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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431014/the-draft-genome-of-ruellia-speciosa-beautiful-wild-petunia-acanthaceae
#1
Yongbin Zhuang, Erin A Tripp
The genus Ruellia (Wild Petunias; Acanthaceae) is characterized by an enormous diversity of floral shapes and colours manifested among closely related species. Using Illumina platform, we reconstructed the draft genome of Ruellia speciosa, with a scaffold size of 1,021 Mb (or ∼1.02 Gb) and an N50 size of 17,908 bp, spanning ∼93% of the estimated genome (∼1.1 Gb). The draft assembly predicted 40,124 gene models and phylogenetic analyses of four key enzymes involved in anthocyanin colour production [flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR)] found that most angiosperms here sampled harboured at least one copy of F3H, F3'H, and DFR...
April 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430814/how-the-ovules-get-enclosed-in-magnoliaceous-carpels
#2
Xin Zhang, Wenzhe Liu, Xin Wang
Angiosperms distinguish themselves from gymnosperms by their ovules that are enclosed before pollination. However, how the ovules get enclosed in angiosperms remains a mystery, especially for Magnoliaceae. The only key to this mystery is finding a series of carpels transitional from fully closed with enclosed ovules to open with naked ovules. We use routine paraffin section technology, LM, SEM to document the morphology and anatomy of carpel variation in Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae). A series of carpel variations within a single flower of Michelia figo (Magnoliaceae) are documented, in which the ovules are exposed in atypical carpels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428864/integrating-biogeography-threat-and-evolutionary-data-to-explore-extinction-crisis-in-the-taxonomic-group-of-cycads
#3
Kowiyou Yessoufou, Barnabas H Daru, Respinah Tafirei, Hosam O Elansary, Isaac Rampedi
Will the ongoing extinction crisis cause a severe loss of evolutionary information accumulated over millions of years on the tree of life? This question has been largely explored, particularly for vertebrates and angiosperms. However, no equivalent effort has been devoted to gymnosperms. Here, we address this question focusing on cycads, the gymnosperm group exhibiting the highest proportion of threatened species in the plant kingdom. We assembled the first complete phylogeny of cycads and assessed how species loss under three scenarios would impact the cycad tree of life...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428200/the-evolution-of-aluminum-accumulation-in-ferns-and-lycophytes
#4
Marco Schmitt, Klaus Mehltreter, Michael Sundue, Weston Testo, Toshihiro Watanabe, Steven Jansen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of aluminum (Al) accumulation within ferns and lycophytes, which is characterized by Al concentrations above 1000 mg·kg(-1) in aboveground plant tissues. We hypothesize that this feature is more common in ferns than in angiosperms, and potentially correlated with growth form and other chemical elements. METHODS: Aluminum concentrations were obtained from novel analyses and literature for a total of 354 specimens and 307 species...
April 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424709/evolutionary-analysis-of-snf1-related-protein-kinase2-snrk2-and-calcium-sensor-scs-gene-lineages-and-dimerization-of-rice-homologs-suggest-deep-biochemical-conservation-across-angiosperms
#5
Lynn D Holappa, Pamela C Ronald, Elena M Kramer
Members of the sucrose non-fermenting related kinase Group2 (SnRK2) subclasses are implicated in both direct and indirect abscisic acid (ABA) response pathways. We have used phylogenetic, biochemical, and transient in vivo approaches to examine interactions between Triticum tauschii protein kinase 1 (TtPK1) and an interacting protein, Oryza sativa SnRK2-calcium sensor (OsSCS1). Given that TtPK1 has 100% identity with its rice ortholog, osmotic stress/ABA-activated protein kinase (OsSAPK2), we hypothesized that the SCS and TtPK1 interactions are present in both wheat and rice...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424707/new-insights-on-leucine-rich-repeats-receptor-like-kinase-orthologous-relationships-in-angiosperms
#6
Jean-François Dufayard, Mathilde Bettembourg, Iris Fischer, Gaetan Droc, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Christophe Périn, Nathalie Chantret, Anne Diévart
Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) genes represent a large and complex gene family in plants, mainly involved in development and stress responses. These receptors are composed of an LRR-containing extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain (TM) and an intracellular kinase domain (KD). To provide new perspectives on functional analyses of these genes in model and non-model plant species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on 8,360 LRR-RLK receptors in 31 angiosperm genomes (8 monocots and 23 dicots)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419906/plant-hormone-signaling-in-flowering-an-epigenetic-point-of-view
#7
REVIEW
Gerardo Campos-Rivero, Pedro Osorio-Montalvo, Rafael Sánchez-Borges, Rosa Us-Camas, Fátima Duarte-Aké, Clelia De-la-Peña
Reproduction is one of the most important phases in an organism's lifecycle. In the case of angiosperm plants, flowering provides the major developmental transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage, and requires genetic and epigenetic reprogramming to ensure the success of seed production. Flowering is regulated by a complex network of genes that integrate multiple environmental cues and endogenous signals so that flowering occurs at the right time; hormone regulation, signaling and homeostasis are very important in this process...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419460/land-plants-drive-photorespiration-as-higher-electron-sink-comparative-study-of-post-illumination-transient-o2-uptake-rates-from-liverworts-to-angiosperms-through-ferns-and-gymnosperms
#8
Hitomi Hanawa, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Kana Nohira, Daisuke Takagi, Ginga Shimakawa, Takehiro Sejima, Kei-Ichiro Shaku, Amane Makino, Chikahiro Miyake
In higher plants, the electron-sink capacity of photorespiration contributes to alleviation of photoinhibition by dissipating excess energy under conditions when photosynthesis is limited. We addressed the question at what point in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms photorespiration began to function as electron sink and replaced the flavodiiron proteins which catalyze the reduction of O2 at photosystem I in cyanobacteria. Algae do not have a higher activity of photorespiration when CO2 assimilation is limited, and it can therefore not act as an electron sink...
April 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418105/climate-and-successional-related-changes-in-functional-composition-of-european-forests-are-strongly-driven-by-tree-mortality
#9
Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Sophia Ratcliffe, Miguel A Zavala, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Albert Vilà-Cabrera, Francisco Lloret, Jaime Madrigal-González, Christian Wirth, Sarah Greenwood, Gerald Kändler, Aleksi Lehtonen, Jens Kattge, Jonas Dahlgren, Alistair S Jump
Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21(st) century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to: (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types...
April 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411162/insights-into-evolution-in-andean-polystichum-dryopteridaceae-from-expanded-understanding-of-the-cytosolic-phosphoglucose-isomerase-gene
#10
Brendan M Lyons, Monique A McHenry, David S Barrington
Cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgiC) is an enzyme essential to glycolysis found universally in eukaryotes, but broad understanding of variation in the gene coding for pgiC is lacking for ferns. We used a substantially expanded representation of the gene for Andean species of the fern genus Polystichum to characterize pgiC in ferns relative to angiosperms, insects, and an amoebozoan; assess the impact of selection versus neutral evolutionary processes on pgiC; and explore evolutionary relationships of selected Andean species...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407383/msh1-maintains-organelle-genome-stability-and-genetically-interacts-with-reca-and-recg-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#11
Masaki Odahara, Yoshihito Kishita, Yasuhiko Sekine
Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA encodes genes essential for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Thus, loss of organelle genomic DNA integrity leads to a decline in organelle function and to alteration of organelle genetic information. RECA (RECA1 and RECA2) and RECG, which are homologs of bacterial homologous recombination repair (HRR) factors RecA and RecG, respectively, play an important role in the maintenance of organelle genome integrity by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats (SDRs) in the moss Physcomitrella patens...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402490/attraction-of-cerambycid-beetles-to-their-aggregation-sex-pheromones-is-influenced-by-volatiles-from-host-plants-of-their-larvae
#12
J C H Wong, Y Zou, J G Millar, L M Hanks
Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The source of plant volatiles was chipped wood from trees of three angiosperm species, as well as from one nonhost, gymnosperm species...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400785/dihydroflavonol-4-reductase-genes-from-freesia-hybrida-play-important-and-partially-overlapping-roles-in-the-biosynthesis-of-flavonoids
#13
Yueqing Li, Xingxue Liu, Xinquan Cai, Xiaotong Shan, Ruifang Gao, Song Yang, Taotao Han, Shucai Wang, Li Wang, Xiang Gao
Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is a key enzyme in the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanidins in both anthocyanin biosynthesis and proanthocyanidin accumulation. In many plant species, it is encoded by a gene family, however, how the different copies evolve either to function in different tissues or at different times or to specialize in the use of different but related substrates needs to be further investigated, especially in monocot plants. In this study, a total of eight putative DFR-like genes were firstly cloned from Freesia hybrida...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400779/making-plants-break-a-sweat-the-structure-function-and-evolution-of-plant-salt-glands
#14
REVIEW
Maheshi Dassanayake, John C Larkin
Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397275/the-physcomitrella-patens-exocyst-subunit-exo70-3d-has-distinct-roles-in-growth-and-development-and-is-essential-for-completion-of-the-moss-life-cycle
#15
Anamika Rawat, Lucie Brejšková, Michal Hála, Fatima Cvrčková, Viktor Žárský
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved secretory vesicle-tethering complex, spatially controls exocytosis and membrane turnover in fungi, metazoans and plants. The exocyst subunit EXO70 exists in multiple paralogs in land plants, forming three conserved clades with assumed distinct roles. Here we report functional analysis of the first moss exocyst subunit to be studied, Physcomitrella patens PpEXO70.3d (Pp1s97_91V6), from the, as yet, poorly characterized EXO70.3 clade. Following phylogenetic analysis to confirm the presence of three ancestral land plant EXO70 clades outside angiosperms, we prepared and phenotypically characterized loss-of-function Ppexo70...
April 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396152/evolutionary-origins-of-pectin-methylesterase-genes-associated-with-novel-aspects-of-angiosperm-pollen-tube-walls
#16
Simon Wallace, Joseph Williams
The early evolution of angiosperms was marked by a number of innovations of the reproductive cycle including an accelerated fertilization process involving faster transport of sperm to egg via a pollen tube. Fast pollen tube growth rates in angiosperms are accompanied by a hard shank-soft tip pollen tube morphology. A critical actor in that morphology is the wall-embedded enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), which in type II PMEs is accompanied by a co-transcribed inhibitor, PMEI. PMEs convert the esterified pectic tip wall to a stiffer state in the subapical flank by pectin de-esterification...
April 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392623/yuhania-a-unique-angiosperm-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-inner-mongolia-china
#17
Zhong-Jian Liu, Xin Wang
Despite increasing claims of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, whether there really are angiosperms in the Jurassic is apparently still an open question for many people before further evidence is available. This question can only be answered by studying more Jurassic plant fossils. Here we report a fossil angiosperm, Yuhania daohugouensis gen. et sp. nov, from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The plant includes connected stem, leaves, flowers, aggregate fruits, fruitlets, and seeds within fruitlets. The leaves are helically arranged along the curving stem, linear in shape, with 5-6 parallel veins...
May 19, 2017: Historical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391059/root-hair-development-in-grasses-and-cereals-poaceae
#18
REVIEW
Liam Dolan
Root hairs are tubular, cellular outgrowths of epidermal cells that extend from the root surface into the soil. Root hairs tether root systems to their growth substrate, take up inorganic nutrients and water, and interact with the soil microflora. At maturity, the root epidermis comprises two cell types; cells with root hairs and hairless epidermal cells. These two cell types alternate with each other along longitudinal files in grasses and cereals (Poaceae). While the mechanism by which this alternating pattern develops is unknown, the later stages of root hair differentiation are controlled by a conserved mechanism that promotes root hair development among angiosperms...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390989/molecular-structural-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-taxus-chinensis-jazs
#19
Meng Zhang, Ying Chen, Lin Nie, Xiaofei Jin, Chunhua Fu, Longjiang Yu
Taxus spp. are ancient gymnosperms that produce a unique secondary metabolite, namely, taxol, an anticancer drug. JAZ proteins are key regulators of the JA signaling pathway, which control taxol biosynthesis. However, the JAZ proteins of Taxus spp. are poorly studied. In this work, nine JAZ genes from Taxus chinensis were identified using our previous transcriptome data and named as TcJAZ1-TcJAZ9. Of these nine TcJAZ proteins, eight contain Jas and TIFY domains, and the Jas domain of TcJAZ6 is incomplete. Most TcJAZs and PsJAZs are not related to AtJAZs and OsJAZs...
April 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390097/preponderance-of-clonality-triggers-loss-of-sex-in-bulbophyllum-bicolor-an-obligately-outcrossing-epiphytic-orchid
#20
Ai-Qun Hu, Stephan W Gale, Pankaj Kumar, Richard M K Saunders, Mei Sun, Gunter A Fischer
Vegetative propagation (clonal growth) conveys several evolutionary advantages that positively affect life history fitness and is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms that also reproduce sexually. However, a bias towards clonality can interfere with sexual reproduction and lead to sexual extinction, although a dearth of effective genetic tools and mathematical models for clonal plants has hampered assessment of these impacts. Using the endangered tropical epiphytic or lithophytic orchid Bulbophyllum bicolor as a model, we integrated an examination of breeding system with 12 microsatellite loci and models valid for clonal species to test for the 'loss of sex' and infer likely consequences for long-term reproductive dynamics...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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