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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#1
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#2
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#3
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645747/a-review-of-dna-methylation-in-depression
#4
REVIEW
Dongmei Chen, Lin Meng, Fei Pei, Yang Zheng, Jiyan Leng
As one of the most common psychiatric disorders, depression has been a major public health problem. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modification is essential in biological processes of depression. Recently, DNA methylation has been regarded as a potential link between environment and depression. In this review, we reviewed current studies of the association between DNA methylation and depression. The association between DNA methylation of seven genes, including BDNF, SLC6A4, NR3C1, 5-HTR (1A, 2A, and 3A), FKBP5, MAO-A and OXTR, and depression were reviewed in this study...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645191/how-effective-is-algorithm-guided-treatment-for-depressed-inpatients-results-from-the-randomized-controlled-multicenter-german-algorithm-project-3-trial
#5
Mazda Adli, Katja Wiethoff, Thomas C Baghai, Robert Fisher, Florian Seemüller, Gregor Laakmann, Peter Brieger, Joachim Cordes, Jaroslav Malevani, Gerd Laux, Iris Hauth, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Michael N Smolka, Peter Schlattmann, Maximilian Berger, Roland Ricken, Thomas J Stamm, Andreas Heinz, Michael Bauer
Background: Treatment algorithms are are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evalutate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Inpatients, aged 18-70 years with MDD from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), three of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645080/relationships-between-patients-attachment-characteristics-and-views-and-use-of-psychiatric-treatment
#6
G Camelia Adams, Lachlan A McWilliams, Andrew J Wrath, Stephen Adams, Dawn De Souza
This study explored the influence of attachment on psychiatric treatment by considering attitudes towards and the use of psychotropic medication and psychotherapy in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Adults referred to a psychiatrist completed self-report measures and participated in a diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV criteria. Those with depressive, anxiety or adjustment disorders were included (n = 124). Patients reported the types and dosage of current psychotropic medication as well as number of different psychiatrists and psychologists/counselors they had seen in the past 10 years...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645056/serious-delinquency-and-later-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-register-based-follow-up-study-of-finnish-pretrial-15-to-19-year-old-offenders-sent-for-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination
#7
N Lindberg, J Miettunen, A Heiskala, R Kaltiala-Heino
BACKGROUND: Aggressive and disruptive behaviors often precede the onset of schizophrenia. In this register-based follow-up study with a case-control design, we wanted to investigate if serious delinquency was associated with future diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (here, broadly defined schizophrenia) among a nationwide consecutive sample of 15- to 19-year-old Finnish delinquents sent for a forensic psychiatric examination in 1989-2010. METHODS: The sample comprised 313 delinquents with no past or current psychotic disorder...
May 15, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645055/c-reactive-protein-and-white-blood-cell-levels-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorders-and-depression-associations-with-mortality-and-psychiatric-outcomes-a-population-based-study
#8
H T Horsdal, O Köhler-Forsberg, M E Benros, C Gasse
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, which can affect disease trajectories. We aimed to assess levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) across individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, and to investigate associations with subsequent psychiatric admission and mortality. METHODS: We identified all adults in the Central Denmark Region during 2000-2012 with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression and a baseline measurement of CRP and/or WBC count...
May 17, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644851/comorbidities-in-the-diseasome-are-more-apparent-than-real-what-bayesian-filtering-reveals-about-the-comorbidities-of-depression
#9
Peter Marx, Peter Antal, Bence Bolgar, Gyorgy Bagdy, Bill Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz
Comorbidity patterns have become a major source of information to explore shared mechanisms of pathogenesis between disorders. In hypothesis-free exploration of comorbid conditions, disease-disease networks are usually identified by pairwise methods. However, interpretation of the results is hindered by several confounders. In particular a very large number of pairwise associations can arise indirectly through other comorbidity associations and they increase exponentially with the increasing breadth of the investigated diseases...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644530/long-term-outcome-of-anorexia-nervosa-results-from-a-large-clinical-longitudinal-study
#10
Manfred Maximilian Fichter, Norbert Quadflieg, Ross D Crosby, Sonja Koch
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a very large sample of inpatients (N = 1,693) and identification of predictors for poor outcome. METHOD: Over 25 years (mean 10 years), consecutively admitted inpatients of a specialized hospital were followed. A subsample of 112 patients with 20-year follow-up was defined. Bivariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis identified risk factors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) increased during the follow-up period...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644427/mental-diseases-and-criminal-offences-committed-by-persons-placed-at-the-forensic-department-of-the-penitentiary-in-zenica-federation-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#11
Edin Bjelošević, Adisa Krehmić, Halima Hadžikapetanović, Sanel Čoralić, Sonja Bjelošević
Aim To investigate an impact of various biological, psychological and social factors on perpetration of criminal offences by persons with mental disorders and to examine legal requirements for placement of persons with mental disorders, who committed criminal offences. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study based on the analysis of data collected from records of the Zenica Penitentiary, Forensic Department (age, qualifications, employment status, marital status, mental disorders, information related to earlier treatments, type of committed criminal offense, duration of the security measure of mandatory psychiatric treatment and custody) included 154 examinees...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644353/extraintestinal-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#12
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet (GFD) on extraintestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the University of Chicago Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extraintestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and >24 months were recorded...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644337/committee-opinion-no-705-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#13
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644330/committee-opinion-no-705-summary-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#14
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643049/clozapine-in-reducing-aggression-and-violence-in-forensic-populations
#15
REVIEW
Kathleen Patchan, Gopal Vyas, Ann L Hackman, Marie Mackowick, Charles M Richardson, Raymond C Love, Ikwunga Wonodi, MacKenzie A Sayer, Matthew Glassman, Stephanie Feldman, Deanna L Kelly
Popular media often portray people with a mental illness as being aggressive, violent, and incarcerated as a result of their behavior. Despite exaggeration in the media, risks for some aggressive behaviors are in fact higher in individuals with schizophrenia. This is often the case with influence of comorbid substance use disorders. It is essential that mental health professionals are aware of treatments that may help with attenuating and treating behaviors that contribute to violence, aggression and incarceration...
June 22, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642982/-healthcare-models-for-traumatized-refugees-in-germany
#16
REVIEW
K Adorjan, U Kluge, A Heinz, T Stamm, M Odenwald, K Dohrmann, R Mokhtari-Nejad, A Hasan, T G Schulze, P Falkai, O Pogarell
People with a migration background are a risk group for psychiatric disorders. Innovative, transnational and sustainable projects are necessary to ensure adequate care for refugees and asylum seekers. Selected projects of the University of Munich, the Charité Berlin and the University of Konstanz show promising approaches in addition to other initiatives.
June 22, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642938/correlation-weighted-sparse-group-representation-for-brain-network-construction-in-mci-classification
#17
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Analysis of brain functional connectivity network (BFCN) has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and identifying biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In all these applications, the accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Due to the sparse nature of the brain network, sparse learning has been widely used for complex BFCN construction. However, the conventional l1-norm penalty in the sparse learning equally penalizes each edge (or link) of the brain network, which ignores the link strength and could remove strong links in the brain network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#18
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#20
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
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