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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#1
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233099/pronounced-strain-specific-chemosensory-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-vomeronasal-organ
#2
Kyle Duyck, Vasha DuTell, Limei Ma, Ariel Paulson, C Ron Yu
BACKGROUND: The chemosensory system plays an important role in orchestrating sexual behaviors in mammals. Pheromones trigger sexually dimorphic behaviors and different mouse strains exhibit differential responses to pheromone stimuli. It has been speculated that differential gene expression in the sensory organs that detect pheromones may underlie sexually-dimorphic and strain-specific responses to pheromone cues. RESULTS: We have performed transcriptome analyses of the mouse vomeronasal organ, a sensory organ recognizing pheromones and interspecies cues...
December 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#3
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#4
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#5
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228378/neural-mechanisms-mediating-degrees-of-strategic-uncertainty
#6
Rosemarie Nagel, Andrea Brovelli, Frank Heinemann, Giorgio Coricelli
In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of fMRI with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228027/an-insulin-resistance-associated-neural-correlate-of-impulsivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Kristen L Eckstrand, Nishit Mummareddy, Hakmook Kang, Ronald Cowan, Minchun Zhou, David Zald, Heidi J Silver, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
Central insulin resistance (IR) influences striatal dopamine (DA) tone, an important determinant of behavioral self-regulation. We hypothesized that an association exists between the degree of peripheral IR and impulse control, mediated by the impact of IR on brain circuits controlling the speed of executing "go" and/or "stop" responses. We measured brain activation and associated performance on a stop signal task (SST) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 48.1 ± 6.9 yrs (mean ± SD); BMI, 36.5 ± 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226965/brain-reflections-a-circuit-based-framework-for-understanding-information-processing-and-cognitive-control
#8
Gabriele Gratton
Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226467/axon-guidance-pathways-and-the-control-of-gene-expression
#9
REVIEW
Samantha A Russell, Greg J Bashaw
Axons need to be properly guided to their targets to form synaptic connections, and this requires interactions between highly conserved extracellular and transmembrane ligands and their cell surface receptors. The majority of studies on axon guidance signaling pathways have focused on the role of these pathways in rearranging the local cytoskeleton and plasma membrane in growth cones and axons. However, a smaller body of work has demonstrated that axon guidance signaling pathways also control gene expression via local translation and transcription...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225348/a-multi-dimensional-characterization-of-anxiety-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs-reveals-susceptibility-loci-in-humans
#11
Reid S Alisch, Carol Van Hulle, Pankaj Chopra, Anita Bhattacharyya, Su-Chun Zhang, Richard J Davidson, Ned H Kalin, H Hill Goldsmith
The etiology of individual differences in human anxiousness is complex and includes contributions from genetic, epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) and environmental factors. Past genomic approaches have been limited in their ability to detect human anxiety-related differences in these factors. To overcome these limitations, we employed both a multi-dimensional characterization method, to select monozygotic twin pairs discordant for anxiety, and whole genome DNA methylation sequencing. This approach revealed 230 anxiety-related differentially methylated loci that were annotated to 183 genes, including several known stress-related genes such as NAV1, IGF2, GNAS, and CRTC1...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#12
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225042/endogenous-dopamine-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-mediate-cocaine-induced-reversal-of-ampar-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#13
Anna E Ingebretson, Matthew C Hearing, Ethan D Huffington, Mark J Thomas
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse alters the structure and function of neural circuits mediating reward, generating maladaptive plasticity in circuits critical for motivated behavior. Within meso-corticolimbic dopamine circuitry, repeated exposure to cocaine induces progressive alterations in AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic synaptic transmission. During a 10-14 day period of abstinence from cocaine, AMPAR signaling is potentiated at synapses on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), promoting a state of heightened synaptic excitability...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224852/structured-spontaneity-building-circuits-in-the-human-prenatal-brain
#14
Moriah E Thomason
Early brain activity is crucial for neurogenesis and the development of brain networks. However, it has been challenging to localize regions in the developing human brain that contribute to spontaneous waves of neuronal activity. Recently, Arichi and colleagues reported that the temporal and heteromodal insular cortices have a central role in propagating these neural instructional signals.
December 7, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222989/disrupted-circuits-in-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#16
REVIEW
Carla Em Golden, Joseph D Buxbaum, Silvia De Rubeis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are caused by a wide range of genetic mutations, a significant fraction of which reside in genes important for synaptic function. Studies have found that sensory, prefrontal, hippocampal, cerebellar, and striatal regions, as well as the circuits that connect them, are perturbed in mouse models of ASD and ID. Dissecting the disruptions in morphology and activity in these neural circuits might help us to understand the shared risk between the two disorders as well as their clinical heterogeneity...
December 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#17
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222057/unfolding-the-cognitive-map-the-role-of-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-substrates-based-on-a-systems-analysis-of-spatial-processing
#18
REVIEW
Michael Ryan Hunsaker, Raymond P Kesner
What has been long absent in understanding the neural circuit that sup- ports spatial processing is a thorough description and rigorous study of the distributed neural networks associated with spatial processing-both in the human as well as in rodents. Most of our understanding regarding the elu- cidation of a spatial neural circuit has been based on rodents and therefore the present manuscript will concentrate on that literature. There is a trend emerging in research to expand beyond the hippocampus for evaluating spa- tial memory, but the thrust of the research still focuses on the role of the hippocampus as essential and other neural substrates as performing sub- servient roles to support hippocampus-dependent spatial processing...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220326/a-portable-ultrasound-system-for-non-invasive-ultrasonic-neuro-stimulation
#19
Weibao Qiu, Juan Zhou, Yan Chen, Min Su, Guofeng Li, Huixia Zhao, Xianyi Gu, De Meng, Congzhi Wang, Yang Xiao, Kwok Ho Lam, Jiyan Dai, Hairong Zheng
Fundamental insights into the function of the neural circuits often follows from the advances in methodologies and tools for neuroscience. Electrode- and optical- based stimulation methods have been used widely for neuro-modulation with high resolution. However, they are suffering from inherent invasive surgical procedure. Ultrasound has been proved as a promising technology for neuro-stimulation in a non-invasive manner. However, no portable ultrasound system has been developed particularly for neuro-stimulation...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220305/spiking-neural-classifier-with-lumped-dendritic-nonlinearity-and-binary-synapses-a-current-mode-vlsi-implementation-and-analysis
#20
Aritra Bhaduri, Amitava Banerjee, Subhrajit Roy, Sougata Kar, Arindam Basu
We present a neuromorphic current mode implementation of a spiking neural classifier with lumped square law dendritic nonlinearity. It has been shown previously in software simulations that such a system with binary synapses can be trained with structural plasticity algorithms to achieve comparable classification accuracy with fewer synaptic resources than conventional algorithms. We show that even in real analog systems with manufacturing imperfections (CV of 23.5% and 14.4% for dendritic branch gains and leaks respectively), this network is able to produce comparable results with fewer synaptic resources...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
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