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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677559/general-memristor-with-applications-in-multilayer-neural-networks
#1
Shiping Wen, Xudong Xie, Zheng Yan, Tingwen Huang, Zhigang Zeng
Memristor describes the relationship between charge and flux. Although several window functions for memristors based on the HP linear and nonlinear dopant drift models have been studied, most of them are inadequate to capture the full characteristics of memristors. To address this issue, this paper proposes a unified window function to describe a general memristor with restrictions of its parameters given. Compared with other window functions, the proposed function demonstrates high validity and accuracy. In order to make the simulation results have high consistency with the results of actual circuit, we apply the new window function to the simulation of a memristor-based multilayer neural network (MNN) circuit...
April 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676484/structural-and-metabolic-brain-correlates-of-apathy-in-huntington-s-disease
#2
Saul Martínez-Horta, Jesús Perez-Perez, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Andrea Horta-Barba, Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Beatriz Gomez-Anson, Gloria Andrea Lozano-Martinez, Diego Alfonso Lopez-Mora, Valle Camacho, Alejandro Fernández-León, Ignasi Carrió, Jaime Kulisevsky
BACKGROUND: Apathy is the most prevalent and characteristic neuropsychiatric feature of Huntington's disease. Congruent with the main early pathological changes, apathy is primarily associated with subcortical damage in frontal-striatal circuits. However, little is known about its precise subserving mechanisms and the contribution of regions other than the basal ganglia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define the neural correlates of apathy in Huntington's disease based on gray matter volume and PET/CT of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism...
April 20, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675882/diffusion-tensor-imaging-using-multiple-coils-for-mouse-brain-connectomics
#3
John C Nouls, Alexandra Badea, Robert B J Anderson, Gary P Cofer, G Allan Johnson
The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675332/50-hz-volumetric-functional-imaging-with-continuously-adjustable-depth-of-focus
#4
Rongwen Lu, Masashi Tanimoto, Minoru Koyama, Na Ji
Understanding how neural circuits control behavior requires monitoring a large population of neurons with high spatial resolution and volume rate. Here we report an axicon-based Bessel beam module with continuously adjustable depth of focus (CADoF), that turns frame rate into volume rate by extending the excitation focus in the axial direction while maintaining high lateral resolutions. Cost-effective and compact, this CADoF Bessel module can be easily integrated into existing two-photon fluorescence microscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#5
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#6
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674264/ultrasonic-modulation-of-neural-circuit-activity
#7
REVIEW
William J Tyler, Shane W Lani, Grace M Hwang
Ultrasound (US) is recognized for its use in medical imaging as a diagnostic tool. As an acoustic energy source, US has become increasingly appreciated over the past decade for its ability to non-invasively modulate cellular activity including neuronal activity. Data obtained from a host of experimental models has shown that low-intensity US can reversibly modulate the physiological activity of neurons in peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and intact brain circuits. Experimental evidence indicates that acoustic pressures exerted by US act, in part, on mechanosensitive ion channels to modulate activity...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674089/biophysical-modeling-of-neural-plasticity-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#8
REVIEW
Marcus T Wilson, Ben D Fulcher, Park K Fung, P A Robinson, Alex Fornito, Nigel C Rogasch
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used noninvasive brain stimulation method capable of inducing plastic reorganisation of cortical circuits in humans. Changes in neural activity following TMS are often attributed to synaptic plasticity via process of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP/LTD). However, the precise way in which synaptic processes such as LTP/LTD modulate the activity of large populations of neurons, as stimulated en masse by TMS, are unclear. The recent development of biophysical models, which incorporate the physiological properties of TMS-induced plasticity mathematically, provide an excellent framework for reconciling synaptic and macroscopic plasticity...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673525/optogenetics-and-chemogenetics
#9
Ksenia Vlasov, Christa J Van Dort, Ken Solt
Optogenetics and chemogenetics provide the ability to modulate neurons in a type- and region-specific manner. These powerful techniques are useful to test hypotheses regarding the neural circuit mechanisms of general anesthetic end points such as hypnosis and analgesia. With both techniques, a genetic strategy is used to target expression of light-sensitive ion channels (opsins) or designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in specific neurons. Optogenetics provides precise temporal control of neuronal firing with light pulses, whereas chemogenetics provides the ability to modulate neuronal firing for several hours with the single administration of a designer drug...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673480/thalamic-reticular-dysfunction-as-a-circuit-endophenotype-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Krol, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa, Guoping Feng
Diagnoses of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are based on symptomatic descriptions that have been difficult to connect to mechanism. Although psychiatric genetics provide insight into the genetic underpinning of such disorders, with a majority of cases explained by polygenic factors, it remains difficult to design rational treatments. In this review, we highlight the value of understanding neural circuit function both as an intermediate level of explanatory description that links gene to behavior and as a pathway for developing rational diagnostics and therapeutics for behavioral disorders...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673479/genetic-dissection-of-neural-circuits-a-decade-of-progress
#11
REVIEW
Liqun Luo, Edward M Callaway, Karel Svoboda
Tremendous progress has been made since Neuron published our Primer on genetic dissection of neural circuits 10 years ago. Since then, cell-type-specific anatomical, neurophysiological, and perturbation studies have been carried out in a multitude of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, linking neurons and circuits to behavioral functions. New methods allow systematic classification of cell types and provide genetic access to diverse neuronal types for studies of connectivity and neural coding during behavior...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#12
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671739/cellular-diversity-in-the-drosophila-midbrain-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptomics
#13
Vincent Croset, Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number of approaches permitted the assignment of transcriptional profiles to several major brain regions and cell-types...
April 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670576/neural-androgen-synthesis-and-aggression-insights-from-a-seasonally-breeding-rodent
#14
REVIEW
Kathleen M Munley, Nikki M Rendon, Gregory E Demas
Aggression is an essential social behavior that promotes survival and reproductive fitness across animal systems. While research on the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this complex behavior has traditionally focused on the classic neuroendocrine model, in which circulating gonadal steroids are transported to the brain and directly mediate neural circuits relevant to aggression, recent studies have suggested that this paradigm is oversimplified. Work on seasonal mammals that exhibit territorial aggression outside of the breeding season, such as Siberian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus ), has been particularly useful in elucidating alternate mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670512/eyes-matched-to-the-prize-the-state-of-matched-filters-in-insect-visual-circuits
#15
REVIEW
Jessica R Kohn, Sarah L Heath, Rudy Behnia
Confronted with an ever-changing visual landscape, animals must be able to detect relevant stimuli and translate this information into behavioral output. A visual scene contains an abundance of information: to interpret the entirety of it would be uneconomical. To optimally perform this task, neural mechanisms exist to enhance the detection of important features of the sensory environment while simultaneously filtering out irrelevant information. This can be accomplished by using a circuit design that implements specific "matched filters" that are tuned to relevant stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#16
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670106/olfactory-inputs-modulate-respiration-related-rhythmic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-freezing-behavior
#17
Andrew H Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Larry S Zweifel, Wenqin Luo, Minghong Ma
Respiration and airflow through the nasal cavity are known to be correlated with rhythmic neural activity in the central nervous system. Here we show in rodents that during conditioned fear-induced freezing behavior, mice breathe at a steady rate (~4 Hz), which is correlated with a predominant 4-Hz oscillation in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC), a structure critical for expression of conditioned fear behaviors. We demonstrate anatomical and functional connections between the olfactory pathway and plPFC via circuit tracing and optogenetics...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670101/neural-like-computing-with-populations-of-superparamagnetic-basis-functions
#18
Alice Mizrahi, Tifenn Hirtzlin, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Julie Grollier, Damien Querlioz
In neuroscience, population coding theory demonstrates that neural assemblies can achieve fault-tolerant information processing. Mapped to nanoelectronics, this strategy could allow for reliable computing with scaled-down, noisy, imperfect devices. Doing so requires that the population components form a set of basis functions in terms of their response functions to inputs, offering a physical substrate for computing. Such a population can be implemented with CMOS technology, but the corresponding circuits have high area or energy requirements...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669291/a-cyfip2-dependent-excitatory-interneuron-pathway-establishes-the-innate-startle-threshold
#19
Kurt C Marsden, Roshan A Jain, Marc A Wolman, Fabio A Echeverry, Jessica C Nelson, Katharina E Hayer, Ben Miltenberg, Alberto E Pereda, Michael Granato
Sensory experiences dynamically modify whether animals respond to a given stimulus, but it is unclear how innate behavioral thresholds are established. Here, we identify molecular and circuit-level mechanisms underlying the innate threshold of the zebrafish startle response. From a forward genetic screen, we isolated five mutant lines with reduced innate startle thresholds. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identify the causative mutation for one line to be in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-interacting protein cyfip2...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668395/do-words-stink-neural-reuse-as-a-principle-for-understanding-emotions-in-reading
#20
Johannes C Ziegler, Marie Montant, Benny B Briesemeister, Tila T Brink, Bruno Wicker, Aurélie Ponz, Mireille Bonnard, Arthur M Jacobs, Mario Braun
How do we understand the emotional content of written words? Here, we investigate the hypothesis that written words that carry emotions are processed through phylogenetically ancient neural circuits that are involved in the processing of the very same emotions in nonlanguage contexts. This hypothesis was tested with respect to disgust. In an fMRI experiment, it was found that the same region of the left anterior insula responded whether people observed facial expressions of disgust or whether they read words with disgusting content...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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