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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641170/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-monotherapy-for-partial-onset-seizures-experience-from-a-multicenter-observational-study
#1
Rafael Toledano, Camilo Espinosa Jovel, Adolfo Jiménez-Huete, Pau Giner Bayarri, Dulce Campos, Elena López Gomariz, Beatriz González Giráldez, Irene García-Morales, Mercé Falip, Paula Martínez Agredano, Susana Palao, María José Aguilar Amat Prior, María Rosa Querol Pascual, Francisco José Navacerrada, Francisco Javier López González, Joaquín Ojeda, Aránzazu Alfaro Sáez, Pedro Emilio Bermejo, Antonio Gil-Nagel
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL, Aptiom™) is a once-daily anticonvulsant, approved as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS). Historical-controlled trials investigating the use of ESL as monotherapy have demonstrated a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile in patients with POS. This prospective, non-interventional study recruited POS patients in 17 hospitals in Spain. After a 3-month baseline period, ESL therapy was initiated as 400mg QD and up-titrated to an optimal maintenance dose based on clinical response and tolerance...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#2
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632327/photosensitivity-is-an-early-marker-of-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-type-2-disease
#3
Nicola Specchio, Marcello Bellusci, Nicola Pietrafusa, Marina Trivisano, Luca de Palma, Federico Vigevano
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify early clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease to enable early diagnosis, thus providing the key to early treatment, and optimized care and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective clinical chart review of a series of patients diagnosed with CLN2 disease from 2005 to 2015 at a single center in Italy. Clinical, MRI, and EEG findings were reviewed...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624414/corneal-kindled-c57bl-6-mice-exhibit-saturated-dentate-gyrus-long-term-potentiation-and-associated-memory-deficits-in-the-absence-of-overt-neuron-loss
#4
Gregory J Remigio, Jaycie L Loewen, Sage Heuston, Colin Helgeson, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox, Peter J West
Memory deficits have a significant impact on the quality of life of patients with epilepsy and currently no effective treatments exist to mitigate this comorbidity. While these cognitive comorbidities can be associated with varying degrees of hippocampal cell death and hippocampal sclerosis, more subtle changes in hippocampal physiology independent of cell loss may underlie memory dysfunction in many epilepsy patients. Accordingly, animal models of epilepsy or epileptic processes exhibiting memory deficits in the absence of cell loss could facilitate novel therapy discovery...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623751/epilepsy-and-stigmatization-in-turkey
#5
Ozge Doganavsargil-Baysal, Buket Cinemre, Yesim Senol, Ebru Barcin, Zehra Gokmen
Patients with epilepsy experience stigmatization quite often. Studies investigating stigmatization perceived by patients with epilepsy in Turkey are limited in number. In this study, we aimed to understand the relationship between stigmatization and psychopathology and also to identify the effects of stigmatization on the quality of life in epilepsy. Patients completed a socio-demographical data form and epilepsy information form. They were evaluated in terms of psychiatric diagnosis using SCID I and they were asked to complete SCL-90 R, Epilepsy Stigmatization Scale and SF 36...
June 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622529/automatic-multimodal-detection-for-long-term-seizure-documentation-in-epilepsy
#6
F Fürbass, S Kampusch, E Kaniusas, J Koren, S Pirker, R Hopfengärtner, H Stefan, T Kluge, C Baumgartner
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated sensitivity and false detection rate of a multimodal automatic seizure detection algorithm and the applicability to reduced electrode montages for long-term seizure documentation in epilepsy patients. METHODS: An automatic seizure detection algorithm based on EEG, EMG, and ECG signals was developed. EEG/ECG recordings of 92 patients from two epilepsy monitoring units including 494 seizures were used to assess detection performance...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614161/multiple-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-young-patient-associated-with-marijuana-use
#7
Leila Costa Volpon, Camila Lacerda Muniz de Melo Sousa, Silvia Keiko Kavaguti Moreira, Sara Reis Teixeira, Ana Paula de Carvalho Panzeri Carlotti
: Cerebrovascular events associated with marijuana use have been reported previously. This association is plausible, but not well-established yet. A 14-year-old girl, long-term heavy cannabis user, presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and decreased level of consciousness a few hours after smoking cannabis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple areas of acute, subacute and chronic ischemic lesions in the left frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. History of other illicit drug use and other known causes of stroke were ruled out...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611637/a-case-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-induced-by-cisplatin-pemetrexed-chemotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#8
Masashi Ishihara, Noriyuki Matsutani, Shuji Ota, Nobuhiko Seki
This report presents the case of a 60-year-old woman who was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with asymptomatic brain metastases and commenced chemotherapy with cisplatin/pemetrexed (CDDP/Pem). She experienced tonic-clonic convulsions on day 9 of the first cycle, which were accompanied by increased blood pressure (173/69 mm Hg) and headache. Therefore, brain MRI was performed to check for stroke or progression of brain metastatic foci. T2-weighted, FLAIR, and ADC map images showed high-intensity areas in the subcortical region of the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes, leading to a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606021/epileptic-seizures-with-reversible-lesions-in-bilateral-frontoparietal-lobes-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Lichao Sun, Zhanpeng Zhu, Guangming Wang, Weihong Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for patients with epileptic seizures to rule out an underlying focal lesion. However, the radiological characteristics of epilepsy are not well elucidated. Transient periictal MRI abnormality (TPMA) refers to reversible MRI signal changes observed in epileptic patients. A 32-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of epileptic seizures, which initially manifested as focal aware seizures and progressed to a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the third day...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586508/overexpressing-wild-type-%C3%AE-2-subunits-rescued-the-seizure-phenotype-in-gabrg2-q390x-dravet-syndrome-mice
#10
Xuan Huang, Chengwen Zhou, Mengnan Tian, Jing-Qiong Kang, Wangzhen Shen, Kelienne Verdier, Aurea Pimenta, Robert L MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor γ2(Q390X) subunit (Q351X in the mature peptide) has been associated with the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, and the epilepsy syndrome genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The mutation generates a premature stop codon that results in translation of a stable truncated and misfolded γ2 subunit that accumulates in neurons, forms intracellular aggregates, disrupts incorporation of γ2 subunits into GABAA receptors, and affects trafficking of partnering α and β subunits...
June 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584608/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy
#11
Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Jyoti Burad, Asma Al-Belushi, Arun Gujjar
We present a case of a 38-year-old woman who was at eight weeks of gestation and was admitted to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital with refractory status epilepticus (SE). She presented with a two-day history of fever and a depressed level of consciousness that was followed with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She progressed to refractory SE that required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Autoimmune workup was suggestive of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) as suggested by the high levels of thyroid antibodies...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584438/neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Ramanan Rajagopal, Swaminathan Ganesh, Muralidharan Vetrivel
A 29-year-old male admitted with severe traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident was sedated and ventilated uneventfully for 72 h. On the fourth posttrauma day, after stopping sedation to assess readiness for extubation, he developed sudden onset desaturation; arterial blood gas showed severe diffusion defect with very low PaO2/FiO2 ratio following an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The differential diagnoses and further management are discussed.
May 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583427/cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitors-differentially-attenuate-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-and-increase-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-the-cerebral-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-mice
#13
Fernanda Rossatto Temp, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Thiago Duarte, Leonardo Magno Rambo, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Carlos Fernando Mello
Seizures increase prostaglandin and cytokine levels in the brain. However, it remains to be determined whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived metabolites play a role in seizure-induced cytokine increase in the brain and whether anticonvulsant activity is shared by all COX-2 inhibitors. In this study we investigated whether three different COX-2 inhibitors alter pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579483/s-nitrosylation-of-gad65-is-implicated-in-decreased-gad-activity-and-oxygen-induced-seizures
#14
Heath G Gasier, Ivan T Demchenko, Lynn G Tatro, Claude A Piantadosi
Breathing oxygen at partial pressures ≥2.5 atmospheres absolute, which can occur in diving and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy, can rapidly become toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). This neurotoxicity culminates in generalized EEG epileptiform discharges, tonic-clonic convulsions and ultimately death. Increased production of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in eliciting hyperoxic seizures by altering the equilibrium between glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission. Inhibition of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in HBO2 promotes this imbalance; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577562/current-role-of-perampanel-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Paola De Liso, Romina Moavero, Giangennaro Coppola, Paolo Curatolo, Raffaella Cusmai, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Franzoni, Federico Vigevano, Alberto Verrotti
Perampanel is among the latest AEDs approved, indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, in patients aged 12 years and older. This paper summarizes the clinical recommendations on the current role of perampanel in the treatment of pediatric epilepsies and future directions for research. The optimal dosage should be comprised between 4 and 12 mg/day, with 8 mg/day being the most common dosage used. The rate and severity of adverse events, including psychiatric symptoms, can be decreased by starting at low doses, and titrating slowly...
June 2, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576433/postictal-apnea-as-an-important-mechanism-for-sudep-a-near-sudep-with-continuous-eeg-ecg-emg-recording
#16
Lang Jin, Ying Zhang, Xiao-Li Wang, Wen-Juan Zhang, Yong-Hong Liu, Zhao Jiang
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the most frequent causes of death among patients with epilepsy. Most SUDEP or near-SUDEP are unwitnessed and not observed or recorded during video-EEG recording in epilepsy monitoring units. This report describes a young woman with post ictal apnea and generalized EEG suppression (PGES) after a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). This was accompanied by bradycardia and then ventricular tachycardia (VT). But at the end of VT, the patient's breath recovered without any intervention, such as cardio-respiratory resuscitation...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573058/uncommon-etiology-for-seizure-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome
#17
Mohankumar Kurukumbi, Ahn Truong, Naghemeh Pirsaharkhiz
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare life-threatening complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis. The incidence varies between 0 and 3%, depending on the severity of the stenosis, perioperative hypertension, and contralateral carotid stenosis. This case report reports a 53-year-old female patient presenting with decreased alertness and multiple tonic-clonic seizures, in the background of bilateral CEA. She was found to have bilateral carotid stenosis...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566546/familial-aggregation-of-focal-seizure-semiology-in-the-epilepsy-phenome-genome-project
#18
Steven Tobochnik, Robyn Fahlstrom, Catherine Shain, Melodie R Winawer
OBJECTIVE: To improve phenotype definition in genetic studies of epilepsy, we assessed the familial aggregation of focal seizure types and of specific seizure symptoms within the focal epilepsies in families from the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. METHODS: We studied 302 individuals with nonacquired focal epilepsy from 149 families. Familial aggregation was assessed by logistic regression analysis of relatives' traits (dependent variable) by probands' traits (independent variable), estimating the odds ratio for each symptom in a relative given presence vs absence of the symptom in the proband...
May 31, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556246/cacna1g-is-a-genetic-modifier-of-epilepsy-in-a-mouse-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#19
Jeffrey D Calhoun, Nicole A Hawkins, Nicole J Zachwieja, Jennifer A Kearney
Dravet syndrome, an early onset epileptic encephalopathy, is most often caused by de novo mutation of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. Mouse models with deletion of Scn1a recapitulate Dravet syndrome phenotypes, including spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures, susceptibility to seizures induced by elevated body temperature, and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Importantly, the epilepsy phenotype of Dravet mouse models is highly strain-dependent, suggesting a strong influence of genetic modifiers...
May 28, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555936/haemodialysis-significantly-reduces-serum-levetiracetam-levels-inducing-epileptic-seizures-case-report
#20
M J Company-Albir, J Ruíz-Ramos, A Solana Altabella, M R Marqués-Miñana, C Vicent, J L Poveda
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Levetiracetam is used in the treatment of some forms of epilepsy. In renal impairment and patients on chronic haemodialysis, dose adjustment is required. We report a case. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case report describes a woman on levetiracetam treatment who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures during a haemodialysis session. We report on treatment adjustment and on the impact of dialysis on levetiracetam levels. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Haemodialysis reduces serum levetiracetam concentration and can lead to subtherapeutic levels...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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