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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350890/quantification-of-motor-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-by-means-of-landscape-and-flux-theory
#1
Han Yan, Jin Wang
The basal ganglia neural circuit plays an important role in motor control. Despite the significant efforts, the understanding of the principles and underlying mechanisms of this modulatory circuit and the emergence of abnormal synchronized oscillations in movement disorders is still challenging. Dopamine loss has been proved to be responsible for Parkinson's disease. We quantitatively described the dynamics of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit in Parkinson's disease in terms of the emergence of both abnormal firing rates and firing patterns in the circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346140/em-connectomics-reveals-axonal-target-variation-in-a-sequence-generating-network
#2
Jörgen Kornfeld, Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Fabian Svara, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Winfried Denk, Michael A Long
The sequential activation of neurons has been observed in various areas of the brain, but in no case is the underlying network structure well understood. Here we examined the circuit anatomy of zebra finch HVC, a cortical region that generates sequences underlying the temporal progression of the song. We combined serial block-face electron microscopy with light microscopy to determine the cell types targeted by HVC(RA) neurons, which control song timing. Close to their soma, axons almost exclusively targeted inhibitory interneurons, consistent with what had been found with electrical recordings from pairs of cells...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344152/trait-based-food-cravings-are-encoded-by-regional-homogeneity-in-the-parahippocampal-gyrus
#3
Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343884/short-term-desensitization-of-fast-escape-behavior-associated-with-suppression-of-mauthner-cell-activity-in-larval-zebrafish
#4
Megumi Takahashi, Maya Inoue, Masashi Tanimoto, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yoichi Oda
Escape is among the simplest animal behaviors employed to study the neural mechanisms underlying learning. Teleost fishes exhibit behavioral learning of fast escape initiated with a C-shaped body bend (C-start). C-starts are subdivided into short-latency (SLC) and long-latency (LLC) types in larval zebrafish. Whether these two can be separately modified, and the neural correlates of this modification, however, remains undetermined. We thus performed Ca(2+) imaging of Mauthner (M-) cells, a pair of giant hindbrain neurons constituting a core element of SLC circuit, during behavioral learning in larval zebrafish...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341478/importance-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-i-mhc-i-expression-for-astroglial-reactivity-and-stability-of-neural-circuits-in-vitro
#5
André Luis Bombeiro, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues Hell, Gustavo Ferreira Simões, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
MHC-I molecules are involved in the antigenic presentation of cytosol-derived peptides to CD8T lymphocytes. In the nervous system, MHC-I expression is low to absent, occurring only during certain phases of development and aging or after injuries. The involvement of MHC-I in synaptic plasticity has been reported and, following lesion, astrocytes become reactive, limiting tissue damage. Such cells also attempt to restore homeostasis by secreting cytokines and neurotrophic factors. Moreover, astrocytes modulate synapse function, by taking up and releasing neurotransmitters and by limiting the synaptic cleft...
March 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#6
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340447/fronto-limbic-disconnection-in-depressed-patients-with-suicidal-ideation-a-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#7
Lian Du, Jinkun Zeng, Huan Liu, Dejian Tang, Huaqing Meng, Yongmei Li, Yixiao Fu
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation (SI) is highly prevalent and a known symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but its underlying biological mechanisms are relatively unknown. Several studies linked suicidal ideation to dysfunctional brain circuits, specifically fronto-limbic connections. The purpose of this work was to investigate fronto-limbic disconnection in MDD patients with or without SI. METHODS: MDD patients with SI (SI, n=28) or without SI (NSI, n=20), identified by the Scale for Suicide Ideation and healthy controls (HCs, n=30) underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340290/nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-receptors-mediate-hypothalamus-induced-antinociception-in-the-rat-formalin-test
#8
A Siahposht-Khachaki, P Pourreza, S Ezzatpanah, A Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Lateral hypothalamus (LH) involves in modulation of tonic pain. Regarding the direct and indirect neural connections between the LH and nucleus accumbens (NAc), we aimed to examine the pain modulatory role of NAc dopamine receptors in modulation of LH-induced analgesia in the formalin test. METHODS: Vehicle-control groups received saline or DMSO into the NAc and saline into the LH. Carbachol-control groups received carbachol (250 nmol/L) into the LH, 5 min after saline or DMSO injection into the NAc...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338845/computational-psychiatry-and-the-challenge-of-schizophrenia
#9
John H Krystal, John D Murray, Adam M Chekroud, Philip R Corlett, Genevieve Yang, Xiao-Jing Wang, Alan Anticevic
Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338785/elevated-nucleus-accumbens-structural-connectivity-associated-with-proneness-to-hypomania-a-reward-hypersensitivity-perspective
#10
Katherine S Damme, Christina B Young, Robin Nusslock
The Reward Hypersensitivity Model of bipolar disorder argues that hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues characterizes risk for hypo/mania. This hypersensitivity leads to increased goal-directed motivation during reward-relevant life events that, in the extreme, is reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. In line with this perspective, individuals with bipolar disorder display elevated activation in a cortico-striatal reward circuit including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). To date, however, research on reward-related neural circuitry underlying bipolar symptoms focuses on syndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar I, bipolar II), and typically examines neural regions in isolation of each other...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#11
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337978/microrna-filters-hox-temporal-transcription-noise-to-confer-boundary-formation-in-the-spinal-cord
#12
Chung-Jung Li, Tian Hong, Ying-Tsen Tung, Ya-Ping Yen, Ho-Chiang Hsu, Ya-Lin Lu, Mien Chang, Qing Nie, Jun-An Chen
The initial rostrocaudal patterning of the neural tube leads to differential expression of Hox genes that contribute to the specification of motor neuron (MN) subtype identity. Although several 3' Hox mRNAs are expressed in progenitors in a noisy manner, these Hox proteins are not expressed in the progenitors and only become detectable in postmitotic MNs. MicroRNA biogenesis impairment leads to precocious expression and propagates the noise of Hoxa5 at the protein level, resulting in an imprecise Hoxa5-Hoxc8 boundary...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337311/consciousness-loss-during-epileptogenesis-implication-for-vlpo-pno-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Maohui Feng, Zhigang He, Baowen Liu, Zhixiao Li, Guorong Tao, Duozhi Wu, Hongbing Xiang
There is a growing concern about consciousness loss during epileptic seizures. Understanding neural mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of cerebral circuit function in the control of consciousness loss in intractable epilepsy. We propose that ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)- PnO (nucleus pontis oralis) circuits may serve a major role in the loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy. Future behavioural and neuroimaging studies are clearly needed to understand the functional connectivity between the VLPO and PnO during loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy, to greatly prevent unconsciousness in this disorder and improve the quality of life in patients with intractable epilepsy...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337137/an-adaptive-neural-mechanism-for-acoustic-motion-perception-with-varying-sparsity
#14
Danish Shaikh, Poramate Manoonpong
Biological motion-sensitive neural circuits are quite adept in perceiving the relative motion of a relevant stimulus. Motion perception is a fundamental ability in neural sensory processing and crucial in target tracking tasks. Tracking a stimulus entails the ability to perceive its motion, i.e., extracting information about its direction and velocity. Here we focus on auditory motion perception of sound stimuli, which is poorly understood as compared to its visual counterpart. In earlier work we have developed a bio-inspired neural learning mechanism for acoustic motion perception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#16
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334915/salience-and-default-mode-network-dysregulation-in-chronic-cocaine-users-predict-treatment-outcome
#17
Xiujuan Geng, Yuzheng Hu, Hong Gu, Betty Jo Salmeron, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334851/the-modulatory-effect-of-adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-on-beta-bursts-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Simon Little, Martijn Beudel, Damian M Herz, Huiling Tan, Peter Brown
Adaptive deep brain stimulation uses feedback about the state of neural circuits to control stimulation rather than delivering fixed stimulation all the time, as currently performed. In patients with Parkinson's disease, elevations in beta activity (13-35 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus have been demonstrated to correlate with clinical impairment and have provided the basis for feedback control in trials of adaptive deep brain stimulation. These pilot studies have suggested that adaptive deep brain stimulation may potentially be more effective, efficient and selective than conventional deep brain stimulation, implying mechanistic differences between the two approaches...
February 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334612/computing-by-robust-transience-how-the-fronto-parietal-network-performs-sequential-category-based-decisions
#19
Warasinee Chaisangmongkon, Sruthi K Swaminathan, David J Freedman, Xiao-Jing Wang
Decision making involves dynamic interplay between internal judgements and external perception, which has been investigated in delayed match-to-category (DMC) experiments. Our analysis of neural recordings shows that, during DMC tasks, LIP and PFC neurons demonstrate mixed, time-varying, and heterogeneous selectivity, but previous theoretical work has not established the link between these neural characteristics and population-level computations. We trained a recurrent network model to perform DMC tasks and found that the model can remarkably reproduce key features of neuronal selectivity at the single-neuron and population levels...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334609/basolateral-to-central-amygdala-neural-circuits-for-appetitive-behaviors
#20
Joshua Kim, Xiangyu Zhang, Shruti Muralidhar, Sarah A LeBlanc, Susumu Tonegawa
Basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal cells are capable of driving and antagonizing behaviors of opposing valence. BLA neurons project to the central amygdala (CeA), which also participates in negative and positive behaviors. However, the CeA has primarily been studied as the site for negative behaviors, and the causal role for CeA circuits underlying appetitive behaviors is poorly understood. Here, we identify several genetically distinct populations of CeA neurons that mediate appetitive behaviors and dissect the BLA-to-CeA circuit for appetitive behaviors...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
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