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Tonic clonic

Joseph S Hudson, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Yasunori Nagahama, Chandan G Reddy
BACKGROUND: Ionic contrast, if accidentally injected into the intrathecal space during routine imaging studies or interventional procedures, may significantly interfere with neuronal activity, potentially causing ascending tonic-clonic seizure syndrome and even death. As a result, ionic contrast is strictly contraindicated for intrathecal use. Rapid recognition of the condition followed by prompt management, typically involving aggressive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, is critical to improving patient outcome...
October 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Udaya Seneviratne, Graham Hepworth, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza
PURPOSE: To evaluate electroencephalographic (EEG) differences among syndromes in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) based on quantified data. METHODS: 24-hour ambulatory EEGs were recorded in consecutive patients diagnosed with GGE. All epileptiform EEG abnormalities were quantified into density scores (total duration of epileptiform discharges per hour). We conducted one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find out differences in EEG density scores among the syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Juexin Wang, Dingding Shen, Geqing Xia, Wangzhen Shen, Robert L Macdonald, Dong Xu, Jing-Qiong Kang
Mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes are frequently associated with epilepsy, and nonsense mutations in GABRG2 are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including childhood absence epilepsy, generalized tonic clonic seizures and the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome. The molecular basis for the phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations is unclear. Here we focused on three nonsense mutations in GABRG2 (GABRG2(R136*), GABRG2(Q390*) and GABRG2(W429*)) associated with epilepsies of different severities...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karan Seegobin, Kamille Abdool, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Haramnauth Dyaanand, Fidel Rampersad
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Valentina Franco, Roberto Marchiselli, Cinzia Fattore, Elena Tartara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo, Emilio Perucca
BACKGROUND: Perampanel, a new specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, has been recently approved in the United States and the European Union for the adjunctive treatment of focal seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. A positive relationship between plasma perampanel concentration and improvement in seizure control has been identified in regulatory trials, suggesting that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be useful in optimizing clinical response in patients with epilepsy treated with perampanel...
October 6, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Marivi Nabong Moen, Roar Fjær, El Hassan Hamdani, Jon K Laerdahl, Robin Johansen Menchini, Magnus Dehli Vigeland, Ying Sheng, Dag Erik Undlien, Bjørnar Hassel, Mustafa A Salih, Heba Y El Khashab, Kaja Kristine Selmer, Farrukh Abbas Chaudhry
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. We here present two affected brothers. At 9 months of age the elder brother developed ataxia and myoclonic jerks. In his second year he lost the ability to walk and talk, and he developed drug-resistant progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The cerebrospinal fluid level of glutamate was decreased while glutamine was increased. His younger brother manifested similar symptoms from 6 months of age...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Anjali Rajadhyaksha, Archana Sonawale, Ashwin Chichkhede, Abhishek Zanwar
We present the case of a 70 year old man who was admitted with history of generalized tonic clonic seizures on and off since 6 years in spite of being on regular therapy with anticonvulsants. Patient was found to have hypoglycemia and was evaluated for same. He was diagnosed to have endogenous hyperinsulinemia due to pancreatic insulinoma. Patient underwent enucleation of tumor and was relieved of his symptoms.
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Emel Oğuz-Akarsu, Zeynep Aydin-Özemir, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Betül Baykan
Status epilepticus (SE) is rarely described in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and little is known about its frequency, subtypes, and predictors and the prognosis of these patients. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of SE in patients with JME and emphasize the risk factors and long-term outcome of SE in an epilepsy outpatient-based cohort. We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical ≥3-Hz generalized spike-polyspike and waves...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Feng Liu, Yifeng Wang, Meiling Li, Wenqin Wang, Rong Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu, Huafu Chen
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) has been linked with disrupted intra-network connectivity of multiple resting-state networks (RSNs); however, whether impairment is present in inter-network interactions between RSNs, remains largely unclear. Here, 50 patients with IGE characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 50 demographically matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. A dynamic method was implemented to investigate functional network connectivity (FNC) in patients with IGE-GTCS...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Bernard Dabole, Michel De Waard
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf extract of Crinum jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae) is widely used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antiepileptic remedy and for the treatment of convulsion, depression and mood disorders associated with epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an active fraction extracted from the leaves of Crinum jagus against seizures, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
R Duncan
In the investigation of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), the main differential diagnoses are between convulsive PNES and tonic-clonic seizures, between swoon PNES and syncope, and between pseudoabsence PNES and absence seizures. For the best diagnostic certainty, events must be captured, ideally using video-electroencephalogram (EEG), including an electrocardiographic channel. The "video" part of video-EEG allows EEG changes (or lack of them) to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context. When the diagnosis is based on less good data (e...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Peter Stilwell, Katherine Harman, William Hsu, Brian Seaman
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries stemming from forceful muscular contractions during seizures have been documented in the literature. Reports of multiple seizure-induced spinal fractures, in the absence of external trauma and without risk factors for fracture, are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old male, newly diagnosed with epilepsy, presented to a chiropractic clinic with the complaint of mid-thoracic pain beginning after a tonic-clonic seizure with no associated external trauma...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Seung-Young Oh, Hannah Lee, Yang-Hyo Park, Ho Geol Ryu
Seizure is the second most common neurologic complication after liver transplantation and may be caused by metabolic abnormalities, electrolyte imbalance, infection, and immunosuppressant toxicity. A 61-year-old male patient underwent liver transplantation due to hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis with portal systemic encephalopathy. The immediate postoperative course of the patient was uncomplicated. However, on postoperative day (POD) 6, weakness developed in both lower extremities. No abnormal findings were detected on a brain computed tomography (CT) scan on POD 8, but a generalized tonic clonic seizure developed which was difficult to control even with multiple antiepileptic drugs...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Hong-Li Huang, Hao Zhou, Nuan Wang, Chun-Yu Yu
Epilepsy is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity. Clinical treatment of epilepsy includes symptomatic treatment, etiological treatment, surgery and prevention. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients, and to examine the correlation between these effects and secondary cerebrovascular events. A total of 68 epileptic patients, diagnosed between May 2012 and May 2014, were included in the present study...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Gotmi Sharwan, Parag Jain, Ravindra Pandey, Shiv Shankar Shukla
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose) and sub-acute (repeated-dose) toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight, the histopathology of body organs, the hematology and the biochemistry of the animals. METHODS: The toxicity profile of PI was evaluated using Wistar rats of both sexes...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Hayri Kertmen, Bora Gürer, Erdal Resit Yilmaz, Zeki Sekerci
Endoscopic surgery for lumbar disc herniation has been available for more than 30 years. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a well-known, safe, and effective method used for the treatment of the lumbar disc herniation. The published complications of the transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy consist of infections, thrombophlebitis, dysesthesia, dural tear, vascular injury, and death. Seizure after transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is an extremely rare complication...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Alexandra Rohracher, Doris P Reiter, Francesco Brigo, Gudrun Kalss, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Helmut Novak, Alexander Zerbs, Judith Dobesberger, Aynur Akhundova, Julia Höfler, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Markus Leitinger, Eugen Trinka
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most common neurological emergencies with a high incidence in the elderly. Major determinants of prognosis are patients' age, duration of SE and underlying etiology. We aimed identifying differences in clinical presentation of SE, etiologies and outcome between patients (pts.) sixty years or older (≥60) and younger than sixty (<60) years (yrs). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 120 patients (48 women) with SE admitted to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Department of Neurology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Austria between 1/2011 and 01/2013...
August 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Sook Hui Chaw, Li Lian Foo, Lucy Chan, Kang Kwong Wong, Suhailah Abdullah, Boon Kiong Lim
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently described neurological disorder and an increasingly recognized cause of psychosis, movement disorders and autonomic dysfunction. We report 20-year-old Chinese female who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, recent memory loss, visual hallucinations and abnormal behavior. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis was diagnosed and a computed tomography scan of abdomen reviewed a left adnexal tumor. We describe the first such case report of a patient with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis who was given a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as the sole anesthetic for removal of ovarian tumor...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
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