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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#2
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#3
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
January 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#4
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#5
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077668/auditory-adaptation-improves-tactile-frequency-perception
#6
Lexi E Crommett, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Jeffrey M Yau
Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals shape tactile processing is unclear: perceptual interactions between contemporaneous sounds and vibrations are consistent with multiple neural mechanisms. Here we used a crossmodal adaptation paradigm, which separated auditory and tactile stimulation in time, to test the hypothesis that tactile frequency perception depends on neural circuits that also process auditory frequency...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077667/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-high-stages-of-motor-planning-hierarchy
#7
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Giulia Valtorta, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi, Renato Borgatti
Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts have to be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence the execution of the first...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077288/micro-endoscopic-system-for-functional-assessment-of-neural-circuits-in-deep-brain-regions-simultaneous-optical-and-electrical-recordings-of-auditory-responses-in-mouse-s-inferior-colliculus
#8
Hidetaka Yashiro, Ichiro Nakahara, Kazuo Funabiki, Hiroshi Riquimaroux
In vivo Ca(2+) imaging is a powerful method for the functional assessment of neural circuits. Although multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has been widely used, observation of circuits in deep brain regions remains challenging. Recently, observing these deep regions has become possible via an endoscope consisting of an optical fiber bundle or gradient-index lens. We have designed a micro-endoscope system that enables simultaneous optical recording of fluorescence and electrical recording of neural activity...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077184/abnormalities-in-the-effective-connectivity-of-visuothalamic-circuitry-in-schizophrenia
#9
S J Iwabuchi, L Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: Sensory-processing deficits appear crucial to the clinical expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. The visual cortex displays both dysconnectivity and aberrant spontaneous activity in patients with persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits. In this paper, we examine visual cortex in the context of the remerging notion of thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We examined specific regional and longer-range abnormalities in sensory and thalamic circuits in schizophrenia, and whether these patterns are strong enough to discriminate symptomatic patients from controls...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#10
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#11
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075028/a-recognizable-type-of-syndromic-short-stature-with-arthrogryposis-caused-by-bi-allelic-sema3a-loss-of-function-variants
#12
Matthias Baumann, Elisabeth Steichen-Gersdorf, Birgit Krabichler, Thomas Müller, Andreas R Janecke
The semaphorins constitute a large family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins that regulate many developmental processes, including neural circuit assembly, bone formation and angiogenesis. Recently, bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SEMA3A (semaphorin 3A) were identified in a single patient with a particular pattern of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Using homozygosity mapping combined with exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous SEMA3A variant causing a premature stop codon in an 8-year-old boy with the same pattern of MCA...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072834/a-computational-model-based-on-multi-regional-calcium-imaging-represents-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-sensory-neuron
#13
Masahiro Kuramochi, Motomichi Doi
Due to the huge number of neuronal cells in the brain and their complex circuit formation, computer simulation of neuronal activity is indispensable to understanding whole brain dynamics. Recently, various computational models have been developed based on whole-brain calcium imaging data. However, these analyses monitor only the activity of neuronal cell bodies and treat the cells as point unit. This point-neuron model is inexpensive in computational costs, but the model is unrealistically simplistic at representing intact neural activities in the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072502/wallerian-degeneration-beyond-the-corticospinal-tracts-conventional-and-advanced-mri-findings
#14
REVIEW
Yin Jie Chen, Seyed Ali Nabavizadeh, Arastoo Vossough, Sunil Kumar, Laurie A Loevner, Suyash Mohan
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is defined as progressive anterograde disintegration of axons and accompanying demyelination after an injury to the proximal axon or cell body. Since the 1980s and 1990s, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been shown to be sensitive to changes of WD in the subacute to chronic phases. More recently, advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have demonstrated some of earliest changes attributed to acute WD, typically on the order of days...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#15
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#16
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
: Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069921/visual-stimulus-speed-does-not-influence-the-rapid-emergence-of-direction-selectivity-in-ferret-visual-cortex
#17
Neil J Ritter, Nora M Anderson, Stephen D Van Hooser
: Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather if experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naïve ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067904/prefrontal-cortical-control-of-a-brainstem-social-behavior-circuit
#18
Tamara B Franklin, Bianca A Silva, Zina Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E Masferrer, Yang Zhan, Angie Kaplan, Louise Greetham, Violaine Verrechia, Andreas Halman, Sara Pagella, Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna Illarionova, Valery Grinevich, Tiago Branco, Cornelius T Gross
The prefrontal cortex helps adjust an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a brainstem area vital for defensive responses. Social defeat caused a weakening of functional connectivity between these two areas, and selective inhibition of these projections mimicked the behavioral effects of social defeat...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067220/bi-and-uniciliated-ependymal-cells-define-continuous-floor-plate-derived-tanycytic-territories
#19
Zaman Mirzadeh, Yael Kusne, Maria Duran-Moreno, Elaine Cabrales, Sara Gil-Perotin, Christian Ortiz, Bin Chen, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Nader Sanai, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Multiciliated ependymal (E1) cells line the brain ventricles and are essential for brain homeostasis. We previously identified in the lateral ventricles a rare ependymal subpopulation (E2) with only two cilia and unique basal bodies. Here we show that E2 cells form a distinct biciliated epithelium extending along the ventral third into the fourth ventricle. In the third ventricle floor, apical profiles with only primary cilia define an additional uniciliated (E3) epithelium. E2 and E3 cells' ultrastructure, marker expression and basal processes indicate that they correspond to subtypes of tanycytes...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065829/medullary-reticular-neurons-mediate-neuropeptide-y-induced-metabolic-inhibition-and-mastication
#20
Yoshiko Nakamura, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shaun F Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) elicits hunger responses to increase the chances of surviving starvation: an inhibition of metabolism and an increase in feeding. Here we elucidate a key central circuit mechanism through which hypothalamic NPY signals drive these hunger responses. GABAergic neurons in the intermediate and parvicellular reticular nuclei (IRt/PCRt) of the medulla oblongata, which are activated by NPY-triggered neural signaling from the hypothalamus, potentially through the nucleus tractus solitarius, mediate the NPY-induced inhibition of metabolic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via their innervation of BAT sympathetic premotor neurons...
January 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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