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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779198/redeveloping-substance-abuse-treatment-for-military-personnel
#1
REVIEW
Christian Schrader, Antoinette Lenton, Peter Gertonson, Alexander Rahimi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the prevailing evidence surrounding treatment of substance use disorder (SUD), with specific focus on alcohol, tobacco, and prescription opiates, and how it informs guidelines for treating active duty military. We survey the evidence regarding preventive screening, treatment, and relapse prevention in substance misuse as it pertains to patient-centered care of the service member. RECENT FINDINGS: Holistic, patient-centered care with an emphasis on identifying maladaptive use or dependence prior to progression to chronic disease is now recognized as the evidenced approach to treating substance use disorders...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#2
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779180/the-impact-of-an-adolescent-depressive-disorders-clinical-pathway-on-healthcare-utilization
#3
Brooke Lifland, Davene R Wright, Rita Mangione-Smith, Arti D Desai
Clinical pathways are known to improve the value of health care in medical and surgical settings but have been rarely studied in the psychiatric setting. This study examined the association between level of adherence to an adolescent depressive disorders inpatient clinical pathway and length of stay (LOS), cost, and readmissions. Patients in the high adherence category had significantly longer LOS and higher costs compared to the low adherence category. There was no difference in the odds of 30-day emergency department return visits or readmissions...
May 19, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778929/anxiety-sensitivity-in-the-association-between-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Samantha G Farris, Brooke A Bartlett, Robert C Lyons, Moira Haller, Peter J Colvonen, Sonya B Norman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, "gold standard" treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. Thus, it is imperative to better understand cognitive-affective mechanisms, targetable via cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., malleable), that may be related to both disorders in order to improve the theory and treatment of PTSD/SUD. Anxiety sensitivity is a malleable cognitive-affective factor with relevance to both PTSD and SUD...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778917/favorite-odor-induces-negative-dream-emotion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#5
Satomi Okabe, Kazuhiko Fukuda, Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai, Kazuo Yamada
OBJECTIVE: As connections between nightmares and various psychiatric disorders have been reported, the clinical significance of studying dream emotionality is now growing in importance. Because the olfactory bulb connects directly to the amygdala odor presentation may be a crucial tool to study dream emotions. Previous studies have demonstrated that presentation of positive/negative odors during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep affects various aspects of dreaming. Although olfactory perception can be influenced by personal experiences, the role of individual preferences in the effects of olfactory stimuli on dreaming has not yet been clarified...
April 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778712/validation-reliability-and-specificity-of-clinicom%C3%A2-psychiatric-assessment-software
#6
Nelson Handal, James LePage, Philip Dayley, Barbara Baldwin, Amellia Roeser, Joni Kay, Heather Ann Theobald, Michael Nellamattathil, Scott Drotar, Connor Weir, Neil Tindell, Kevin Tice
The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and reproducibility of CliniCom™ Psychiatric Assessment Software to appropriately diagnose five prevalent mental health disorders. This online assessment tool incorporates proprietary algorithms for its propensity assessment. Unlike other questionnaires, which require a survey per specific mental disorder, CliniCom can simultaneously assess multiple mental disorders for an individual. CliniCom was concordant with other commonly used assessment tools in diagnosing five prevalent disorders including: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Social Phobia...
May 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778547/relation-of-inflammatory-markers-with-symptoms-of-psychotic-disorders-a-large-cohort-study
#7
E J Liemburg, I M Nolte, H C Klein, H Knegtering, R Bruggeman, E Visser, A A Bartels-Velthuis, W Veling
AIMS: Immunological mechanisms may play a role in symptomatology of patients with a psychotic disorder. Besides metabolic problems and medication use, inflammatory processes that may occur due to the disorder may cause increased inflammatory markers and concurrent psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) are related to positive and negative symptoms of psychotic disorders, and whether age, gender, duration of illness, smoking behavior, haloperidol equivalents, mediation use, body mass, and metabolic syndrome affect this relation...
May 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778275/quantifying-the-effects-of-16p11-2-copy-number-variants-on-brain-structure-a-multisite-genetic-first-study
#8
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Jared A Nielsen, Clara Moreau, Claudia Modenato, Anne M Maillard, Aurélie Pain, Sonia Richetin, Aia E Jønch, Abid Y Qureshi, Nicole R Zürcher, Philippe Conus, Wendy K Chung, Elliott H Sherr, John E Spiro, Ferath Kherif, Jacques S Beckmann, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Alexandre Reymond, Randy L Buckner, Bogdan Draganski, Sébastien Jacquemont
BACKGROUND: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11.2 CNVs on brain structure. METHODS: Using voxel- and surface-based brain morphometric methods, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging collected at seven sites from 78 individuals with a deletion, 71 individuals with a duplication, and 212 individuals without a CNV...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778053/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-happiness-among-adults-in-the-general-population
#9
Andrew Stickley, Ai Koyanagi, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Vladislav Ruchkin, Yosuke Inoue, Aki Yazawa, Yoko Kamio
Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure...
May 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778018/phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-anti-depressant-medicinal-plants-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Jeanette Martins, Brijesh S
Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777584/neuropsychiatric-expression-and-catatonia-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-an-overview-and-case-series
#11
Nancy J Butcher, Erik Boot, Anthony E Lang, Danielle Andrade, Jacob Vorstman, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Anne S Bassett
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at elevated risk of developing treatable psychiatric and neurological disorders, including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, seizures, and movement disorders, often beginning in adolescence or early to mid-adulthood. Here, we provide an overview of neuropsychiatric features associated with 22q11.2DS in adulthood. Results of a new case series of 13 individuals with 22q11.2DS and catatonic features together with 5 previously reported cases support a potential association of this serious psychomotor phenotype with the 22q11...
May 19, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777410/startling-differences-using-the-acoustic-startle-response-to-study-sex-differences-and-neurosteroids-in-affective-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Liisa Hantsoo, Carla E M Golden, Sara Kornfield, Christian Grillon, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroactive steroid hormones, such as estradiol and progesterone, likely play a role in the pathophysiology of female-specific psychiatric disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and postpartum depression and may contribute to the marked sex differences observed in the incidence and presentation of affective disorders. However, few tools are available to study the precise contributions of these neuroactive steroids (NSs). In this review, we propose that the acoustic startle response (ASR), an objective measure of an organism's response to an emotional context or stressor, is sensitive to NSs...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777125/development-of-an-algorithm-to-identify-patients-with-physician-documented-insomnia
#13
Uri Kartoun, Rahul Aggarwal, Andrew L Beam, Jennifer K Pai, Arnaub K Chatterjee, Timothy P Fitzgerald, Isaac S Kohane, Stanley Y Shaw
We developed an insomnia classification algorithm by interrogating an electronic medical records (EMR) database of 314,292 patients. The patients received care at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), or both, between 1992 and 2010. Our algorithm combined structured variables (such as International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision [ICD-9] codes, prescriptions, laboratory observations) and unstructured variables (such as text mentions of sleep and psychiatric disorders in clinical narrative notes)...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776984/impact-of-psychiatric-comorbidities-on-health-care-utilization-and-cost-of-care-in-multiple-myeloma
#14
Shehzad Niazi, Ryan D Frank, Mayank Sharma, Vivek Roy, Steve Ames, Teresa Rummans, Aaron Spaulding, Taimur Sher, Meghna Ailawadhi, Kirtipal Bhatia, Salman Ahmed, Winston Tan, Asher Chanan-Khan, Sikander Ailawadhi
Approximately one third of cancer patients suffer from comorbid mood disorders that are associated with increased cost and poorer outcomes. The majority of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are treated with corticosteroids; as many as three fourths of those taking corticosteroids develop neuropsychiatric complications, likely increasing morbidity and cost of care. MM patients diagnosed between 1991 and 2010 and reported in the Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database were characterized as MM-Only, MM+Psychiatric (any psychiatric condition, preexisting or post-MM), or MM+Depression (depression as the only psychiatric diagnosis, preexisting or post-MM)...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776354/sleep-disturbance-and-psychological-distress-are-associated-with-functional-dyspepsia-based-on-rome-iii-criteria
#15
Yong Li, Yaoyao Gong, Yinghui Li, Danjun He, Yuqin Wu, Haofei Wang, Xiaoyin Cong, Muxin Wei, Lin Lin
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is considered a bio-psychosocial disorder. The role of psychosocial factors in FD pathogenesis remains unclear. METHODS: This study evaluated sleep quality and mood symptoms in patients with FD, assessing the associations of FD severity, disordered sleep, and psychological symptoms. One-hundred-and-fifteen adult patients with typical FD symptoms were enrolled alongside 61 healthy volunteers. Rome III criteria were used to evaluate FD symptoms; sleep disorder was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) was utilized to determine the status of depression, anxiety and other psychological symptoms...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#16
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776348/the-influence-of-cross-sectoral-treatment-models-on-patients-with-mental-disorders-in-germany-study-protocol-of-a-nationwide-long-term-evaluation-study-eva64
#17
Anne Neumann, Enno Swart, Dennis Häckl, Roman Kliemt, Stefanie March, Denise Küster, Katrin Arnold, Thomas Petzold, Fabian Baum, Martin Seifert, Jessika Weiß, Andrea Pfennig, Jochen Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Close, continuous and efficient collaboration between different professions and sectors of care is necessary to provide patient-centered care for individuals with mental disorders. The lack of structured collaboration between in- and outpatient care constitutes a limitation of the German health care system. Since 2012, a new law in Germany (§64b Social code book (SGB) V) has enabled the establishment of cross-sectoral and patient-centered treatment models in psychiatry. Such model projects follow a capitation budget, i...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776345/risk-behavior-in-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders-a-prospective-study-of-121-830-patients-managed-in-rural-households-of-western-china
#18
Yuanyuan Liu, Xiang Liu, Hong Wen, Dan Wang, Xianmei Yang, Weiwei Tang, Yaxi Li, Tao Zhang, Min Yang
BACKGROUND: The management of severe mental disorder (SMD) patients in communities is an important initiative of healthcare reform in China. Yet the effects in terms of risk behavior of patients are unclear, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to examine high risk behaviors, changing trends, and possible associated factors among SMD patients in the rural areas of western China. METHODS: This analysis examined incidence rate (IR) of high risk behavior of 121,830 managed SMD patients in rural area of Sichuan province, based on data from the national system from 2006 to 2013...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776000/examining-the-relationship-between-traumatic-growth-and-psychological-resilience-in-young-adult-children-of-parents-with-and-without-a-mental-disorder
#19
Gül Ergün, Funda Gümüş, Gül Dikeç
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between traumatic growth and psychological resilience in young adult children of parents with a mental disorder and to compare them with young adult children of parents without mental disorders. BACKGROUND: Negative life experiences that lead to trauma can affect young adults' psychological resilience, either positively or negatively. This study investigates levels of traumatic growth, the characteristics of psychological resilience, and the relationship between the former and latter in young adults between the ages of 18 and 23 who have parents with a mental disorder and who have parents without a mental disorder...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775916/cortisol-trajectory-melancholia-and-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#20
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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