studies have explored the effects of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training on several cognitive abilities. However, it remains unclear whether AMC training affects EF and its neural correlates. In this study, participants were randomly assigned to AMC or control groups upon starting primary school...
July 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727193/hydrogen-bonded-polymer-porphyrin-assemblies-in-water-supramolecular-structures-for-light-energy-conversion
#17
Anne Kutz, Wiebke Alex, Anja Krieger, Franziska Gröhn
In this study, a new type of functional, self-assembled nanostructure formed from porphyrins and polyamidoamine dendrimers based on hydrogen bonding in an aqueous solution is presented. As the aggregates formed are promising candidates for solar-energy conversion, their photocatalytic activity is tested using the model reaction of methyl viologen reduction. The self-assembled structures show significantly increased activity as compared to unassociated porphyrins. Details of interaction forces driving the supramolecular structure formation and regulating catalytic efficiency are fundamentally discussed...
July 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726937/novel-nanoparticles-with-cr-3-substituted-ferrite-for-self-regulating-temperature-hyperthermia
#18
Wei Zhang, Xudong Zuo, Ying Niu, Chengwei Wu, Shuping Wang, Shui Guan, S Ravi P Silva
For hyperthermia to be used under clinical conditions for cancer therapeutics the temperature regulation needs to be precise and accurately controllable. In the case of the metal nanoparticles used for such activities, a high coercivity is a prerequisite in order to couple more energy in a single heating cycle for efficient and faster differential heating. The chemically stable Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles have typically not been used in such self-regulating hyperthermia temperature applications to date due to their low Curie temperature usually accompanied by a poor coercivity...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726548/wnt-yap-interactions-during-neural-tissue-patterning-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yi Zhou, Yan Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726545/the-t-6-a-modification-acts-as-a-positive-determinant-for-the-anticodon-nuclease-prrc-and-is-distinctively-nonessential-in-streptococcus-mutans
#20
Jo Marie Bacusmo, Silvia S Orsini, Jennifer Hu, Michael DeMott, Patrick C Thiaville, Ameer Elfarash, Mellie June Paulines, Diego Rojas-Benítez, Birthe Meineke, Chris Deutsch, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Patrick A Limbach, Peter C Dedon, Kelly C Rice, Stewart Shuman, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA(Lys)UUU in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t(6)A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t(6)A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species...
July 20, 2017: RNA Biology
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