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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#1
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806363/clinical-epidemiology-of-single-versus-multiple-substance-use-disorders-polysubstance-use-disorder
#2
Ish P Bhalla, Elina A Stefanovics, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: While research on substance abuse has largely focused on people who have a single substance use disorder (SUD), many people abuse multiple substances. Studies have yet to examine the distinctive characteristics of patients diagnosed with more than 1 SUD and how those with polysubstance use disorder (PSUD) differ from those with a single SUD. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data from fiscal year 2012 were used to compare veterans diagnosed 1 SUD to veterans diagnosed with 2-3, and >3 SUDs on demographic characteristics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, medical and psychiatric service utilization, and psychotropic medication fills...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806201/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-mental-health
#3
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications which enables gut microbes to communicate with the brain, and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and pre-clinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
August 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805813/analysis-of-genome-wide-association-data-highlights-candidates-for-drug-repositioning-in-psychiatry
#4
Hon-Cheong So, Carlos Kwan-Long Chau, Wan-To Chiu, Kin-Sang Ho, Cho-Pong Lo, Stephanie Ho-Yue Yim, Pak-Chung Sham
Knowledge of psychiatric disease genetics has advanced rapidly during the past decade with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, less progress has been made in harnessing these data to reveal new therapies. Here we propose a framework for drug repositioning by comparing transcriptomes imputed from GWAS data with drug-induced gene expression profiles from the Connectivity Map database and apply this approach to seven psychiatric disorders. We found a number of repositioning candidates, many supported by preclinical or clinical evidence...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805591/acute-presentation-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Kimberly Kwei, Steven Frucht
There are a few syndromes involving the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders that can quickly lead to severe morbidity and mortality, and, as such, need rapid identification and management. Among these are neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome, and dystonic storm. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for these disorders as lack of identification can lead to death. Many of these acutely occurring nonmotor syndromes are primarily the result of imbalances in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems due to changes in pharmacologic management of psychiatric disorders or Parkinson's disease...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805175/outcomes-of-a-psycho-education-and-monitoring-programme-to-prevent-compulsory-admission-to-psychiatric-inpatient-care-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
B Lay, W Kawohl, W Rössler
BACKGROUND: There is a need for interventions that effectively reduce compulsory admission to psychiatry. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to investigate whether an innovative intervention programme prevents compulsory re-admission in people with serious mental illness. METHODS: The programme addresses primarily patients' self-management skills. It consists of individualised psychoeducation focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crises, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805127/the-role-of-heroic-doubling-in-ideologically-motivated-state-and-terrorist-violence
#9
Roger Griffin
The psychiatrist Robert Lifton developed his model of 'doubling' to account for the capacity of some human beings to commit atrocities in one compartment of their lives, while continuing to maintain normal social relations in their domestic sphere, a phenomenon which he encountered both in interviews with former Nazi doctors working in concentration camps, and with terrorists belonging to the Japanese Aum Shinrikyo cult. By supplementing this model with a theory of heroization based on existential anthropology and Jung's concept of the Shadow, a composite heuristic explanatory paradigm is formed, 'heroic doubling', which may contribute to the empathetic understanding of acts of extreme violence being carried out by individuals who do not present symptoms of psychiatric disorder and maintain normal existences, yet are prepared to kill and be killed for a cause that confers on their lives a sense of transcendent purpose and sacrality...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805124/migration-violence-and-the-role-of-psychiatry-in-italy
#10
Antonio Ventriglio, Antonello Bellomo, Giovanna Vitrani, Eleonora Stella, Alessandro Gentile, Dinesh Bhugra
Immigration to Italy has been increasing exponentially in the last decades due to the international political changes and conflicts in the Middle East. The relationship between immigration and crimes is a debated issue, and violent radicalization of second or third generations of migrants is under increased scrutiny. Consequently, many politicians and political parties use nationalist and xenophobic language. Inevitably, this will have an impact on reactions of the larger population, as well as that of migrants...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804672/necessity-of-oral-health-intervention-in-schizophrenic-patients-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Swati Gupta, Pratibha Pk, Richa Gupta
Individuals with mental illness often cannot perform day to day activities due to a psychiatric or emotional disorder. Schizophrenia is one such psychiatric disorder characterized by worsening self-care ability with progressing mental illness. This disease may potentially deteriorate oral health by affecting the subject's ability to perform oral hygiene measures. Literature on oral disease manifestations in schizophrenia is limited. Lack of desire for oral health care as well as generally poor awareness of oral health issues in these patients, compounded further by side effects of medications, may complicate dental management in schizophrenic patients...
December 2016: Nepal journal of epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804633/fractalkine-c-x3-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-1-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#12
Diego Oliveira Miranda, Elen Anatriello, Lucas Ribeiro Azevedo, Jessica Cristina Santos, Jessica Fernanda Correa Cordeiro, Fernanda Maris Peria, Milena Flória-Santos, Gabriela Pereira-Da-Silva
Fractalkine, a unique chemokine of the CX3C subfamily, is involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancer and also in non-immune mechanisms associated with psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between anxiety, depression and fractalkine serum levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in different stages of antitumor therapy. Four groups of patients undergoing treatment (n=20 per group) were evaluated: Patients with CRC who did not undergo surgical resection of the tumor; patients who underwent resection and who did not start adjuvant therapy; patients undergoing chemotherapy for ~3 months; and patients who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for ~6 months...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803920/open-chromatin-profiling-in-hipsc-derived-neurons-prioritizes-functional-noncoding-psychiatric-risk-variants-and-highlights-neurodevelopmental-loci
#14
Marc P Forrest, Hanwen Zhang, Winton Moy, Heather McGowan, Catherine Leites, Leonardo E Dionisio, Zihui Xu, Jianxin Shi, Alan R Sanders, William J Greenleaf, Chad A Cowan, Zhiping P Pang, Pablo V Gejman, Peter Penzes, Jubao Duan
Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants...
August 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803880/vitamin-d-and-symptoms-of-depression-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-and-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Barbora de Courten
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803847/psychotic-symptoms-influence-the-development-of-anterior-cingulate-bold-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#16
Daniela Zöller, Maria Carmela Padula, Corrado Sandini, Maude Schneider, Elisa Scariati, Dimitri Van De Ville, Marie Schaer, Stephan Eliez
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad phenotype of clinical, cognitive and psychiatric features. Due to the very high prevalence of schizophrenia (30-40%), the investigation of psychotic symptoms in the syndrome is promising to reveal biomarkers for the development of psychosis, also in the general population. Since schizophrenia is seen as a disorder of the dynamic interactions between brain networks, we here investigated brain dynamics, assessed by the variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, in patients with psychotic symptoms...
August 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803577/auditory-brainstem-response-abr-profiling-tests-as-diagnostic-support-for-schizophrenia-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#17
Eva Juselius Baghdassarian, Maria Nilsson Markhed, Eva Lindström, Björn M Nilsson, Tommy Lewander
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. METHOD: Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119)...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803401/immigrants-from-mexico-experience-serious-behavioral-and-psychiatric-problems-at-far-lower-rates-than-us-born-americans
#18
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn, Trenette Clark Goings
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of self-reported criminal and violent behavior, substance use disorders, and mental disorders among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis the US born. METHODS: Study findings are based on national data collected between 2012 and 2013. Binomial logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and behavioral/psychiatric outcomes. RESULTS: Mexican immigrants report substantially lower levels of criminal and violent behaviors, substance use disorders, and mental disorders compared to US-born individuals...
August 12, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802862/microrna-21-expression-in-oligodendrocytes-and-correlation-with-low-myelin-mrnas-in-depression-and-alcoholism
#20
José Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Katherine O Hall, Hannah Bonner, Anna M Roller, Maryam Syed, Casey J Park, Jana P Ball, Marc E Rothenberg, Craig A Stockmeier, Damian G Romero
MiR-21 is a microRNA implicated in cancer, development, and cardiovascular diseases and expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), especially after injury. However, the cellular expression of miR-21 in the adult CNS has not been clearly established either in mice or human subjects, while its alteration in psychiatric disorders is unknown. MiR-21 expression was characterized in reporter mice expressing β-galactosidase (LacZ) under the endogenous miR-21 promoter (miR-21/LacZ). Brain co-localization of miR-21/LacZ with specific neural markers was examined by double immunofluorescence in reporter mice, while extent of immunostaining for myelin basic protein and PDGFRα was determined in miR-21 knockout and wild-type mice...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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