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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549335/microstructural-alterations-of-white-matter-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#1
Jinnan Gong, Xuebin Chang, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Song Tan, Dezhong Yao, Cheng Luo
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy that is characterized by myoclonic jerks of the upper limbs and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Frontal cognitive dysfunctions and abnormal coupling of the thalamocortical system have been found in neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. This study intended to explore white matter (WM) measurement changes in JME using MRI. Twenty-six patients with JME and 25 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for the acquisition of diffusion MRI and structural MRI data...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544889/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-as-a-spectrum-disorder-a-focused-review
#2
REVIEW
Betül Baykan, Peter Wolf
In consequence of newer research juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is no longer seen as a homogeneous disease. The causes of the existing variance are only partially known yet. We discuss to what extent the phenotypical spectrum of this polygenetically determined disorder expresses genetically defined endophenotypes, or is due to mere quantitative differences in the expression of the core phenotype. Of the three common seizure types of JME, myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic and absences, absences also occur independently and are strong candidates for an endophenotype...
May 18, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542735/sleep-convulsive-seizures-predict-lack-of-remission-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-epilepsy-center-in-egypt
#3
A Ashmawi, H Hosny, M Gadallah, E Beghi
BACKGROUND: Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) represent 15-20% of all epilepsies. There are no studies on the outcome of GGEs in the Middle East. AIMS: To investigate the long-term prognosis of GGEs and identify prognostic predictors in Egypt. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive children and adults with GGEs seen in an epilepsy clinic in Cairo, Egypt, followed for 10+ years. Follow-up visits were scheduled every 3-6 months or earlier...
May 21, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540130/corpora-amylacea-mimicking-low-grade-glioma-and-manifesting-as-a-seizure-case-report
#4
Seung J Lee, Minsu Kim, Carlito Lagman, Timothy T Bui, William H Yong, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Corpora amylacea (CA) are accumulations of polyglucosan bodies typically found in astrocytic foot processes, and rarely, can mimic neoplasm. CA accumulation has also been associated with seizure disorders. We report the first case of a histologically confirmed intracranial, intraparenchymal CA lesion mimicking a low-grade glioma and manifesting as a seizure. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old man presented after a general tonic-clonic (GTC) seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a small lesion in the right mesial temporal lobe with radiologic features of a low-grade glioma...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540093/myxedema-crisis-presenting-with-seizures-a-rare-life-threatening-presentation-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Sonali Sihindi Chapa Gunatilake, Uditha Bulugahapitiya
Myxedema crisis is a life-threatening extreme form of hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Myxedema crisis is commonly seen in older patients, especially in women, and is associated with signs of hypothyroidism, hypothermia, hyponatraemia, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia. Patients might present with different organ specific symptoms. Seizures are a recognized but rare manifestation of myxedema with a very high mortality rate. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management may improve the prognosis...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535410/effect-of-enzyme-inhibition-on-perampanel-pharmacokinetics-why-study-design-matters
#6
Barry E Gidal, Rama Maganti, Antonio Laurenza, Haichen Yang, David A Verbel, Edgar Schuck, Jim Ferry
OBJECTIVES: Perampanel, a selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist, is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy aged 12years and older. In vitro studies and Phase I trials indicate that perampanel is metabolized almost exclusively by CYP3A, with an elimination half-life (t1/2) averaging approximately 105h. Understanding of pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions-enzyme inhibition or induction-and anticipating their occurrence are important for management of patients with epilepsy...
April 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#7
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528287/population-pharmacokinetics-of-oxcarbazepine-and-its-metabolite-10-hydroxycarbazepine-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Natalicia de Jesus Antunes, Sven C van Dijkman, Vera Lucia Lanchote, Lauro Wichert-Ana, Eduardo Barbosa Coelho, Veriano Alexandre Junior, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Eduardo Tozatto, Johan G C van Hasselt, Oscar Della Pasqua
Oxcarbazepine is indicated for the treatment of partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The majority of the oxcarbazepine is converted into its active metabolite, 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD), which can exist as R-(-)- and S-(+)-MHD enantiomers. Here we describe the influence of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil, on the disposition of oxcarbazepine and MHD enantiomers, both of which are P-gp substrates. Healthy subjects (n=12) were randomized to oxcarbazepine or oxcarbazepine combined with verapamil at doses of 300mg b...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524796/improvement-of-visual-field-defects-after-focal-resection-for-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-case-report
#9
Takahiro Yamamoto, Tadashi Hamasaki, Hideo Nakamura, Kazumichi Yamada
Improvement of visual field defects after surgical treatment for occipital lobe epilepsy is rare. Here, the authors report on a 24-year-old man with a 15-year history of refractory epilepsy that developed after he had undergone an occipital craniotomy to remove a cerebellar astrocytoma at the age of 4. His seizures started with an elementary visual aura, followed by secondary generalized tonic-clonic convulsion. Perimetry revealed left-sided incomplete hemianopia, and MRI showed an old contusion in the right occipital lobe...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523600/sodium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#10
Martin J Brodie
Sodium channel blockers have been the mainstay of the pharmacological management of focal and generalised tonic-clonic seizures for more than 70 years. The focus of this paper will be on phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine acetate. All these antiepileptic drugs have similar efficacy and share similar dose-dependent, adverse effect profiles, although phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are more likely to cause idiosyncratic reactions than the others...
May 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509118/anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-disease-accompanied-by-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-presenting-central-nervous-system-involvement
#11
Hirohito Sugawara, Hideki Takizawa, Yoshinosuke Shimamura, Norihito Moniwa, Koichi Hasegawa, Yayoi Ogawa
We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting central nervous system involvement in a 32-year-old Japanese male. He was admitted to our hospital because of a 3-week history of fever and rapidly failing renal function requiring hemodialysis (HD). Laboratory tests showed anti-GBM antibody elevation with a value of 16,385 units/ml. On day 85, he had generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507972/bilateral-coracoid-avulsion-fractures-with-unilateral-anterior-instability-with-glenoid-bone-loss-use-of-avulsed-fragment-for-reconstruction-of-glenoid
#12
Prateek Kumar Gupta, Ashis Acharya, Amit Mourya
INTRODUCTION: Coracoid fractures are often missed since the fracture is not visualized in a routine anteroposterior view of the shoulder and special views are not ordered. Shoulder dislocation is common but it is rare to have a dislocation with a coracoid fracture. The purpose of this paper is to present the rare occurrence of bilateral coracoid fractures in a patient with unilateral anterior shoulder instability managed using the same fractured coracoid fragment by the latarjet procedure...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507634/multi-system-complications-after-intravenous-cocaine-abuse
#13
Lidija Petkovska, Andon Chibishev, Aleksandra Stevcevska, Ivica Smokovski, Dusan Petkovski, Emilija Antova
BACKGROUND: Use and abuse of cocaine are associated with numerous adverse effects, independent of the route of administration. More severe conditions of poisoning, however, are observed after cocaine intravenous administration. AIM: We present a case of severe poisoning after violent intravenous injection of cocaine, but with a good outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: Cocaine was intravenously (i.v.) administered in 16-years old female patient as a homicide attempt...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#14
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
May 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506334/-mecp2-duplication-syndrome-a-clinical-analysis-of-three-cases-and-literature-review
#15
Dan-Xia Tang, Dong-Fang Li, Ruo-Hao Wu, Li-Na Zhang, Xiang-Yang Luo
MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS) is a rare pediatric disease and mainly manifests as delayed motor development, language loss or delay, recurrent infection, severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic symptoms, and early infantile hypotonia. In this article, the three children with this disease were all boys. Cases 1 and 2 had delayed motor development, and language loss or delay as initial manifestations, and case 3 had recurrent infection as initial manifestation. Physical examination showed hypotonia and negative pathological signs in each case...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505725/critical-dynamics-of-hopf-bifurcations-in-the-corticothalamic-system-transitions-from-normal-arousal-states-to-epileptic-seizures
#16
Dong-Ping Yang, P A Robinson
A physiologically based corticothalamic model of large-scale brain activity is used to analyze critical dynamics of transitions from normal arousal states to epileptic seizures, which correspond to Hopf bifurcations. This relates an abstract normal form quantitatively to underlying physiology that includes neural dynamics, axonal propagation, and time delays. Thus, a bridge is constructed that enables normal forms to be used to interpret quantitative data. The normal form of the Hopf bifurcations with delays is derived using Hale's theory, the center manifold theorem, and normal form analysis, and it is found to be explicitly expressed in terms of transfer functions and the sensitivity matrix of a reduced open-loop system...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505490/heat-induced-temperature-dysregulation-and-seizures-in-dravet-syndrome-gefs-gabrg2-q390x-mice
#17
Timothy A Warner, Zhong Liu, Robert L Macdonald, Jing-Qiong Kang
It has been established that febrile seizures and its extended syndromes like generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures (FS) plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome have been associated with mutations especially in SCN1A and GABRG2 genes. In patients, the onset of FS is likely due to the combined effect of temperature and inflammation in genetically vulnerable individuals because fever is often associated with infection. Much effort has been spent to understand the mechanisms underlying fever induction of seizures...
April 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502943/the-development-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-after-tadalafil-ingestion-in-a-patient-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#18
Kenji Numata, Kouhei Shimoda, Yasushi Shibata, Ayako Shioya, Yasuharu Tokuda
We report a case of cerebral venous thrombosis related to the ingestion of tadalafil. A 45-year-old man presented with posterior headache and was diagnosed with tension headache. Five days later, he was transported to our hospital via ambulance due to a tonic-clonic seizure. Head MRI showed cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). He confessed to having recently taken a large doses of tadalafil. His anti-cardiolipin antibody and anti-caldiolipin-β2-glycoprotein-I complex antibody levels were elevated. Our case suggests the possibility that tadalafil is related to both cardiovascular complications and CVT in patients with hypercoagulability...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499407/early-neurosyphilis-presenting-with-facial-palsy-and-an-oral-ulcer-in-a-patient-who-is-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-a-case-report
#19
Evangeline Njiru, Jamil Abdulkadir, Zipporah Kamuren, Gabriel Kigen
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the tertiary stage of Treponema pallidum infection that involves the central nervous system, which occurs within days or weeks after an initial syphilis infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is quite challenging as it is uncommon and often presents with obscure symptoms since any organ system may be involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 40-year-old African man who is human immunodeficiency virus positive with early neurosyphilis who presented with a stiff neck, headache, confusion, restlessness, and a left-sided chest pain; he did not respond to an empiric treatment of ceftriaxone and fluconazole for meningitis, and tramadol for headache...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495313/posterior-hypothalamus-glutamate-infusion-decreases-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-of-male-rats-through-hippocampal-histamine-increase
#20
Atieh Arzhang, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Iran Goudarzi
OBJECTIVES: Seizures are epileptic manifestations that are intrinsically modulated through different neurotransmitters and receptor systems. Although glutamate increases excitation and hence seizures, it activates other systems which could potentially terminate seizures. Histamine originates from neurons of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) and can mediate anticonvulsant properties, but the effect of local PH glutamate on hippocampal histamine content is unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PH glutamate and the involvement of hippocampal histamine in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizure activity was studied...
May 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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