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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334903/n6-methyladenosine-alters-rna-structure-to-regulate-binding-of-a-low-complexity-protein
#1
Nian Liu, Katherine I Zhou, Marc Parisien, Qing Dai, Luda Diatchenko, Tao Pan
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), and affects almost every stage of the mRNA life cycle. The YTH-domain proteins can specifically recognize m6A modification to control mRNA maturation, translation and decay. m6A can also alter RNA structures to affect RNA-protein interactions in cells. Here, we show that m6A increases the accessibility of its surrounding RNA sequence to bind heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G (HNRNPG). Furthermore, HNRNPG binds m6A-methylated RNAs through its C-terminal low-complexity region, which self-assembles into large particles in vitro...
February 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334849/icf-specific-dnmt3b-dysfunction-interferes-with-intragenic-regulation-of-mrna-transcription-and-alternative-splicing
#2
Sole Gatto, Miriam Gagliardi, Monica Franzese, Sylwia Leppert, Mariarosaria Papa, Marco Cammisa, Giacomo Grillo, Guillame Velasco, Claire Francastel, Shir Toubiana, Maurizio D'Esposito, Claudia Angelini, Maria R Matarazzo
Hypomorphic mutations in DNA-methyltransferase DNMT3B cause majority of the rare disorder Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome cases (ICF1). By unspecified mechanisms, mutant-DNMT3B interferes with lymphoid-specific pathways resulting in immune response defects. Interestingly, recent findings report that DNMT3B shapes intragenic CpG-methylation of highly-transcribed genes. However, how the DNMT3B-dependent epigenetic network modulates transcription and whether ICF1-specific mutations impair this process remains unknown...
March 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334797/molecular-mechanism-governing-ratio-dependent-transcription-regulation-in-the-ccdab-operon
#3
Alexandra Vandervelde, Igor Drobnak, San Hadži, Yann G-J Sterckx, Thomas Welte, Henri De Greve, Daniel Charlier, Rouslan Efremov, Remy Loris, Jurij Lah
Bacteria can become transiently tolerant to several classes of antibiotics. This phenomenon known as persistence is regulated by small genetic elements called toxin-antitoxin modules with intricate yet often poorly understood self-regulatory features. Here, we describe the structures of molecular complexes and interactions that drive the transcription regulation of the ccdAB toxin-antitoxin module. Low specificity and affinity of the antitoxin CcdA2 for individual binding sites on the operator are enhanced by the toxin CcdB2, which bridges the CcdA2 dimers...
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334441/flexible-parasympathetic-responses-to-sadness-facilitate-spontaneous-affect-regulation
#4
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334174/dna-damage-response-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-blood-regeneration-and-leukemia-suppression
#5
Shahar Biechonski, Muhammad Yassin, Michael Milyavsky
Self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong hematopoiesis. Their enormous regenerative potential coupled with lifetime persistence in the body, in contrast with the Progenitors, demand tight control of HSCs genome stability. Indeed, failure to accurately repair DNA damage in HSCs is associated with bone marrow failure and accelerated leukemogenesis. Recent observations exposed remarkable differences in several DNA-damage response (DDR) aspects between HSCs and Progenitors, especially in their DNA-repair capacities and susceptibility to apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#6
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333574/cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensors-and-innate-immune-regulation
#7
Daisuke Ori, Motoya Murase, Taro Kawai
During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses...
March 23, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333482/the-forward-testing-effect-on-self-regulated-study-time-allocation-and-metamemory-monitoring
#8
Chunliang Yang, Rosalind Potts, David R Shanks
The forward testing effect describes the finding that testing of previously studied information potentiates learning and retention of new information. Here we asked whether interim testing boosts self-regulated study time allocation when learning new information and explored its effect on metamemory monitoring. Participants had unlimited time to study five lists of Euskara-English word pairs (Experiment 1) or four lists of face-name pairs (Experiment 2). In a no interim test group, which was only tested on the final list, study time decreased across successive lists...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332498/a-genome-wide-screen-identifies-yap-wbp2-interplay-conferring-growth-advantage-on-human-epidermal-stem-cells
#9
Gernot Walko, Samuel Woodhouse, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Emanuel Rognoni, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Beate M Lichtenberger, Ajay Mishra, Stephanie B Telerman, Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Meike Logtenberg, Lisa M Renz, Giacomo Donati, Sven R Quist, Fiona M Watt
Individual human epidermal cells differ in their self-renewal ability. To uncover the molecular basis for this heterogeneity, we performed genome-wide pooled RNA interference screens and identified genes conferring a clonal growth advantage on normal and neoplastic (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, cSCC) human epidermal cells. The Hippo effector YAP was amongst the top positive growth regulators in both screens. By integrating the Hippo network interactome with our data sets, we identify WW-binding protein 2 (WBP2) as an important co-factor of YAP that enhances YAP/TEAD-mediated gene transcription...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332224/monitoring-and-regulation-of-learning-in-medical-education-the-need-for-predictive-cues
#10
Anique B H de Bruin, John Dunlosky, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti
CONTEXT: Being able to accurately monitor learning activities is a key element in self-regulated learning in all settings, including medical schools. Yet students' ability to monitor their progress is often limited, leading to inefficient use of study time. Interventions that improve the accuracy of students' monitoring can optimise self-regulated learning, leading to higher achievement. This paper reviews findings from cognitive psychology and explores potential applications in medical education, as well as areas for future research...
March 23, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332146/physiological-substrates-of-executive-functioning-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Bailey A Munro, Lisa L Weyandt, Lily E Hall, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Benjamin G Kuhar
Executive function (EF) is a multifaceted construct that has been defined as a set of higher-order cognitive processes that allow for flexibility, self-regulation, strategic planning, and goal-directed behaviors. EFs have been studied in numerous clinical disorders using a variety of neuropsychological tasks and, more recently, neuroimaging techniques. The underlying physiological substrates of EF were historically attributed to the frontal lobes; however, recent studies suggest more widespread involvement of additional brain regions...
March 22, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331620/anger-and-aggression-in-borderline-personality-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-does-stress-matter
#12
Sylvia Cackowski, Annegret Krause-Utz, Julia Van Eijk, Katrin Klohr, Stephanie Daffner, Esther Sobanski, Gabriele Ende
BACKGROUND: The impact of stress on anger and aggression in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate different aspects of anger and aggression in patients with these disorders. METHODS: Twenty-nine unmedicated female BPD patients, 28 ADHD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) completed self-reports measuring trait anger, aggression and emotion regulation capacities...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331096/comprehensive-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-that-potato-spindle-tuber-viroid-triggers-genome-wide-changes-in-alternative-splicing-inducible-trans-acting-activity-of-phasirnas-and-immune-responses
#13
Yi Zheng, Ying Wang, Biao Ding, Zhangjun Fei
Many pathogens express non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) during infection processes. In the most extreme case, pathogenic ncRNAs alone (such as viroids) can infect eukaryotic organisms leading to diseases. While a few of pathogenic ncRNAs have been implicated in regulating gene expression, functions of most pathogenic ncRNAs in host-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Here we employ potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-infecting tomato as a system to dissect host interactions with pathogenic ncRNAs, using comprehensive transcriptome analyses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330622/dido-as-a-switchboard-that-regulates-self-renewal-and-differentiation-in%C3%A2-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Agnes Fütterer, Jésus de Celis, Rosana Navajas, Luis Almonacid, Julio Gutiérrez, Amaia Talavera-Gutiérrez, Cristina Pacios-Bras, Ilenia Bernascone, Fernando Martin-Belmonte, Carlos Martinéz-A
Transition from symmetric to asymmetric cell division requires precise coordination of differential gene expression. We show that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) mainly express DIDO3 and that their differentiation after leukemia inhibitory factor withdrawal requires DIDO1 expression. C-terminal truncation of DIDO3 (Dido3ΔCT) impedes ESC differentiation while retaining self-renewal; small hairpin RNA-Dido1 ESCs have the same phenotype. Dido3ΔCT ESC differentiation is rescued by ectopic expression of DIDO3, which binds the Dido locus via H3K4me3 and RNA POL II and induces DIDO1 expression...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330455/exergames-versus-self-regulated-exercises-with-instruction-leaflets-to-improve-adherence-during-geriatric-rehabilitation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Peter Oesch, Jan Kool, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Ellen Brox, Gunn Evertsen, Anton Civit, Roger Hilfiker, Stefan Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Improving mobility in elderly persons is a primary goal in geriatric rehabilitation. Self-regulated exercises with instruction leaflets are used to increase training volume but adherence is often low. Exergames may improve adherence. This study therefore compared exergames with self-regulated exercise using instruction leaflets. The primary outcome was adherence. Secondary outcomes were enjoyment, motivation and balance during walking. METHODS: Design: single center parallel group non-blinded randomized controlled trial with central stratified randomization...
March 23, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329693/lanthanide-integrated-supramolecular-polymeric-nanoassembly-with-multiple-regulation-characteristics-for-multidrug-resistant-cancer-therapy
#16
Weihong Jin, Qiwen Wang, Min Wu, Yang Li, Guping Tang, Yuan Ping, Paul K Chu
Cancer treatment can in principle be enhanced by the synergistic effects of chemo- and nucleic acid-based combination therapies but the lack of efficient drug nanocarriers and occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) are major obstacles adversely affecting the effectiveness. Herein, a lanthanide-integrated supramolecular polymeric nanoassembly that delivers anticancer drugs and siRNA for more effective cancer therapy is described. This nanotherapeutic system is prepared by loading adamantane-modified doxorubicin (Dox) into polyethylenimine-crosslinked-γ-cyclodextrin (PC) through the supramolecular assembly to form the interior Dox-loaded PC (PCD) followed by electrostatically driven self-assembly of siRNA and PCD to produce the PCD/siRNA nanocomplexes...
March 16, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329657/perceptions-of-indoor-vs-outdoor-tanning-risks-among-melanoma-patients-who-have-a-history-of-indoor-uv-tanning-an-international-internet-survey
#17
Jennifer Nergard, Chauncey Caldwell, Morgan Barr, Robert P Dellavalle, James A Solomon
IntroductionA new U.S. FDA regulation categorizes tanning beds as category II¹, and similar global regulatory action require informing users of the "risk of skin cancer" as methods to reverse the growing trend of indoor tanning. However, little is known from the patient's perspective on whether or not knowledge of risk of cancer is a deterrent to indoor tanning. Also, there is conflicting literature on the relationship between frequency of indoor tanning, age of onset and characteristics of patients' melanoma diagnoses...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327358/a-cell-autonomous-positive-signaling-circuit-associated-with-the-pdgf-no-id4-regulatory-axis-in-glioblastoma-cells
#19
Kiyoung Eun, Hye-Min Jeon, Sung-Ok Kim, Sang-Hun Choi, Seon Yong Lee, Xiong Jin, Sung-Chan Kim, Hyunggee Kim
Most cancer-related signaling pathways sustain their active or inactive status via genetic mutations or various regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activates Notch signaling through nitric oxide (NO)-signaling-driven activation of inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) in glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) and endothelial cells in the vascular niche of GBM, leading to maintenance of GSC traits and GBM progression. Here, we determined that the PDGF-NO-ID4-signaling axis is constantly activated through a positive regulatory circuit...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327147/medical-student-changes-in-self-regulated-learning-during-the-transition-to-the-clinical-environment
#20
Kenneth K Cho, Brahm Marjadi, Vicki Langendyk, Wendy Hu
BACKGROUND: Self-regulated learning (SRL), which is learners' ability to proactively select and use different strategies to reach learning goals, is associated with academic and clinical success and life-long learning. SRL does not develop automatically in the clinical environment and its development during the preclinical to clinical learning transition has not been quantitatively studied. Our study aims to fill this gap by measuring SRL in medical students during the transitional period and examining its contributing factors...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
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