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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230069/consistent-role-of-quaternary-climate-change-in-shaping-current-plant-functional-diversity-patterns-across-european-plant-orders
#1
Alejandro Ordonez, Jens-Christian Svenning
Current and historical environmental conditions are known to determine jointly contemporary species distributions and richness patterns. However, whether historical dynamics in species distributions and richness translate to functional diversity patterns remains, for the most part, unknown. The geographic patterns of plant functional space size (richness) and packing (dispersion) for six widely distributed orders of European angiosperms were estimated using atlas distribution data and trait information. Then the relative importance of late-Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change and contemporary environmental factors (climate, productivity, and topography) as determinants of functional diversity of evaluated orders was assesed...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229362/transcriptional-and-post-translational-control-of-chlorophyll-biosynthesis-by-dark-operative-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-in-norway-spruce
#2
Stolárik Tibor, Hedtke Boris, Šantrůček Jiří, Ilík Petr, Grimm Bernhard, Pavlovič Andrej
Unlike angiosperms, gymnosperms use two different enzymes for the reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide: the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR) and the dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR). In this study, we examined the specific role of both enzymes for chlorophyll synthesis in response to different light/dark and temperature conditions at different developmental stages (cotyledons and needles) of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). The accumulation of chlorophyll and chlorophyll-binding proteins strongly decreased during dark growth in secondary needles at room temperature as well as in cotyledons at low temperature (7 °C) indicating suppression of DPOR activity...
February 22, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226235/plant-mitochondrial-genomes-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-mutation
#3
José M Gualberto, Kathleen J Newton
The large mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are unusually dynamic because of recombination activities involving repeated sequences. These activities generate subgenomic forms and extensive genomic variation even within the same species. Such changes in genome structure are responsible for the rapid evolution of plant mitochondrial DNA and for the variants associated with cytoplasmic male sterility and abnormal growth phenotypes. Nuclear genes modulate these processes, and over the past decade, several of these genes have been identified...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225773/whole-genome-duplication-and-molecular-evolution-in-cornus-l-cornaceae-insights-from-transcriptome-sequences
#4
Yan Yu, Qiuyun Xiang, Paul S Manos, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis, Bao-Hua Song, Shifeng Cheng, Xin Liu, Gane Wong
The pattern and rate of genome evolution have profound consequences in organismal evolution. Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, has been recognized as an important evolutionary mechanism of plant diversification. However, in non-model plants the molecular signals of genome duplications have remained largely unexplored. High-throughput transcriptome data from next-generation sequencing have set the stage for novel investigations of genome evolution using new bioinformatic and methodological tools in a phylogenetic framework...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224051/high-richness-of-insect-herbivory-from-the-early-miocene-hindon-maar-crater-otago-new-zealand
#5
Anna Lena Möller, Uwe Kaulfuss, Daphne E Lee, Torsten Wappler
Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte, Otago, New Zealand. A total of 584 fossil angiosperm leaves representing 24 morphotypes were examined to determine the presence or absence of insect damage types. Of these leaves, 73% show signs of insect damage; they comprise 821 occurrences of damage from 87 damage types representing all eight functional feeding groups...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224002/secretion-and-endocytosis-in-pollen-tubes-models-of-tip-growth-in-the-spot-light
#6
REVIEW
Gleb Grebnev, Maria Ntefidou, Benedikt Kost
Pollen tube tip growth is a widely used model ideally suited to study cellular processes underlying polarized cell expansion. Local secretion supplying material for plasma membrane (PM) and cell wall extension is essential for this process. Cell wall biogenesis requires fusion of secretory vesicles with the PM at an about 10× higher rate than PM extension. Excess material is therefore incorporated into the PM, which needs to be reinternalized through endocytosis. The classical model of tip growth proposes that exocytosis occurs at the apex and that newly incorporated PM material is transported to adjacent lateral regions, where excess material is endocytically recycled...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220612/tree-mortality-across-biomes-is-promoted-by-drought-intensity-lower-wood-density-and-higher-specific-leaf-area
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Nathan J B Kraft, Alistair S Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits...
February 21, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219014/stomatal-development-in-time-the-past-and-the-future
#8
REVIEW
Xian Qu, Kylee M Peterson, Keiko U Torii
Stomata have significantly diversified in nature since their first appearance around 400 million years ago. The diversification suggests the active reprogramming of molecular machineries of stomatal development during evolution. This review focuses on recent progress that sheds light on how this rewiring occurred in different organisms. Three specific aspects are discussed in this review: (i) the evolution of the transcriptional complex that governs stomatal state transitions; (ii) the evolution of receptor-ligand pairs that mediate extrinsic signaling; and (iii) the loss of stomatal development genes in an astomatous angiosperm...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216798/herbivorous-dinosaur-jaw-disparity-and-its-relationship-to-extrinsic-evolutionary-drivers
#9
Jamie A MacLaren, Philip S L Anderson, Paul M Barrett, Emily J Rayfield
Morphological responses of nonmammalian herbivores to external ecological drivers have not been quantified over extended timescales. Herbivorous nonavian dinosaurs are an ideal group to test for such responses, because they dominated terrestrial ecosystems for more than 155 Myr and included the largest herbivores that ever existed. The radiation of dinosaurs was punctuated by several ecologically important events, including extinctions at the Triassic/Jurassic (Tr/J) and Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundaries, the decline of cycadophytes, and the origin of angiosperms, all of which may have had profound consequences for herbivore communities...
February 2017: Paleobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216580/impacts-of-dietary-phytochemicals-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-pesticides-on-longevity-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#10
Ling-Hsiu Liao, Wen-Yen Wu, May R Berenbaum
Because certain flavonols and phenolic acids are found in pollen and nectar of most angiosperms, they are routinely ingested by Apis mellifera, the western honey bee. The flavonol quercetin and the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid are known to upregulate detoxification enzymes in adult bees; their presence or absence in the diet may thus affect the toxicity of ingested pesticides. We conducted a series of longevity assays with one-day-old adult workers to test if dietary phytochemicals enhance longevity and pesticide tolerance...
February 14, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215572/plastid-phylogenomics-and-adaptive-evolution-of-gaultheria-series-trichophyllae-ericaceae-a-clade-from-sky-islands-of-the-himalaya-hengduan-mountains
#11
Ming-Ying Zhang, Peter W Fritsch, Peng-Fei Ma, Hong Wang, Lu Lu, De-Zhu Li
Gaultheria series Trichophyllae Airy Shaw is an angiosperm clade of high-alpine shrublets endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and characterized by recent species divergence and convergent character evolution that has until recently caused much confusion in species circumscription. Although multiple DNA sequence regions have been employed previously, phylogenetic relationships among species in the group have remained largely unresolved. Here we examined the effectiveness of plastid genome for improving phylogenetic resolution within the G...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#12
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212396/plants-promote-mating-and-dispersal-of-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus
#13
Deborah J Springer, Rajinikanth Mohan, Joseph Heitman
Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207835/identification-of-plant-cells-in-black-pigments-of-prehistoric-spanish-levantine-rock-art-by-means-of-a-multi-analytical-approach-a-new-method-for-social-identity-materialization-using-cha%C3%A3-ne-op%C3%A3-ratoire
#14
Esther López-Montalvo, Clodoaldo Roldán, Ernestina Badal, Sonia Murcia-Mascarós, Valentín Villaverde
We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198677/decipher-the-ancestry-of-the-plant-specific-lbd-gene-family
#15
Yimeng Kong, Peng Xu, Xinyun Jing, Longxian Chen, Laigeng Li, Xuan Li
BACKGROUND: Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) genes arise from charophyte algae and evolve essential functions in land plants in regulating organ development and secondary metabolism. Although diverse plant species have been investigated to construct the phylogeny of LBD gene family, a detailed and reliable ancestry that characterizes their evolutionary patterns has not been revealed. RESULTS: We develop an improved bioinformatic method that allows robust detection of 431 LBD genes in 11 high-quality land plant genomes...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186632/norwood-a-gene-expression-resource-for-evo-devo-studies-of-conifer-wood-development
#16
Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, David Sundell, Ove Nilsson, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Nathaniel R Street, Hannele Tuominen
The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186341/embracing-discordance-phylogenomic-analyses-provide-evidence-for-allopolyploidy-leading-to-cryptic-diversity-in-a-mediterranean-campanula-campanulaceae-clade
#17
Andrew A Crowl, Cody Myers, Nico Cellinese
The Mediterranean Basin harbors a remarkable amount of biodiversity, a high proportion of which is endemic to this region. Here we present an in-depth study of an angiosperm species complex, in which cryptic taxonomic diversity has been hypothesized. Specifically, we focus on four currently recognized species in the Roucela complex, a well-supported clade in the Campanulaceae/Campanuloideae: Campanula creutzburgii, C. drabifolia, C. erinus, and C. simulans. This study takes a phylogenomic approach, utilizing near-complete plastomes and 130 nuclear loci, to uncover cryptic diversity and test hypotheses regarding hybridization and polyploidy within this clade...
February 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185042/phylogenomic-relationship-of-feijoa-acca-sellowiana-o-berg-burret-with-other-myrtaceae-based-on-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences
#18
Lilian Oliveira de Machado, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Valdir Marcos Stefenon, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Rubens Onofre Nodari
Given their distribution, importance, and richness, Myrtaceae species comprise a model system for studying the evolution of tropical plant diversity. In addition, chloroplast (cp) genome sequencing is an efficient tool for phylogenetic relationship studies. Feijoa [Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret; CN: pineapple-guava] is a Myrtaceae species that occurs naturally in southern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Feijoa is known for its exquisite perfume and flavorful fruits, pharmacological properties, ornamental value and increasing economic relevance...
February 9, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184232/bioinformatics-prediction-and-evolution-analysis-of-arabinogalactan-proteins-in-the-plant-kingdom
#19
Yuling Ma, Chenchao Yan, Huimin Li, Wentao Wu, Yaxue Liu, Yuqian Wang, Qin Chen, Haoli Ma
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extracellular glycoproteins implicated in plant growth and development. With a rapid growth in the number of genomes sequenced in many plant species, the family members of AGPs can now be predicted to facilitate functional investigation. Building upon previous advances in identifying Arabidopsis AGPs, an integrated strategy of systematical AGP screening for "classical" and "chimeric" family members is proposed in this study. A Python script named Finding-AGP is compiled to find AGP-like sequences and filter AGP candidates under the given thresholds...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182623/evaluation-of-dna-barcodes-in-codonopsis-campanulaceae-and-in-some-large-angiosperm-plant-genera
#20
De-Yi Wang, Qiang Wang, Ying-Li Wang, Xiao-Guo Xiang, Lu-Qi Huang, Xiao-Hua Jin
DNA barcoding is expected to be one of the most promising tools in biological taxonomy. However, there have been no agreements on which core barcode should be used in plants, especially in species-rich genera with wide geographical distributions. To evaluate their discriminatory power in large genera, four of the most widely used DNA barcodes, including three plastid regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), were tested in seven species-rich genera (Ficus, Pedicularis, Rhodiola, Rhododendron,Viburnum, Dendrobium and Lysimachia) and a moderate size genus, Codonopsis...
2017: PloS One
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