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Jacqueline Heckenhauer, Kamariah Abu Salim, Mark W Chase, Kyle G Dexter, R Toby Pennington, Sylvester Tan, Maria Ellen Kaye, Rosabelle Samuel
DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m) of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia)...
2017: PloS One
Hugh Morris, Mark A F Gillingham, Lenka Plavcová, Sean M Gleason, Mark E Olson, David A Coomes, Esther Fichtler, Matthias M Klepsch, Hugo I Martínez-Cabrera, Daniel J McGlinn, Elisabeth A Wheeler, Jingming Zheng, Kasia Ziemińska, Steven Jansen
Parenchyma represents a critically important living tissue in the sapwood of the secondary xylem of woody angiosperms. Considering various interactions between parenchyma and water transporting vessels, we hypothesise a structure-function relationship between both cell types. Through a generalised additive mixed model approach based on 2,332 woody angiosperm species derived from the literature, we explored the relationship between the proportion and spatial distribution of ray and axial parenchyma and vessel size, while controlling for maximum plant height and a range of climatic factors...
October 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Henry D Adams, Melanie J B Zeppel, William R L Anderegg, Henrik Hartmann, Simon M Landhäusser, David T Tissue, Travis E Huxman, Patrick J Hudson, Trenton E Franz, Craig D Allen, Leander D L Anderegg, Greg A Barron-Gafford, David J Beerling, David D Breshears, Timothy J Brodribb, Harald Bugmann, Richard C Cobb, Adam D Collins, L Turin Dickman, Honglang Duan, Brent E Ewers, Lucía Galiano, David A Galvez, Núria Garcia-Forner, Monica L Gaylord, Matthew J Germino, Arthur Gessler, Uwe G Hacke, Rodrigo Hakamada, Andy Hector, Michael W Jenkins, Jeffrey M Kane, Thomas E Kolb, Darin J Law, James D Lewis, Jean-Marc Limousin, David M Love, Alison K Macalady, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick J Mitchell, Jordan D Muss, Michael J O'Brien, Anthony P O'Grady, Robert E Pangle, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Frida I Piper, Jennifer A Plaut, William T Pockman, Joe Quirk, Keith Reinhardt, Francesco Ripullone, Michael G Ryan, Anna Sala, Sanna Sevanto, John S Sperry, Rodrigo Vargas, Michel Vennetier, Danielle A Way, Chonggang Xu, Enrico A Yepez, Nate G McDowell
Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing uncertainty requires improved mortality projections founded on robust physiological processes. However, the proposed mechanisms of drought-induced mortality, including hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are unresolved...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Massimo Nepi, Stefan Little, Massimo Guarnieri, Daniele Nocentini, Natalie Prior, Julia Gill, P Barry Tomlinson, Stefanie M Ickert-Bond, Cary Pirone, Ettore Pacini, Patrick von Aderkas
Background and Aims: Gymnosperms are either wind-pollinated (anemophilous) or both wind- and insect-pollinated (ambophilous). Regardless of pollination mode, ovular secretions play a key role in pollen capture, germination and growth; they are likely also involved in pollinator reward. Little is known about the broad-scale diversity of ovular secretions across gymnosperms, and how these may relate to various reproductive functions. This study analyses the sugar and amino acid profiles of ovular secretions across a range of ambophilous (cycads and Gnetales) and anemophilous gymnosperms (conifers) to place them in an evolutionary context of their possible functions during reproduction...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
Edwige Moyroud, Tobias Wenzel, Rox Middleton, Paula J Rudall, Hannah Banks, Alison Reed, Greg Mellers, Patrick Killoran, M Murphy Westwood, Ullrich Steiner, Silvia Vignolini, Beverley J Glover
Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees...
October 18, 2017: Nature
Akihiro Ohtsuka, Lawren Sack, Haruhiko Taneda
The lignification of the leaf vein bundle sheath (BS) has been observed in many species, and would reduce conductance from xylem to mesophyll. We hypothesized that lignification of the BS in lower-order veins would provide benefits for water delivery through the vein hierarchy but that the lignification of higher-order veins would limit transport capacity from xylem to mesophyll and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ). We further hypothesized that BS lignification would mediate the relationship of Kleaf to vein length per area (VLA)...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Juliana Stival Sena, Isabelle Giguère, Philippe Rigault, Jean Bousquet, John Mackay
Temperatures are expected to increase over the next century in all terrestrial biomes and particularly in boreal forests, where drought-induced mortality has been predicted to rise. Genomics research is helping to develop hypotheses regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and recent work proposed that the osmo-protecting dehydrin proteins have undergone a clade-specific expansion in the Pinaceae, a major group of conifer trees. The objectives of this study were to identify all of the putative members of the gene family, trace their evolutionary origin, examine their structural diversity and test for drought-responsive expression...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
Ofir Katz
Background and aims: Angiosperms are the most species-rich group of land plants, but their origins and fast and intense diversification still require an explanation. Scope: Extending research scopes can broaden theoretical frameworks and lines of evidence that can lead to solving this 'abominable mystery'. Solutions lie in understanding evolutionary trends across taxa and throughout the Phanerozoic, and integration between hypotheses and ideas that are derived from multiple disciplines...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
Hiroki Ooeda, Ichiro Terashima, Haruhiko Taneda
Water flow through xylem vessels encounters hydraulic resistance when passing through the vessel lumen and end wall. Comparative studies have reported that lumen and end wall resistivities co-limit water flow through stem xylem in several angiosperm woody species that have vessels of different average diameter and length. This study examined the intra-specific relationship between the lumen and end wall resistivities (Rlumen and Rwall) for vessels within the stem xylem using three deciduous angiosperm woody species found in temperate forest...
September 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
Louis Grillet, Wolfgang Schmidt
The biological significance of iron (Fe) is based on its propensity to oscillate between the ferric and ferrous forms, a transition that also affects its phyto-availability in soils. With the exception of grasses, Fe3+ is unavailable to plants. Most angiosperms employ a reduction-based Fe uptake mechanism, which relies on enzymatic reduction of ferric iron as an obligatory, rate-limiting step prior to uptake. This system functions optimally in acidic soils. Calcicole plants are, however, exposed to environments that are alkaline and/or have suboptimal availability of phosphorous, conditions under which the enzymatic reduction mechanism ceases to work effectively...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Charles S P Foster, Simon Y W Ho
Evolutionary timescales can be inferred from molecular sequence data using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. In these methods, the molecular clock is often calibrated using fossil data. The uncertainty in these fossil calibrations is important because it determines the limiting posterior distribution for divergence-time estimates as the sequence length tends to infinity. Here we investigate how the accuracy and precision of Bayesian divergence-time estimates improve with the increased clock-partitioning of genome-scale data into clock-subsets...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Weixing Li, Zhichong He, Li Zhang, Zhaogeng Lu, Jing Xu, Jiawen Cui, Li Wang, Biao Jin
BACKGROUND: Sterile and fertile flowers are important evolutionary developmental phenotypes in angiosperm flowers. The development of floral organs, critical in angiosperm reproduction, is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanisms underpinning the miRNA regulation of the differentiation and development of sterile and fertile flowers remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, based on investigations of the morphological differences between fertile and sterile flowers, we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the miRNAs in the differentiated floral organs of Viburnum macrocephalum f...
October 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Rodrigo Gómez, Néstor Carrillo, María P Morelli, Suresh Tula, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei, Anabella F Lodeyro
Plants grown in the field experience sharp changes in irradiation due to shading effects caused by clouds, other leaves, etc. The excess of absorbed light energy is dissipated by a number of mechanisms including cyclic electron transport, photorespiration, and Mehler-type reactions. This protection is essential for survival but decreases photosynthetic efficiency. All phototrophs except angiosperms harbor flavodiiron proteins (Flvs) which relieve the excess of excitation energy on the photosynthetic electron transport chain by reducing oxygen directly to water...
October 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Jurriaan M de Vos, Aline C Martins, Eric C Smidt, Bente Klitgård, Günter Gerlach, Jochen Heinrichs
Environmental sex determination (ESD) - a change in sexual function during an individual life span driven by environmental cues - is an exceedingly rare sexual system among angiosperms. Because ESD can directly affect reproduction success, it could influence diversification rate as compared with lineages that have alternative reproductive systems. Here we test this hypothesis using a solid phylogenetic framework of Neotropical Catasetinae, the angiosperm lineage richest in taxa with ESD. We assess whether gains of ESD are associated with higher diversification rates compared to lineages with alternative systems while considering additional traits known to positively affect diversification rates in orchids...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Markku Larjavaara, Frank Berninger, Marjo Palviainen, Anatoly Prokushkin, Tuomo Wallenius
Improved understanding of carbon (C) accumulation after a boreal fire enables more accurate quantification of the C implications caused by potential fire regime shifts. We coupled results from a fire history study with biomass and soil sampling in a remote and little-studied region that represents a vast area of boreal taiga. We used an inventory approach based on predefined plot locations, thus avoiding problems potentially causing bias related to the standard chronosequence approach. The disadvantage of our inventory approach is that more plots are needed to expose trends...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rachael H Nolan, Tonantzin Tarin, Nadia S Santini, Scott A M McAdam, Rizwana Ruman, Derek Eamus
Species are often classified along a continuum from isohydric to anisohydric, with isohydric species exhibiting tighter regulation of leaf water potential through stomatal closure in response to drought. We investigated plasticity in stomatal regulation in an isohydric (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and an anisohydric (Acacia aptaneura) angiosperm species subject to repeated drying cycles. We also assessed foliar abscisic acid (ABA) content dynamics, aboveground/belowground biomass allocation and non-structural carbohydrates...
October 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack, Donald Ort
Resolving the drivers of hydraulic decline during drought is crucial for understanding drought tolerance in crops and natural ecosystems. In the past 15 years, studies of the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) have supported a major role in controlling plant drought responses. We analyzed the variation in Kleaf decline with dehydration in a global database of 310 species, providing novel insights into its underlying mechanisms, its co-ordination with stem hydraulics, its influence on gas exchange and drought tolerance, and its linkage with species ecological distributions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Katherine R Goodrich, Andreas Jürgens
Floral mimicry of nonfloral resources is found across many angiosperm families, with mimicry of varied models including carrion, dung, fungi, insects and fruit. These systems provide excellent models to investigate the role of visual and olfactory cues for the ecology and evolution of plant-animal interactions. Interestingly, floral mimicry of fruit is least documented in the literature, although ripe or rotting fruits play an important role as a food or brood site in many insect groups such as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, and frugivorous vertebrates such as bats and birds...
October 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Mikael Kim, Kasper Elgetti Brodersen, Milán Szabó, Anthony W D Larkum, John A Raven, Peter J Ralph, Mathieu Pernice
Seagrasses are a diverse group of angiosperms that evolved to live in shallow coastal waters, an environment regularly subjected to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and irradiance. Zostera muelleri is the dominant species in south-eastern Australia, and is critical for healthy coastal ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the pathways of carbon fixation in Z. muelleri and their regulation in response to environmental changes. In this study, the response of Z. muelleri exposed to control and very low oxygen conditions was investigated by using (i) oxygen microsensors combined with a custom-made flow chamber to measure changes in photosynthesis and respiration, and (ii) reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR to measure changes in expression levels of key genes involved in C4 metabolism...
October 4, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Fei Chen, Xing Liu, Cuiwei Yu, Yuchu Chen, Haibao Tang, Liangsheng Zhang
Water lilies are not only highly favored aquatic ornamental plants with cultural and economic importance but they also occupy a critical evolutionary space that is crucial for understanding the origin and early evolutionary trajectory of flowering plants. The birth and rapid radiation of flowering plants has interested many scientists and was considered 'an abominable mystery' by Charles Darwin. In searching for the angiosperm evolutionary origin and its underlying mechanisms, the genome of Amborella has shed some light on the molecular features of one of the basal angiosperm lineages; however, little is known regarding the genetics and genomics of another basal angiosperm lineage, namely, the water lily...
2017: Horticulture Research
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