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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922203/vulnerability-to-alcohol-related-problems-a-policy-brief-with-implications-for-the-regulation-of-alcohol-marketing
#1
Thomas F Babor, Katherine Robaina, Jonathan K Noel, E Bruce Ritson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. METHOD: We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status...
December 6, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922107/emotion-dysregulation-of-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#2
Mengying Wu, Ying Liang, Qingguo Wang, Yan Zhao, Renlai Zhou
The aim of the current study was to test whether women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) had difficulties in emotion regulation. In Study 1, we investigated the relationship between the habitual use of emotion-regulation strategies and the severity of PMS (n = 230). The results showed that the severity of PMS was negatively associated with the habitual use of reappraisal, but positively associated with the habitual use of suppression. In Study 2, we first investigated the difference in the spontaneous use of suppression versus reappraisal between women with (n = 42) and without PMS (n = 42) when watching sad film clips...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922002/targeting-the-notch-regulated-non-coding-rna-tug1-for-glioma-treatment
#3
Keisuke Katsushima, Atsushi Natsume, Fumiharu Ohka, Keiko Shinjo, Akira Hatanaka, Norihisa Ichimura, Shinya Sato, Satoru Takahashi, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Mitsuru Naito, Hyun Jin Kim, Kanjiro Miyata, Kazunori Kataoka, Yutaka Kondo
Targeting self-renewal is an important goal in cancer therapy and recent studies have focused on Notch signalling in the maintenance of stemness of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Understanding cancer-specific Notch regulation would improve specificity of targeting this pathway. In this study, we find that Notch1 activation in GSCs specifically induces expression of the lncRNA, TUG1. TUG1 coordinately promotes self-renewal by sponging miR-145 in the cytoplasm and recruiting polycomb to repress differentiation genes by locus-specific methylation of histone H3K27 via YY1-binding activity in the nucleus...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921429/-congenital-hyperinsulinism-loss-of-b-cell-self-control
#4
Jan Lebl, Klára Roženková, Štěpánka Průhová
Congenital hyperinsulinism is a serious blood glucose regulation defect that interferes with brain development, leading to mental retardation, neurological sequelae and secondary epilepsy and ultimately may be life-threatening. Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is caused by genetic defects of regulation of insulin secretion that induce insulin oversecretion in intrauterine life and postnatally. The clinical consequence is fetal macrosomia and subsequently neonatal and infantile hypoglycaemia. The most severe form is caused by biallelic mutations of KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes that encode both potassium channel subunits, whereas their heterozygous mutations as well as enzymatic defects (GLUD1, HADH, GCK) lead to milder presentation...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921298/female-induced-remote-regulation-of-sperm-physiology-may-provide-opportunities-for-gamete-level-mate-choice
#5
Jukka Kekäläinen, Jonathan P Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and pre-fertilization communication between sexes occur largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be associated with variation in offspring viability...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#6
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#8
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#9
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918950/association-between-breath-alcohol-concentration-and-waterpipe-lounge-patrons-carbon-monoxide-exposure-a-field-investigation
#10
Eleanor L Leavens, Emma I Brett, Summer Frank, Raees A Shaikh, Thad R Leffingwell, Julie M Croff, Theodore L Wagener
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Concurrent alcohol use and waterpipe (WP) smoking is common among young adults. WP smokers are more than twice as likely to use alcohol as non-users and frequently consume alcohol immediately before and during a WP smoking session. It is unclear what impact alcohol has on WP smoking patterns and resultant exposure to tobacco-related toxicants. The current research aimed to understand the association between alcohol consumption and WP smoke exposure among WP lounge patrons...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918909/motivation-towards-extracurricular-activities-and-motivation-at-school-a-test-of-the-generalization-effect-hypothesis
#11
Anne-Sophie Denault, Frédéric Guay
Participation in extracurricular activities is a promising avenue for enhancing students' school motivation. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the goal of this study was to test a serial multiple mediator model. In this model, students' perceptions of autonomy support from their extracurricular activity leader predicted their activity-based intrinsic and identified regulations. In turn, these regulations predicted their school-based intrinsic and identified regulations during the same school year...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918544/a-balance-between-elongation-and-trimming-regulates-telomere-stability-in-stem-cells
#12
Teresa Rivera, Candy Haggblom, Sandro Cosconati, Jan Karlseder
Telomere length maintenance ensures self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); however, the mechanisms governing telomere length homeostasis in these cell types are unclear. Here, we report that telomere length is determined by the balance between telomere elongation, which is mediated by telomerase, and telomere trimming, which is controlled by XRCC3 and Nbs1, homologous recombination proteins that generate single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA and double-stranded telomeric circular DNA (T-circles), respectively...
December 5, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918106/cannabidiol-activates-neuronal-precursor-genes-in-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#13
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
In the last years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from oral tissues have received considerable interest in regenerative medicine since they can be obtained with minimal invasive procedure and exhibit immunomodulatory properties. This study was aimed to investigate whether in vitro pre-treatment of MSCs obtained from human gingiva (hGMSCs) with Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid component produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, may promote human gingiva derived MSCs to differentiate towards neuronal precursor cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917543/is-motivation-for-marathon-a-protective-factor-or-a-risk-factor-of-injury
#14
A Chalabaev, R Radel, I Ben Mahmoud, B Massiera, T Deroche, F d'Arripe-Longueville
This research investigated whether and how self-determined motivation predicts perceived susceptibility to injury during competition (marathon). Two correlational studies including 378 (Study 1) and 339 (Study 2) marathon runners were conducted. Participants filled out a questionnaire the day before the race measuring self-determined motivation, perceived susceptibilities to marathon-related injury and to keep running through pain, and control variables. Study 1 showed that self-determined motivation was negatively related to perceived susceptibility to marathon-related injury...
December 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916611/cytokine-signatures-in-hereditary-fever-syndromes-hfs
#15
REVIEW
José Noel Ibrahim, Isabelle Jéru, Jean-Claude Lecron, Myrna Medlej-Hashim
Hereditary fever syndromes (HFS) include a group of disorders characterized by recurrent self-limited episodes of fever accompanied by inflammatory manifestations occurring in the absence of infection or autoimmune reaction. Advances in the genetics of HFS have led to the identification of new gene families and pathways involved in the regulation of inflammation and innate immunity. The key role of several cytokine networks in the pathogenesis of HFS has been underlined by several groups, and supported by the rapid response of patients to targeted cytokine blocking therapies...
November 22, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916434/competition-policy-for-health-care-provision-in-norway
#16
Kurt R Brekke, Odd Rune Straume
Competition policy has played a very limited role for health care provision in Norway. The main reason is that Norway has a National Health Service (NHS) with extensive public provision and a wide set of sector-specific regulations that limit the scope for competition. However, the last two decades, several reforms have deregulated health care provision and opened up for provider competition along some dimensions. For specialised care, the government has introduced patient choice and (partly) activity (DRG) based funding, but also corporatised public hospitals and allowed for more private provision...
November 23, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916428/highly-signal-responsive-gene-regulatory-network-governing-myxococcus-development
#17
REVIEW
Lee Kroos
The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development when starved. Thousands of cells build mounds in which some differentiate into spores. This remarkable feat and the genetic tractability of Myxococcus provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Recent work has revealed a GRN involving interconnected cascades of signal-responsive transcriptional activators. Initially, starvation-induced intracellular signals direct changes in gene expression...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916342/exploring-the-context-for-effective-clinical-governance-in-infection-control
#18
Kate Halton, Lisa Hall, Anne Gardner, Deborough MacBeth, Brett G Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914982/nanotopography-controls-cell-cycle-changes-involved-with-skeletal-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-multipotency
#19
Louisa C Y Lee, Nikolaj Gadegaard, María C de Andrés, Lesley-Anne Turner, Karl V Burgess, Stephen J Yarwood, Julia Wells, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Dominic Meek, Richard O C Oreffo, Matthew J Dalby
In culture isolated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (more precisely termed skeletal stem cells, SSCs) spontaneously differentiate into fibroblasts, preventing the growth of large numbers of multipotent SSCs for use in regenerative medicine. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expansion of SSCs, while maintaining multipotency and preventing fibroblastic differentiation are poorly understood. Major hurdles to understanding how the maintenance of SSCs is regulated are (a) SSCs isolated from bone marrow are heterogeneous populations with different proliferative characteristics and (b) a lack of tools to investigate SSC number expansion and multipotency...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914941/therapeutic-role-of-sirtuins-in-neurodegenerative-disease-and-their-modulation-by-polyphenols
#20
REVIEW
Marjan Ajami, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamed Amani, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Rosa Anna Vacca, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Andrei Mocan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Searching for effective therapeutic agents‏‎ to ‎‏prevent‏ ‏neurodegeneration ‎is a challenging task due ‎to ‎the growing list of neurodegenerative disorders associated with a multitude of inter-related pathways.‎ The induction and inhibition of several different signaling pathways has been shown to slow down and/or attenuate ‎neurodegeneration and decline in cognition and locomotor function. Among these signaling pathways, a new class of enzymes known as sirtuins or silent information regulators of gene transcription has been shown to play important regulatory roles in the ageing process...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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