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Neural circuit

David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Oliver Vranjkovic, Garrett Winkler, Danny G Winder
Forced abstinence from chronic two bottle-choice ethanol drinking produces the development of negative affective states in female C57BL/6J mice. We previously reported that this disrupted behavior is acutely reversed by administration of ketamine 30 min-prior to testing. Here we assessed whether ketamine can be used as an inoculant against the development of abstinence- dependent affective disturbances. In parallel, we examined the impact of ketamine administration on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a region implicated in affective disturbances...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Alessio Plebe
This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be "canonical". This "canonical" core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks informing this research...
June 15, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Saraí Trujeque-Ramos, Diego Castillo-Rolón, Elvira Galarraga, Dagoberto Tapia, Gabina Arenas-López, Stefan Mihailescu, Salvador Hernández-López
Recent studies, have shown that insulin increases extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in the hippocampus, causing alterations of neuronal excitability. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is another brain area which is involved in cognition functions and expresses insulin receptors. Here, we used electrophysiological, molecular, and immunocytochemical techniques to examine the effect of insulin on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in brain slices. We found that insulin (20-500 nM) increases GABAA -mediated tonic currents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bor Luen Tang
The mechanism of intercellular transmission of pathological agents in neurodegenerative diseases has received much recent attention. Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a monogenic mutation in the gene encoding Huntingtin (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) harbors a CAG repeat extension which encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat at HTT's N-terminus. Neuronal pathology in HD is largely due to the toxic gain-of-function by mHTT and its proteolytic products, which forms both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates that perturb nuclear gene transcription, RNA splicing and transport as well cellular membrane dynamics...
June 14, 2018: Cells
Harvey B Sarnat
The cerebellar system is a series of axonal projections and synaptic circuits as networks, similar to those of the limbic system and those subserving the propagation and spread of seizures. Three principal cerebellar networks are identified and cerebellar disease often affects components of the networks other than just the cerebellar cortex. Contemporary developmental neuropathology of the cerebellum is best considered in the context of alterations of developmental processes: embryonic segmentation and genetic gradients along the three axes of the neural tube, individual neuronal and glial cell differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis, and myelination...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Thomas Taetzsch, Vanessa L Brayman, Gregorio Valdez
Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are involved in a variety of cellular processes. In the nervous system, they affect the differentiation and migration of neurons, the formation and maturation of synapses, and the repair of neuronal circuits following insults. Because of the varied yet critical functions of FGF ligands, their availability and activity must be tightly regulated for the nervous system, as well as other tissues, to properly develop and function in adulthood. In this regard, FGF binding proteins (FGFBPs) have emerged as strong candidates for modulating the actions of secreted FGFs in neural and non-neural tissues...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Melissa Barber, William D Andrews, Fani Memi, Phillip Gardener, Daniel Ciantar, Mathew Tata, Christiana Ruhrberg, John G Parnavelas
Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) is essential for promoting the vascularization of the embryonic murine forebrain. In addition, it directly influences neural development, although its role in the forming forebrain is less well elucidated. It was recently suggested that Vegfa may influence the development of GABAergic interneurons, inhibitory cells with crucial signaling roles in cortical neuronal circuits. However, the mechanism by which it affects interneuron development remains unknown. Here we investigated the developmental processes by which Vegfa may influence cortical interneuron development by analyzing transgenic mice that ubiquitously express the Vegfa120 isoform to perturb its signaling gradient...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Valerio Zerbi, Giovanna D Ielacqua, Marija Markicevic, Matthias Georg Haberl, Mark H Ellisman, Arjun A-Bhaskaran, Andreas Frick, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. We used MRI to probe changes in functional and structural connectivity from childhood to adulthood in Fragile-X (Fmr1-/y) and contactin-associated (CNTNAP2-/-) knockout mice...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Chitra D Mandyam, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Robert J Oliver, Yoshio Takashima
Addictive drugs effect the brain reward circuitry by altering functional plasticity of neurons governing the circuits. Relapse is an inherent problem in addicted subjects and is associated with neuroplasticity changes in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Recent studies have begun to determine the functional significance of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where new neurons in the granule cell layer are continuously generated to replace dying or diseased cells. One of the many negative consequences of chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse and METH addiction in rodent and nonhuman primate models is a decrease in neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and reduced neurogenesis in the granule cell layer during METH exposure...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
F Merrikh Bayat, M Prezioso, B Chakrabarti, H Nili, I Kataeva, D Strukov
The progress in the field of neural computation hinges on the use of hardware more efficient than the conventional microprocessors. Recent works have shown that mixed-signal integrated memristive circuits, especially their passive (0T1R) variety, may increase the neuromorphic network performance dramatically, leaving far behind their digital counterparts. The major obstacle, however, is immature memristor technology so that only limited functionality has been reported. Here we demonstrate operation of one-hidden layer perceptron classifier entirely in the mixed-signal integrated hardware, comprised of two passive 20 × 20 metal-oxide memristive crossbar arrays, board-integrated with discrete conventional components...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Alexander Borst
Seeing the direction of motion is essential for survival of all sighted animals. Consequently, nerve cells that respond to visual stimuli moving in one but not in the opposite direction, so-called 'direction-selective' neurons, are found abundantly. In general, direction selectivity can arise by either signal amplification for stimuli moving in the cell's preferred direction ('preferred direction enhancement'), signal suppression for stimuli moving along the opposite direction ('null direction suppression'), or a combination of both...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jonathan Harnie, Celia Côté-Sarrazin, Marie-France Hurteau, Etienne Desrochers, Adam Doelman, Nawal Amhis, Alain Frigon
Speed modulation requires spatiotemporal adjustments and altered neural drive to different muscles. The loss of certain muscles produces changes in the locomotor pattern and functional compensation. However, how the loss of specific muscles affects speed modulation has not been specifically investigated. Here, we denervated the lateral-gastrocnemius and soleus muscles unilaterally in seven cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion following complete spinal transection (spinal cats). Hindlimb locomotion was tested at ten speeds, from 0...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Qiang Chen, Wei Wei
Direction selectivity is a fundamental computation in the visual system and is first computed by the direction-selective circuit in the mammalian retina. While landmark discoveries on the neural basis of direction selectivity have been made in the rabbit, many technological advances designed for the mouse have emerged, making this organism a favored model for investigating the direction-selective circuit at the molecular, synaptic, and network levels. Studies using diverse motion stimuli in the mouse retina demonstrate that retinal direction selectivity is implemented by multilayered mechanisms...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully) supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Murad Atmaca
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology...
June 12, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Javier J How, Saket Navlakha
Biological networks have long been known to be modular, containing sets of nodes that are highly connected internally. Less emphasis, however, has been placed on understanding how intermodule connections are distributed within a network. Here, we borrow ideas from engineered circuit design and study Rentian scaling, which states that the number of external connections between nodes in different modules is related to the number of nodes inside the modules by a power-law relationship. We tested this property in a broad class of molecular networks, including protein interaction networks for six species and gene regulatory networks for 41 human and 25 mouse cell types...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Xueting Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Wenjun Wu, Ke Dong, Zhaonong Hu
Pyrethroid insecticides modify the gating of voltage-gated sodium channels, thus disrupting the function of the nervous system. In Drosophila melanogaster, para encodes a functional sodium channel. Drosophila Sodium Channel 1 (DSC1), although considered as a putative sodium channel gene for decades due to its high sequence similarity with sodium channels, encodes a voltage-gated cation channel with high permeability to Ca2+ . Previous study showed that knockout of the DSC1 gene (DSC1-/- ) caused Drosophila adults to be more susceptible to pyrethroids and the adult giant fiber (GF) neural circuit were more susceptible to pyrethroids...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma
Neurotransplantation may be a promising approach for therapy of cerebellar diseases characterized by a substantial loss of neurons. Neurotransplantation could rescue neurons from degeneration and maintain cerebellar reserve, facilitate cerebellar compensation, or help reconstruct damaged neural circuits by cell substitution. These mechanisms of action can be of varying importance according to the type of cerebellar disease. Neurotransplantation therapy in cerebellar ataxias is still at the stage of experimental studies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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