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Grand mal

Faith Sopuruchukwu Ogbonna
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the major diseases that affect women of child bearing age. Its main cause is the human papilloma virus; although, other associated factors have been evidenced to increase its risk. Pap-smear screening and vaccination which has been shown to be successful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of the disease in developed countries, has been neglected in developing countries due to lack of knowledge, misconceptions, and cultural beliefs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving only female Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) students in a UK university setting...
January 2017: Annals of African Medicine
Vladimír Beneš, Lubomír Jurák, Radim Brabec, Nina Nechanická, Miroslav Šercl, Ladislav Endrych, Pavel Buchvald, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Surgical risk in patients with unruptured aneurysms is well known. The relative impact of surgery and natural history of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) on patients in good clinical condition (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons [WFNS] grades 1 and 2) is less well quantified. The aim of this study was to determine causes of poor outcome in patients admitted in good grade SAH. METHODS: A retrospective study of prospectively collected data among WFNS-1 and -2 patients: demographics, SAH and aneurysm-related data, surgical complications and outcome as assesed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
March 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Xiaolan Li, Xinjia Han, Jinying Yang, Junjie Bao, Xiaodan Di, Guozheng Zhang, Huishu Liu
Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is defined by the new onset of grand mal seizures on the basis of preeclampsia and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. Presently, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most effective treatment, but the mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia has yet to be fully elucidated. We previously showed that systemic inflammation decreases the seizure threshold in a rat eclampsia-like model, and MgSO4 treatment can decrease systemic inflammation...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
E I Shevel
Three patients under treatment for grand mal epilepsy, and who were also suffering from chronic migraine, underwent vascular surgery for their migraine. A serendipitous benefit from the successful vascular surgery for migraine was a significant reduction in the frequency of their grand mal seizures.
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Xin Wang, Jing Wang, Haikang Zhao, Nan Li, Shunnan Ge, Lei Chen, Jiaming Li, Jiangpeng Jing, Mingming Su, Zhaohui Zheng, Jinan Zhang, Guodong Gao, Xuelian Wang
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) may lead to permanent neurological disability of patients and has impeded the extensive clinical application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The present study was conducted to discuss the incidence, prevention, and treatment of symptomatic ICH after DBS surgery. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, 396 patients underwent DBS with a total of 691 implanted leads. In all, 10 patients had symptomatic ICH...
April 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Hong-Li Huang, Hao Zhou, Nuan Wang, Chun-Yu Yu
Epilepsy is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity. Clinical treatment of epilepsy includes symptomatic treatment, etiological treatment, surgery and prevention. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients, and to examine the correlation between these effects and secondary cerebrovascular events. A total of 68 epileptic patients, diagnosed between May 2012 and May 2014, were included in the present study...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Julia N Bailey, Christopher Patterson, Laurence de Nijs, Reyna M Durón, Viet-Huong Nguyen, Miyabi Tanaka, Marco T Medina, Aurelio Jara-Prado, Iris E Martínez-Juárez, Adriana Ochoa, Yolli Molina, Toshimitsu Suzuki, María E Alonso, Jenny E Wight, Yu-Chen Lin, Laura Guilhoto, Elza Marcia Targas Yacubian, Jesús Machado-Salas, Andrea Daga, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Thierry M Grisar, Bernard Lakaye, Antonio V Delgado-Escueta
PURPOSE: EFHC1 variants are the most common mutations in inherited myoclonic and grand mal clonic-tonic-clonic (CTC) convulsions of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We reanalyzed 54 EFHC1 variants associated with epilepsy from 17 cohorts based on National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines for interpretation of sequence variants. METHODS: We calculated Bayesian LOD scores for variants in coinheritance, unconditional exact tests and odds ratios (OR) in case-control associations, allele frequencies in genome databases, and predictions for conservation/pathogenicity...
February 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Tanujan Thangarajah, Deborah Higgs, J I L Bayley, Simon M Lambert
AIM: To report the results of fixed-fulcrum fully constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a single facility. Cases were identified using a computerized database and all clinic notes and operative reports were reviewed. All patients with epilepsy and recurrent shoulder instability were included for study. Between July 2003 and August 2011 five shoulders in five consecutive patients with epilepsy underwent fixed-fulcrum fully constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty for recurrent anterior shoulder instability...
July 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Vijaykumar K Parmar, Rajesh H Parikh, Ravish J Patel
Topiramate, 2,3:4,5-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-β-d-fructopyranose, is an anticonvulsant drug indicated in the treatment and control of partial seizures and severe tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures in adults and children. An economic and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and was validated for the quantitative determination of topiramate in plasma, brain homogenate and pharmaceutical formulation. The simple extraction method was used for the isolation of topiramate from formulation, plasma and brain homogenate samples...
August 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Raffaele Manni, Roberto De Icco, Riccardo Cremascoli, Giulia Ferrera, Francesca Furia, Elena Zambrelli, Maria Paola Canevini, Michele Terzaghi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: It has been debated in the literature whether patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) have a distinctive, evening-oriented chronotype. The few questionnaire-based studies that are available in the literature have conflicting results. The aim of our study was to define chronotype in patients with IGE by determining dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty adults diagnosed with IGE (grand mal on awakening [GM] in 7 cases and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in 13 cases) were investigated by means of a face-to-face semistructured sleep interview, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, and a melatonin salivary test with DLMO determination...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Shih-Bin Yeh, Carlos Schenck
PURPOSE: We report a novel case of "grand mal on awakening" from sleep presenting with intractable insomnia associated with interictal epileptiform activity (IEA) during sleep. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman with a seizure history of grand mal on awakening since age 13 years suffered from severe, persistent insomnia despite seizure control with daytime valproic acid therapy. Bedtime hypnotic therapy with zolpidem and clonazepam was ineffective. An overnight polysomnographic (PSG) study with expanded EEG seizure montage found IEA with microarousals or full arousals from sleep, with a mean rate of IEA events of 19...
September 2015: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Guoyun Bu, Feng Shuang, Gang Liu, Ye Wu, Shuxun Hou, Dongfeng Ren
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: To report symptomatic seizures of a patient with an old type II odontoid fracture with atlantoaxial dislocation. The type II odontoid fracture is a dangerous disease and presents as neurological deficits. Because of the compression of upper cervical cord, without timely diagnosis and treatment, a type II odontoid fracture may result in sudden death. Although it has been shown that epileptic seizures may lead to type II odontoid fracture, there is no report of symptomatic seizures in patients with odontoid fracture...
December 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ami Schattner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Mark H Myers, Akshay Padmanabha, Gahangir Hossain, Amy L de Jongh Curry, Charles D Blaha
A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a "closed-loop" system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Arthur J Siegel, Sophie S Forte, Nasir A Bhatti, Steven E Gelda
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hyponatremia characteristically presents with subtle psychomotor symptoms due to its slow onset, which permits compensatory volume adjustment to hypo-osmolality in the central nervous system. Due mainly to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), this condition readily resolves following discontinuation of the responsible pharmacological agent. Here, we present an unusual case of life-threatening encephalopathy due to adverse drug-related effects, in which a rapid clinical response facilitated emergent treatment to avert life-threatening acute cerebral edema...
March 9, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Alberto Verrotti, Miriam Castagnino, Mauro Maccarrone, Filomena Fezza
Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs and its anticonvulsant properties have been known since the last century. The aim of this review was to analyze the efficacy of cannabis in the treatment of epilepsy in adults and children. In addition, a description of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in epilepsy is given in order to provide a biochemical background to the effects of endogenous cannabinoids in our body. General tolerability and adverse events associated with cannabis treatment are also investigated...
May 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Zdeněk Adam, Petr Szturz, Marta Krejčí, Vladimír Vašků, Luděk Pour, Eva Michalková, Sabina Ševčíková, Zdeňka Čermáková, Karel Veselý, Jíří Vaníček, Eva Pourová, Zdeněk Král, Jiří Mayer
INTRODUCTION: The mucinoses of the type of scleredema and scleromyxedema are diseases marked by excessive production of mucin deposits in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which causes skin hardening. The skin and subcutaneous deposits hamper the movement of limbs, the thorax as well as mouth. The same mechanism also damages other organs (the heart, lungs, oesophagus). It is probably caused by the stimulation of mucin production in fibroblasts by immunoglobulins, frequently monoclonal immunoglobulin...
December 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Jenessa L Gjeltema, Brigid Troan, Atis Muehlenbachs, Lindy Liu, Alexandre J Da Silva, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Jeremy R Tobias, Michael R Loomis, Ryan S De Voe
CASE DESCRIPTION A 22-year-old male gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed in a zoo was evaluated for signs of lethargy, head-holding, and cervical stiffness followed by development of neurologic abnormalities including signs of depression, lip droop, and tremors. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination under general anesthesia revealed a tooth root abscess and suboptimal body condition. A CBC and serum biochemical analysis revealed mild anemia, neutrophilia and eosinopenia consistent with a stress leukogram, and signs consistent with dehydration...
February 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Iliana Kotwas, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Fabrice Bartolomei, Yoko Nagai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bertrand de Toffol
This paper presents the first complete description of postictal psychosis, made by the French psychiatrist Jules Falret. This description, written in 1861, was the first to fulfill modern diagnostic criteria. We will examine why this syndrome, well defined in the 19th century, was forgotten for over a century.
January 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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