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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027094/multimodal-functional-neuroimaging-by-simultaneous-bold-fmri-and-fiber-optic-calcium-recordings-and-optogenetic-control
#1
REVIEW
Franziska Albers, Lydia Wachsmuth, Timo Mauritz van Alst, Cornelius Faber
Recent developments of optogenetic tools and fluorescence-based calcium recording techniques enable the manipulation and monitoring of neural circuits on a cellular level. Non-invasive imaging of brain networks, however, requires the application of methods such as blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is commonly used for functional neuroimaging. While BOLD fMRI provides brain-wide non-invasive reading of the hemodynamic response, it is only an indirect measure of neural activity...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024665/astrocyte-secreted-glypican-4-regulates-release-of-neuronal-pentraxin-1-from-axons-to-induce-functional-synapse-formation
#2
Isabella Farhy-Tselnicker, Adriana C M van Casteren, Aletheia Lee, Veronica T Chang, A Radu Aricescu, Nicola J Allen
The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024656/diagnosing-the-neural-circuitry-of-reading
#3
REVIEW
Brian A Wandell, Rosemary K Le
We summarize the current state of knowledge of the brain's reading circuits, and then we describe opportunities to use quantitative and reproducible methods for diagnosing these circuits. Neural circuit diagnostics-by which we mean identifying the locations and responses in an individual that differ significantly from measurements in good readers-can help parents and educators select the best remediation strategy. A sustained effort to develop and share diagnostic methods can support the societal goal of improving literacy...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024221/dendrites-deep-learning-and-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Upinder S Bhalla
The hippocampus places us both in time and space. It does so over remarkably large spans: milliseconds to years, and centimeters to kilometers. This works for sensory representations, for memory, and for behavioral context. How does it fit in such wide ranges of time and space scales, and keep order among the many dimensions of stimulus context? A key organizing principle for a wide sweep of scales and stimulus dimensions is that of order in time, or sequences. Sequences of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in sensory processing, in motor control, in planning actions, and in memory...
October 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024194/disrupted-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-reward-processing-in-remitted-bipolar-i-disorder
#5
Sunny J Dutra, Vincent Man, Hedy Kober, William A Cunningham, June Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with elevated reward sensitivity and persistent positive affect, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these patterns are not well understood. In the present study, we examined putative disruptions in communication within a well-known cortico-limbic reward circuit during reward processing as a potential contributing mechanism to these symptoms. METHODS: The present investigation employed a within- and between-subjects design utilizing a monetary and social incentive delay task among adults with bipolar disorder type I (BD; N = 24) and a healthy non-psychiatric control group (HC; N = 25) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#6
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021389/norepinephrine-enhances-song-responsiveness-and-encoding-in-the-auditory-forebrain-of-male-zebra-finches
#7
Vanessa Lee, Benjamin A Pawlisch, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Luke Remage-Healey
Norepinephrine (NE) can dynamically modulate excitability and functional connectivity of neural circuits in response to changes in external and internal states. Regulation by NE has been demonstrated extensively in mammalian sensory cortices, but whether NE-dependent modulation in sensory cortex alters response properties in downstream sensorimotor regions is less clear. Here, we examine this question in male zebra finches, a songbird species with complex vocalizations and a well-defined neural network for auditory processing of those vocalizations...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020746/proteomic-landscape-of-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-upon-sensory-deprivation
#8
Koen Kole, Rik G H Lindeboom, Marijke P A Baltissen, Pascal W T C Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Paul Tiesinga, Tansu Celikel
Experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) powerfully shapes neural circuits by inducing long-lasting molecular changes in the brain. Molecular mechanisms of EDP have been traditionally studied by identifying single or small subsets of targets along the biochemical pathways that link synaptic receptors to nuclear processes. Recent technological advances in large-scale analysis of gene transcription and translation now allow systematic observation of thousands of molecules simultaneously. Here we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to address experience-dependent changes in the proteome after sensory deprivation of the primary somatosensory cortex...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019321/beyond-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-in-multidimensional-models-of-neural-circuit-changes-in-brain-disorders
#9
Cian O'Donnell, J Tiago Gonçalves, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Terrence J Sejnowski
A leading theory holds that neurodevelopmental brain disorders arise from imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) brain circuitry. However, it is unclear whether this one-dimensional model is rich enough to capture the multiple neural circuit alterations underlying brain disorders. Here we combined computational simulations with analysis of in vivo 2-photon Ca(2+) imaging data from somatosensory cortex of Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice, a model of Fragile-X Syndrome, to test the E/I imbalance theory. We found that: 1) The E/I imbalance model cannot account for joint alterations in the observed neural firing rates and correlations; 2) Neural circuit function is vastly more sensitive to changes in some cellular components over others; 3) The direction of circuit alterations in Fmr1 KO mice changes across development...
October 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019100/oxytocin-and-social-cognition
#10
Andreas Ebert, Martin Brüne
Oxytocin has been linked to many domains within the realm of "social cognition." For example, research has shown that oxytocin affects trusting behavior, cooperation, as well as the perception and processing of facial expressions. Furthermore, oxytocin increases empathy and seems to exert differential effects on in-group versus out-group preferences. However, there are some conflicting results that point towards a modulatory effect of oxytocin, depending on a variety of contextual and within-subject factors...
October 11, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016848/mdm2-mediates-fmrp-and-gp1-mglur-dependent-protein-translation-and-neural-network-activity
#11
Dai-Chi Liu, Joseph Seimetz, Kwan Young Lee, Auinash Kalsotra, Hee Jung Chung, Hua Lu, Nien-Pei Tsai
Activating Group 1 (Gp1) metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, elicits translation-dependent neural plasticity mechanisms that are crucial to animal behavior and circuit development. Dysregulated Gp1 mGluR signaling has been observed in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular pathways underlying Gp1 mGluR-dependent plasticity mechanisms are complex and have been elusive. In this study, we identified a novel mechanism through which Gp1 mGluR mediates protein translation and neural plasticity...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016606/neural-coding-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-how-do-small-neural-populations-support-visually-guided-behaviours
#12
Alex D M Dewar, Antoine Wystrach, Andrew Philippides, Paul Graham
All organisms wishing to survive and reproduce must be able to respond adaptively to a complex, changing world. Yet the computational power available is constrained by biology and evolution, favouring mechanisms that are parsimonious yet robust. Here we investigate the information carried in small populations of visually responsive neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These so-called 'ring neurons', projecting to the ellipsoid body of the central complex, are reported to be necessary for complex visual tasks such as pattern recognition and visual navigation...
October 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993878/fuzzy-neuronal-model-of-motor-control-inspired-by-cerebellar-pathways-to-online-and-gradually-learn-inverse-biomechanical-functions-in-the-presence-of-delay
#13
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
Contrary to forward biomechanical functions, which are deterministic, inverse biomechanical functions are generally not. Calculating an inverse biomechanical function is an ill-posed problem, which has no unique solution for a manipulator with several degrees of freedom. Studies of the command and control of biological movements suggest that the cerebellum takes part in the computation of approximate inverse functions, and this ability can control fast movements by predicting the consequence of current motor command...
October 9, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#14
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992311/pairing-increases-activation-of-v1ar-but-not-otr-in-auditory-regions-of-zebra-finches-the-importance-of-signal-modality-in-nonapeptide-social-behavior-relationships
#15
Michelle L Tomaszycki, Derek Atchley
Social relationships are complex, involving the production and comprehension of signals, individual recognition, and close coordination of behavior between two or more individuals. The nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are widely believed to regulate social relationships. These findings come largely from prairie voles, in which nonapeptide receptors in olfactory neural circuits drive pair bonding. This research is assumed to apply to all species. Previous reviews have offered two competing hypotheses. The work of Sarah Newman has implicated a common neural network across species, the Social Behavior Network...
July 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988858/an-anatomically-constrained-model-for-path-integration-in-the-bee-brain
#16
Thomas Stone, Barbara Webb, Andrea Adden, Nicolai Ben Weddig, Anna Honkanen, Rachel Templin, William Wcislo, Luca Scimeca, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Path integration is a widespread navigational strategy in which directional changes and distance covered are continuously integrated on an outward journey, enabling a straight-line return to home. Bees use vision for this task-a celestial-cue-based visual compass and an optic-flow-based visual odometer-but the underlying neural integration mechanisms are unknown. Using intracellular electrophysiology, we show that polarized-light-based compass neurons and optic-flow-based speed-encoding neurons converge in the central complex of the bee brain, and through block-face electron microscopy, we identify potential integrator cells...
October 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986960/bad-wrap-myelin-and-myelin-plasticity-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Erin M Gibson, Anna C Geraghty, Michelle Monje
Human central nervous system myelin development extends well into the fourth decade of life, and this protracted period underscores the potential for experience to modulate myelination. The concept of myelin plasticity implies adaptability in myelin structure and function in response to experiences during development and beyond. Mounting evidence supports this concept of neuronal activity-regulated changes in myelin-forming cells, including oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, oligodendrogenesis and modulation of myelin microstructure...
October 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986578/parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-can-act-solo-while-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-act-in-chorus-in-most-cases-on-cortical-pyramidal-cells
#18
Mir-Shahram Safari, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tadaharu Tsumoto
Neural circuits in the cerebral cortex consist primarily of excitatory pyramidal (Pyr) cells and inhibitory interneurons. Interneurons are divided into several subtypes, in which the two major groups are those expressing parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SOM). These subtypes of interneurons are reported to play distinct roles in tuning and/or gain of visual response of pyramidal cells in the visual cortex. It remains unclear whether there is any quantitative and functional difference between the PV → Pyr and SOM → Pyr connections...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986463/hebbian-learning-in-a-random-network-captures-selectivity-properties-of-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Grace W Lindsay, Mattia Rigotti, Melissa R Warden, Earl K Miller, Stefano Fusi
Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear 'mixed' selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which PFC exhibits computationally-relevant properties such as mixed selectivity and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986278/synaptopathology-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-complex-effects-of-synaptic-genes-on-neural-circuits
#20
REVIEW
Xinxing Wang, Rachel Kery, Qiaojie Xiong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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