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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456491/synaptic-e-i-balance-underlies-efficient-neural-coding
#1
REVIEW
Shanglin Zhou, Yuguo Yu
Both theoretical and experimental evidence indicate that synaptic excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex are well-balanced during the resting state and sensory processing. Here, we briefly summarize the evidence for how neural circuits are adjusted to achieve this balance. Then, we discuss how such excitatory and inhibitory balance shapes stimulus representation and information propagation, two basic functions of neural coding. We also point out the benefit of adopting such a balance during neural coding...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456074/histone-deacetylases-hdacs-as-therapeutic-target-for-depressive-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454561/flexible-neural-hardware-supports-dynamic-computations-in-retina
#3
REVIEW
Michal Rivlin-Etzion, William N Grimes, Fred Rieke
The ability of the retina to adapt to changes in mean light intensity and contrast is well known. Classically, however, adaptation is thought to affect gain but not to change the visual modality encoded by a given type of retinal neuron. Recent findings reveal unexpected dynamic properties in mouse retinal neurons that challenge this view. Specifically, certain cell types change the visual modality they encode with variations in ambient illumination or following repetitive visual stimulation. These discoveries demonstrate that computations performed by retinal circuits with defined architecture can change with visual input...
February 14, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453206/elevation-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-induces-a-temporally-graded-pattern-of-forgetting-of-contextual-fear-memories
#4
Aijing Gao, Frances Xia, Axel Guskjolen, Adam I Ramsaran, Adam Santoro, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Throughout life neurons are continuously generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The subsequent integration of newly-generated neurons alters patterns of dentate gyrus input and output connectivity, potentially rendering memories already stored in those circuits harder to access. Consistent with this prediction, we previously showed that increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after training induces forgetting of hippocampus-dependent memories, including contextual fear memory. However, the brain regions supporting contextual fear memories change with time, and this time-dependent memory reorganization might regulate the sensitivity of contextual fear memories to fluctuations in hippocampal neurogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450220/recent-insights-into-corticostriatal-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-habits-invited-review-for-current-opinions-in-behavioral-sciences
#5
Justin O'Hare, Nicole Calakos, Henry H Yin
Habits have been studied for decades, but it was not until recent years that experiments began to elucidate the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms. The latest experiments have been enabled by advances in cell-type specific monitoring and manipulation of activity in large neuronal populations. Here we will review recent efforts to understand the neural substrates underlying habit formation, focusing on rodent studies on corticostriatal circuits.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447951/suction-electrode-recording-in-locus-coeruleus-of-newborn-rat-brain-slices-reveals-network-bursting-comprising-summated-non-synchronous-spiking
#7
Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447392/activity-dependent-functions-of-non-electrical-glial-cells
#8
Daisuke Kato, Kei Eto, Junichi Nabekura, Hiroaki Wake
Electrical activity is essential for brain function. However, neurons, the electrically active cells, are less numerous than the non-electrical glial cells in the central nervous system. The non-electrical components modify the function of neural circuits, depending on the electrical neuronal activity, by wrapping synapses, myelinating axons, and phagocytozing the neuronal components. Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that they contribute to neurological and psychiatric disease by regulating neuronal circuits, ultimately affecting their behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#9
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#10
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445828/the-neural-circuits-of-number-and-letter-copying-an-fnirs-study
#11
Christina Artemenko, Andra Coldea, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Thomas Dresler, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Ann-Christine Ehlis
In our daily lives, we are constantly exposed to numbers and letters. However, it is still under debate how letters and numbers are processed in the brain, while information on this topic would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of, for example, known influences of language on numerical cognition or neural circuits shared by numerical cognition and language processing. Some findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between numbers and letters, with numbers being represented in the right and letters in the left hemisphere, while the opposing view suggests a shared neural network...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#12
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444175/tomographic-optical-imaging-of-cortical-responses-after-crossing-nerve-transfer-in-mice
#13
Keiichi Maniwa, Haruyoshi Yamashita, Hiroaki Tsukano, Ryuichi Hishida, Naoto Endo, Minoru Shibata, Katsuei Shibuki
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of crossing nerve transfer for brachial plexus injuries in human patients, we investigated the cortical responses after crossing nerve transfer in mice using conventional and tomographic optical imaging. The distal cut ends of the left median and ulnar nerves were connected to the central cut ends of the right median and ulnar nerves with a sciatic nerve graft at 8 weeks of age. Eight weeks after the operation, the responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the left forepaw were visualized based on activity-dependent flavoprotein fluorescence changes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442324/rodent-zic-genes-in-neural-network-wiring
#14
Eloísa Herrera
The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441900/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-formation-and-development-of-depression
#15
Dan Zhou, Yue Li, Tian Tian, Wei Quan, Lei Wang, Qing Shao, Lian-Qiang Fu, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Xiao-Ye Wang, Hui Zhang, Yan-Min Ma
Two types of cannabinoid (CB) receptors have been described in the human body: CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptor distribution may be related to the cannabinoid functions of memory and cognition regulation as well as motor control. In addition, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) related to CB1 receptors may be involved in human emotion regulation, especially depression occurrence. Indeed, CB1 receptors are all distributed in depression associated neuroanatomical structures and neural circuits. Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that impairment of the ECS pathway is present in depression models and patients, and application of both CB1 receptor agonists and anandamide (cannabinoid-like substance) degradation inhibitors produce similar biochemical and behavioral effects as antidepressants...
August 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439854/rapid-sensing-of-l-leucine-by-human-and-murine-hypothalamic-neurons-neurochemical-and-mechanistic-insights
#16
Nicholas Heeley, Peter Kirwan, Tamana Darwish, Marion Arnaud, Mark L Evans, Florian T Merkle, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Clemence Blouet
OBJECTIVE: Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. METHODS: We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439363/effects-of-posture-and-coactivation-on-corticomotor-excitability-of-ankle-muscles
#17
Trisha M Kesar, Steven Eicholtz, Bethany J Lin, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to evaluate corticomotor excitability of lower limb (LL) muscles can provide insights about neuroplasticity mechanisms underlying LL rehabilitation. However, to date, a majority of TMS studies have focused on upper limb muscles. Posture-related activation is an important under-investigated factor influencing corticomotor excitability of LL muscles. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of posture and background activation on corticomotor excitability of ankle muscles...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439241/near-infrared-deep-brain-stimulation-via-upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-optogenetics
#18
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437952/septal-cholinergic-neurons-gate-hippocampal-output-to-entorhinal-cortex-via-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-interneurons
#19
Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L Yakel
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how ACh modulates hippocampal output. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that ACh, by activating oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons and therefore augmenting the negative-feedback regulation to the CA1 pyramidal neurons, suppresses the circuit from the hippocampal area CA1 to the deep-layer entorhinal cortex (EC)...
February 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437890/brain-transcriptome-databases-a-user-s-guide
#20
Jason M Keil, Adel Qalieh, Kenneth Y Kwan
Transcriptional programs instruct the generation and maintenance of diverse subtypes of neural cells, establishment of distinct brain regions, formation and function of neural circuits, and ultimately behavior. Spatiotemporal and cell type-specific analyses of the transcriptome, the sum total of all RNA transcripts in a cell or an organ, can provide insights into the role of genes in brain development and function, and their potential contribution to disorders of the brain. In the previous decade, advances in sequencing technology and funding from the National Institutes of Health and private foundations for large-scale genomics projects have led to a growing collection of brain transcriptome databases...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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