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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819805/diversity-and-evolution-of-leaf-anatomical-characters-in-taxaceae-s-l-fluorescence-microscopy-reveals-new-delimitating-characters
#1
Christoph Elpe, Patrick Knopf, Thomas Stützel, Christian Schulz
Taxaceae s.l. comprise six genera (including Cephalotaxus) and about 35 species; The present study aims to give new insights into the evolution of this family, especially into the phylogenetic position of Cephalotaxus. Moreover, only little is known about comparative leaf anatomy of this family and this study aims to expose and interpret the diversity and evolution of leaf anatomical characters and to assess their applicability to identify taxa at the generic and species level. A detailed phylogeny was reconstructed, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, with a combined dataset of four molecular markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815648/direct-uptake-of-hco3-in-the-marine-angiosperm-posidonia-oceanica-l-delile-driven-by-a-plasma-membrane-h-economy
#2
Lourdes Rubio, Delia García, María J García-Sánchez, F Xavier Niell, Hubert H Felle, José A Fernández
Seagrasses access HCO3(-) for photosynthesis by two mechanisms, apoplastic carbonic anhydrase-mediated dehydration of HCO3(-) to CO2 , and direct HCO3(-) uptake. Here we have studied plasma membrane energization and the mechanism for HCO3(-) import in Posidonia oceanica. Classical electrophysiology and ion selective microelectrodes were used to measure the membrane potential, cytosolic pH and the cytosolic concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) upon the addition of HCO3(-) . The photosynthetic response to HCO3(-) and to inhibitors was also measured...
August 16, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808550/a-novel-meta-analytical-approach-to-improve-systematic-review-of-rates-and-patterns-of-microevolution
#3
Lucas D Gorné, Sandra Díaz
A classic topic in ecology and evolution, phenotypic microevolution of quantitative traits has received renewed attention in the face of rapid global environmental change. However, for plants, synthesis has been hampered by the limited use of standard metrics, which makes it difficult to systematize empirical information. Here we demonstrate the advantages of incorporating meta-analysis tools to the review of microevolutionary rates. We perform a systematic survey of the plant literature on microevolution of quantitative traits over known periods of time, based on the scopus database...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808022/genomic-evidence-reveals-a-radiation-of-placental-mammals-uninterrupted-by-the-kpg-boundary
#4
Liang Liu, Jin Zhang, Frank E Rheindt, Fumin Lei, Yanhua Qu, Yu Wang, Yu Zhang, Corwin Sullivan, Wenhui Nie, Jinhuan Wang, Fengtang Yang, Jinping Chen, Scott V Edwards, Jin Meng, Shaoyuan Wu
The timing of the diversification of placental mammals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) boundary mass extinction remains highly controversial. In particular, there have been seemingly irreconcilable differences in the dating of the early placental radiation not only between fossil-based and molecular datasets but also among molecular datasets. To help resolve this discrepancy, we performed genome-scale analyses using 4,388 loci from 90 taxa, including representatives of all extant placental orders and transcriptome data from flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and pangolins (Pholidota)...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806914/expansion-and-evolutionary-patterns-of-cysteine-rich-peptides-in-plants
#5
Xing Liu, Huping Zhang, Huijun Jiao, Leiting Li, Xin Qiao, Musana Rwalinda Fabrice, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) are gaining recognition as regulators of cell-cell communication in plants. RESULTS: We identified 9556 CRPs in 12 plant species and analysed their evolutionary patterns. In most angiosperm plants, whole genome duplication and segmental duplication are the major factors driving the expansion of CRP family member genes, especially signal peptides. About 30% of the CRP genes were found clustered on the chromosomes, except in maize (Zea mays)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798759/genome-size-diversity-in-lilium-liliaceae-is-correlated-with-karyotype-and-environmental-traits
#6
Yun-Peng Du, Yu Bi, Ming-Fang Zhang, Feng-Ping Yang, Gui-Xia Jia, Xiu-Hai Zhang
Genome size (GS) diversity is of fundamental biological importance. The occurrence of giant genomes in angiosperms is restricted to just a few lineages in the analyzed genome size of plant species so far. It is still an open question whether GS diversity is shaped by neutral or natural selection. The genus Lilium, with giant genomes, is phylogenetically and horticulturally important and is distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. GS diversity in Lilium and the underlying evolutionary mechanisms are poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797243/polymorphism-and-structure-of-style-specific-arabinogalactan-proteins-as-determinants-of-pollen-tube-growth-in-nicotiana
#7
Andrzej K Noyszewski, Yi-Cheng Liu, Koichiro Tamura, Alan G Smith
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube growth and fertilization are key processes in angiosperm sexual reproduction. The transmitting tract (TT) of Nicotiana tabacum controls pollen tube growth in part by secreting pistil extensin-like protein III (PELPIII), transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein and 120 kDa glycoprotein (120 K) into the stylar extracellular matrix. The three arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are referred to as stylar AGPs and are the focus of this research. The transmitting tract regulates pollen tube growth, promoting fertilization or rejecting pollen tubes...
August 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796923/global-scale-patterns-of-nutrient-density-and-partitioning-in-forests-in-relation-to-climate
#8
Kerong Zhang, Conghe Song, Yulong Zhang, Haishan Dang, Xiaoli Cheng, Quanfa Zhang
Knowledge of nutrient storage and partitioning in forests is imperative for ecosystem models and ecological theory. Whether the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) stored in forest biomass and their partitioning patterns vary systematically across climatic gradients remains unknown. Here, we explored the global-scale patterns of nutrient density and partitioning using a newly compiled dataset including 372 forest stands. We found that temperature and precipitation were key factors driving the nutrients stored in living biomass of forests at global-scale...
August 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795267/cyp79-p450-monooxygenases-in-gymnosperms-cyp79a118-is-associated-with-the-formation-of-taxiphyllin-in-taxus-baccata
#9
Katrin Luck, Qidong Jia, Meret Huber, Vinzenz Handrick, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, David R Nelson, Feng Chen, Jonathan Gershenzon, Tobias G Köllner
Conifers contain P450 enzymes from the CYP79 family that are involved in cyanogenic glycoside biosynthesis. Cyanogenic glycosides are secondary plant compounds that are widespread in the plant kingdom. Their biosynthesis starts with the conversion of aromatic or aliphatic amino acids into their respective aldoximes, catalysed by N-hydroxylating cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family. While CYP79s are well known in angiosperms, their occurrence in gymnosperms and other plant divisions containing cyanogenic glycoside-producing plants has not been reported so far...
August 9, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793203/rna-extraction-from-decaying-wood-for-meta-transcriptomic-analyses
#10
Martino Adamo, Samuele Voyron, Mariangela Girlanda, Roland Marmeisse
Wood decomposition is a key step of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of economic importance. It is essentially a microbiological process performed by fungi and to an unknown extent by bacteria. To gain access to the genes expressed by the diverse microbial communities participating to wood decay we developed an RNA extraction protocol from this recalcitrant material rich in polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. This protocol was implemented on 22 wood samples representing as many tree species from 11 plant families in the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792934/new-evidence-for-mammaliaform-ear-evolution-and-feeding-adaptation-in-a-jurassic-ecosystem
#11
Zhe-Xi Luo, Qing-Jin Meng, David M Grossnickle, Di Liu, April I Neander, Yu-Guang Zhang, Qiang Ji
Stem mammaliaforms are forerunners to modern mammals, and they achieved considerable ecomorphological diversity in their own right. Recent discoveries suggest that eleutherodontids, a subclade of Haramiyida, were more species-rich during the Jurassic period in Asia than previously recognized. Here we report a new Jurassic eleutherodontid mammaliaform with an unusual mosaic of highly specialized characteristics, and the results of phylogenetic analyses that support the hypothesis that haramiyidans are stem mammaliaforms...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792633/evolutionarily-diverse-syp1-qa-snares-jointly-sustain-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#12
Daniel Slane, Ilka Reichardt, Farid El Kasmi, Martin Bayer, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion is effected by SNARE proteins that reside on adjacent membranes and form bridging trans-SNARE complexes. Qa-SNARE members of the Arabidopsis SYP1 family are involved in membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or during cell plate formation. Three SYP1 family members have been classified as pollen-specific as inferred from gene expression profiling studies and two of them, SYP124 and SYP125, are confined to angiosperms. The SYP124 gene appears genetically unstable whereas its sister gene SYP125 shows essentially no variation among Arabidopsis accessions...
August 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792536/diversity-and-composition-of-herbaceous-angiosperms-along-gradients-of-elevation-and-forest-use-intensity
#13
Jorge Antonio Gómez-Díaz, Thorsten Krömer, Holger Kreft, Gerhard Gerold, César Isidro Carvajal-Hernández, Felix Heitkamp
Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m) and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790312/evolutionary-conservation-of-a-core-root-microbiome-across-plant-phyla-along-a-tropical-soil-chronosequence
#14
Yun Kit Yeoh, Paul G Dennis, Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Lui Weber, Richard Brackin, Mark A Ragan, Susanne Schmidt, Philip Hugenholtz
Culture-independent molecular surveys of plant root microbiomes indicate that soil type generally has a stronger influence on microbial communities than host phylogeny. However, these studies have mostly focussed on model plants and crops. Here, we examine the root microbiomes of multiple plant phyla including lycopods, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms across a soil chronosequence using 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling. We confirm that soil type is the primary determinant of root-associated bacterial community composition, but also observe a significant correlation with plant phylogeny...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771984/bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-orchids-orchidaceae
#15
REVIEW
Stefania Sut, Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
The Orchidaceae family is the largest group of flowering plants in the Angiosperm monocotyledons spread on our planet. Its members, called orchids, are herbs or epiphytes with showy flowers distributed mainly in tropical regions. Several classes of phytoconstituents have been so far isolated from therapeutically-used orchids showing a great chemical diversity. Among them, phenolic derivatives have been studied for their biological activities, especially in the field of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration...
August 3, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765723/repatriation-data-more-than-two-million-species-occurrence-records-added-to-the-brazilian-biodiversity-information-facility-repository-sibbr
#16
David Dias, Clara Baringo Fonseca, Luiza Correa, Nayara Soto, Andrea Portela, Keila Juarez, Roque João Tumolo Neto, Murilo Ferro, João Gonçalves, Jurandir Junior
BACKGROUND: Primary biodiversity data records, available on-line, are essential for conservation planning. Of the mega diversity countries, Brazil have reached a high level of scientific research in describing their biodiversity. However, there still remain significant limitations in recovering, collating and organizing available information on Brazil's biological diversity and its distribution. Since the colonial period, biological material were often collected and transferred to other countries, which were characterized, stored and maintained...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763508/invasions-but-not-extinctions-change-phylogenetic-diversity-of-angiosperm-assemblage-on-southeastern-pacific-oceanic-islands
#17
Gastón O Carvallo, Sergio A Castro
We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times. We hypothesize that, in the time between these periods, extinction of local plant species and addition of exotic plants modified phylogenetic-α-diversity at different levels (deeper and terminal phylogeny) and increased phylo-β-diversity among islands. Based on floristic studies, we assembled a phylogenetic tree from occurrence data that includes 921 species, of which 165 and 756 were native or exotic in origin, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763051/the-ancestral-flower-of-angiosperms-and-its-early-diversification
#18
Hervé Sauquet, Maria von Balthazar, Susana Magallón, James A Doyle, Peter K Endress, Emily J Bailes, Erica Barroso de Morais, Kester Bull-Hereñu, Laetitia Carrive, Marion Chartier, Guillaume Chomicki, Mario Coiro, Raphaël Cornette, Juliana H L El Ottra, Cyril Epicoco, Charles S P Foster, Florian Jabbour, Agathe Haevermans, Thomas Haevermans, Rebeca Hernández, Stefan A Little, Stefan Löfstrand, Javier A Luna, Julien Massoni, Sophie Nadot, Susanne Pamperl, Charlotte Prieu, Elisabeth Reyes, Patrícia Dos Santos, Kristel M Schoonderwoerd, Susanne Sontag, Anaëlle Soulebeau, Yannick Staedler, Georg F Tschan, Amy Wing-Sze Leung, Jürg Schönenberger
Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and a series of important palaeobotanical discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of angiosperm diversification. Yet, the origin and early evolution of their most characteristic feature, the flower, remains poorly understood. In particular, the structure of the ancestral flower of all living angiosperms is still uncertain. Here we report model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled...
August 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754764/plastome-sequences-of-an-ancient-fern-lineage-reveal-remarkable-changes-in-gene-content-and-architecture
#19
Paulo H Labiak, Kenneth G Karol
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Comparative analyses of plastid genomes have suggested that gene order and content are relatively stable across the main groups of land plants, with significant changes rarely reported. We examine plastome organization and RNA editing in ferns and report changes that add valuable information on plastome evolution in land plants. METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we fully sequenced plastomes from three species of Schizaeaceae, and compared their plastomes with other groups of land plants to study changes in gene composition, plastome architecture, and putative RNA editing sites...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753668/overexpression-of-arabidopsis-flowering-locus-t-ft-gene-improves-floral-development-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz
#20
O Sarah Adeyemo, Paul Chavarriaga, Joe Tohme, Martin Fregene, Seth J Davis, Tim L Setter
Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively...
2017: PloS One
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