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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090692/a-high-resolution-reference-genetic-map-positioning-8-8k-genes-for-the-conifer-white-spruce-structural-genomics-implications-and-correspondence-with-physical-distance
#1
Nathalie Pavy, Manuel Lamothe, Betty Pelgas, France Gagnon, Inanç Birol, Joerg Bohlmann, John Mackay, Nathalie Isabel, Jean Bousquet
Over the last decade, extensive genetic and genomic resources have been developed for the conifer white spruce (Picea glauca, Pinaceae), which has one of the largest plant genomes (20 Gbp). Draft genome sequences of white spruce and other conifers have recently been produced, but dense genetic maps are needed to comprehend genome macrostructure, delineate regions involved in quantitative traits, complement functional genomic investigations, and assist the assembly of fragmented genomic sequences. A greatly expanded P...
January 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#2
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#3
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087776/seed-plant-specific-gene-lineages-involved-in-carpel-development
#4
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Evolutionary innovations are important drivers of speciation and some are the defining characters of entire phyla. One such major innovation is the carpel, the unifying character and most complex plant organ, composed of many clearly distinct tissue types to ensure reproductive success. The origin of the carpel is unknown, but many components of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing carpel development and their genetic interactions are known from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana To unravel the evolution of the carpel GRN and to discriminate between "early" and "late" steps in carpel evolution we calculated thorough phylogeny reconstructions based on sequenced genomes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087663/evolution-and-structural-diversification-of-nictaba-like-lectin-genes-in-food-crops-with-a-focus-on-soybean-glycine-max
#5
Sofie Van Holle, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba-like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087660/the-morphophysiological-dormancy-in-amborella-trichopoda-seeds-is-a-pleisiomorphic-trait-in-angiosperms
#6
Bruno Fogliani, Gildas Gâteblé, Matthieu Villegente, Isabelle Fabre, Nicolas Klein, Nicolas Anger, Carol C Baskin, Charlie P Scutt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda, the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. METHODS: Drupes of A...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081503/in-silico-identification-of-alternative-oxidase-2-aox2-in-monocots-a-new-evolutionary-scenario
#7
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079941/changes-to-cretaceous-surface-fire-behaviour-influenced-the-spread-of-the-early-angiosperms
#8
Claire M Belcher, Victoria A Hudspith
Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#9
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#10
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071978/nup82-functions-redundantly-with-nup136-in-a-salicylic-acid-dependent-defense-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Kentaro Tamura, Yoichiro Fukao, Noriyuki Hatsugai, Fumiaki Katagiri, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) comprises more than 30 nucleoporins (Nups). NPC mediates macromolecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, but specific roles of individual Nups are poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that the novel nucleoporin unique to angiosperm plants (designated as Nup82) functions in a salicylic acid-dependent defense in a redundant manner with Nup136, which is a component of the nuclear basket in the NPC. Arabidopsis thaliana Nup82 had a similar amino acid sequence to the N-terminal half of Nup136 and a Nup82-GFP fusion was localized on the nuclear envelope...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069533/myrteae-phylogeny-calibration-biogeography-and-diversification-patterns-increased-understanding-in-the-most-species-rich-tribe-of-myrtaceae
#12
Thais N C Vasconcelos, Carol E B Proença, Berhaman Ahmad, Daniel S Aguilar, Reinaldo Aguilar, Bruno S Amorim, Keron Campbell, Itayguara R Costa, Plauto S De-Carvalho, Jair E Q Faria, Augusto Giaretta, Pepijn W Kooij, Duane F Lima, Fiorella F Mazine, Brigido Peguero, Gerhard Prenner, Matheus F Santos, Julia Soewarto, Astrid Wingler, Eve J Lucas
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065925/small-genomes-and-large-seeds-chromosome-numbers-genome-size-and-seed-mass-in-diploid-aesculus-species-sapindaceae
#13
Anna Krahulcová, Pavel Trávníček, František Krahulec, Marcel Rejmánek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. METHODS: Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061815/overexpression-of-panac03-a-stress-induced-nac-gene-family-transcription-factor-in-norway-spruce-leads-to-reduced-flavonol-biosynthesis-and-aberrant-embryo-development
#14
Kerstin Dalman, Julia Johanna Wind, Miguel Nemesio-Gorriz, Almuth Hammerbacher, Karl Lundén, Ines Ezcurra, Malin Elfstrand
BACKGROUND: The NAC family of transcription factors is one of the largest gene families of transcription factors in plants and the conifer NAC gene family is at least as large, or possibly larger, as in Arabidopsis. These transcription factors control both developmental and stress induced processes in plants. Yet, conifer NACs controlling stress induced processes has received relatively little attention. This study investigates NAC family transcription factors involved in the responses to the pathogen Heterobasidion annosum (Fr...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057943/taxonomic-description-of-in-situ-bee-pollen-from-the-middle-eocene-of-germany
#15
FriĐgeir Grímsson, Reinhard Zetter, Conrad C Labandeira, Michael S Engel, Torsten Wappler
The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records...
January 2, 2017: Grana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057690/related-allopolyploids-display-distinct-floral-pigment-profiles-and-transgressive-pigments
#16
Elizabeth W McCarthy, Andrea E Berardi, Stacey D Smith, Amy Litt
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. METHODS: We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056495/novel-rosaceae-plant-elicitor-peptides-as-sustainable-tools-to-control-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-prunus-spp
#17
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054354/did-trees-grow-up-to-the-light-up-to-the-wind-or-down-to-the-water-how-modern-high-productivity-colors-perception-of-early-plant-evolution
#18
REVIEW
C Kevin Boyce, Ying Fan, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Flowering plants can be far more productive than other living land plants. Evidence is reviewed that productivity would have been uniformly lower and less CO2 -responsive before angiosperm evolution, particularly during the early evolution of vascular plants and forests in the Devonian and Carboniferous. This introduces important challenges because paleoecological interpretations have been rooted in understanding of modern angiosperm-dominated ecosystems...
January 5, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053893/bryophytes-hoard-of-remedies-an-ethno-medicinal-review
#19
REVIEW
Satish Chandra, Dinesh Chandra, Anupam Barh, Pankaj, Raj Kumar Pandey, Ishwar Prakash Sharma
Bryophytes are the second largest group of land plants after angiosperms. There is very less knowledge available about medicinal properties of these plants. Bryophytes are popular remedy among the tribal people of different parts of the world. Tribal people use these plants to cure various ailments in their daily lives. Bryophytes are used to cure hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, used as antipyretic, antimicrobial, wound healing and many more other ailments by different tribal communities of Africa, America, Europe, Poland, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan, China, Nepal and different parts of South, North and Eastern India...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053005/two-step-functional-innovation-of-the-stem-cell-factors-wus-wox5-during-plant-evolution
#20
Yuzhou Zhang, Yue Jiao, Hengwu Jiao, Huabin Zhao, Yu-Xian Zhu
WUS and WOX5, which are expressed, respectively, in the organizing center (OC) and the quiescent center (QC), are essential for shoot/root apical stem-cell maintenance in flowering plants. However, little is known about how these stem-cell factors evolved their functions in flowering plants. Here, we show that the WUS/WOX5 proteins acquired two distinct capabilities by a two-step functional innovation process in the course of plant evolution. The first-step is the apical stem-cell maintenance activity of WUS/WOX5, which originated in the common ancestor of ferns and seed plants, as evidenced by the interspecies complementation experiments, showing that ectopic expression of fern Ceratopteris richardii WUS-like (CrWUL) surrounding OC/QC, or exclusive OC-/QC-expressed gymnosperms/angiosperms WUS/WOX5 in Arabidopsis wus-1 and wox5-1 mutants, could rescue their phenotypes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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