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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645261/genome-wide-analysis-of-udp-glycosyltransferase-super-family-in-brassica-rapa-and-brassica-oleracea-reveals-its-evolutionary-history-and-functional-characterization
#1
Jingyin Yu, Fan Hu, Komivi Dossa, Zhaokai Wang, Tao Ke
BACKGROUND: Glycosyltransferases comprise a highly divergent and polyphyletic multigene family that is involved in widespread modification of plant secondary metabolites in a process called glycosylation. According to conserved domains identified in their amino acid sequences, these glycosyltransferases can be classified into a single UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) 1 superfamily. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide comparative analysis of UGT genes to trace evolutionary history in algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and angiosperms; then, we further investigated the expansion mechanisms and function characterization of UGT gene families in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645249/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-evolution-and-development-of-flower-size-in-saltugilia-polemoniaceae
#2
Jacob B Landis, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
BACKGROUND: Flower size varies dramatically across angiosperms, representing innovations over the course of >130 million years of evolution and contributing substantially to relationships with pollinators. However, the genetic underpinning of flower size is not well understood. Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae) provides an excellent non-model system for extending the genetic study of flower size to interspecific differences that coincide with variation in pollinators. RESULTS: Using targeted gene capture methods, we infer phylogenetic relationships among all members of Saltugilia to provide a framework for investigating the genetic control of flower size differences via RNA-Seq de novo assembly...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641575/phylogenetic-and-paleobotanical-evidence-for-late-miocene-diversification-of-the-tertiary-subtropical-lineage-of-ivies-hedera-l-araliaceae
#3
V Valcárcel, B Guzmán, N G Medina, P Vargas, J Wen
BACKGROUND: Hedera (ivies) is one of the few temperate genera of the primarily tropical Asian Palmate group of the Araliaceae, which extends its range out of Asia to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic results suggested Asia as the center of origin and the western Mediterranean region as one of the secondary centers of diversification. The bird-dispersed fleshy fruits of ivies suggest frequent dispersal over long distances (e.g. Macaronesian archipelagos), although reducing the impact of geographic barriers to gene flow in mainland species...
June 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640437/repeated-evolution-of-vertebrate-pollination-syndromes-in-a-recently-diverged-andean-plant-clade
#4
Laura P Lagomarsino, Elisabeth J Forrestel, Nathan Muchhala, Charles C Davis
While specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637270/in-planta-recapitulation-of-isoprene-synthases-evolution-from-ocimene-synthases
#5
Mingai Li, Jia Xu, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Silvia Carlin, Enrico Barbaro, Luca Cappellin, Violeta Velikova, Urska Vrhovsek, Francesco Loreto, Claudio Varotto
Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634254/widespread-paleopolyploidy-gene-tree-conflict-and-recalcitrant-relationships-among-the-carnivorous-caryophyllales
#6
Joseph F Walker, Ya Yang, Michael J Moore, Jessica Mikenas, Alfonso Timoneda, Samuel F Brockington, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare West African liana family Dioncophyllaceae...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632342/variation-in-gene-regulation-underlying-annual-and-perennial-flowering-in-arabideae-species
#7
Jannice Friedman
The diversity of life history strategies within the angiosperms illustrates the evolutionary flexibility of reproductive characteristics. The number of times an individual reproduces is a key life history trait, and transitions from iteroparous perennials to semelparous annuals have occurred frequently in the flowering plants. Despite the frequency of this evolutionary transition, and the importance of annuality versus perenniality to both agriculture and ecology, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in perennial flowering is in their infancy...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631326/exploring-the-bark-thickness-stem-diameter-relationship-clues-from-lianas-successive-cambia-monocots-and-gymnosperms
#8
Julieta A Rosell, Mark E Olson, Tommaso Anfodillo, Norberto Martínez-Méndez
Bark thickness is ecologically crucial, affecting functions from fire protection to photosynthesis. Bark thickness scales predictably with stem diameter, but there is little consensus on whether this scaling is a passive consequence of growth or an important adaptive phenomenon requiring explanation. With a comparative study across 913 species, we test the expectation that, if bark thickness-stem diameter scaling is adaptive, it should be possible to find ecological situations in which scaling is predictably altered, in this case between species with different types and deployments of phloem...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#9
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622918/angiosperm-plant-desiccation-tolerance-hints-from-transcriptomics-and-genome-sequencing
#10
REVIEW
Valentino Giarola, Quancan Hou, Dorothea Bartels
Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620697/calreticulin-localizes-to-plant-intra-extracellular-peripheries-of-highly-specialized-cells-involved-in-pollen-pistil-interactions
#11
Piotr Wasąg, Anna Suwińska, Przemysław Zakrzewski, Jakub Walczewski, Robert Lenartowski, Marta Lenartowska
Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays essential roles in generative reproduction of angiosperms, but the sites and mechanisms of Ca(2+) storage and mobilization during pollen-pistil interactions have not been fully defined. Both external and internal Ca(2+) stores are likely important during male gametophyte communication with the sporophytic and gametophytic cells within the pistil. Given that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca(2+)-buffering protein, is able to bind Ca(2+) reversibly, it can serve as a mobile store of easily releasable Ca(2+) (so called an exchangeable Ca(2+)) in eukaryotic cells...
June 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617955/expression-atlas-and-comparative-coexpression-network-analyses-reveal-important-genes-involved-in-the-formation-of-lignified-cell-wall-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Richard Sibout, Sebastian Proost, Bjoern Oest Hansen, Neha Vaid, Federico M Giorgi, Severine Ho-Yue-Kuang, Frédéric Legée, Laurent Cézart, Oumaya Bouchabké-Coussa, Camille Soulhat, Nicholas Provart, Asher Pasha, Philippe Le Bris, David Roujol, Herman Hofte, Elisabeth Jamet, Catherine Lapierre, Staffan Persson, Marek Mutwil
While Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is an emerging model for grasses, no expression atlas or gene coexpression network is available. Such tools are of high importance to provide insights into the function of Brachypodium genes. We present a detailed Brachypodium expression atlas, capturing gene expression in its major organs at different developmental stages. The data were integrated into a large-scale coexpression database ( www.gene2function.de), enabling identification of duplicated pathways and conserved processes across 10 plant species, thus allowing genome-wide inference of gene function...
June 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617867/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-common-bermudagrass-cynodon-dactylon-l-pers-and-comparative-analysis-within-the-family-poaceae
#13
Ya-Yi Huang, Shu-Ting Cho, Mindia Haryono, Chih-Horng Kuo
Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) belongs to the subfamily Chloridoideae of the Poaceae family, one of the most important plant families ecologically and economically. This grass has a long connection with human culture but its systematics is relatively understudied. In this study, we sequenced and investigated the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass, which is 134,297 bp in length with two single copy regions (LSC: 79,732 bp; SSC: 12,521 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (21,022 bp)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613109/growth-of-the-sub-epidermal-integument-cell-layers-might-require-an-endosperm-signal
#14
Elisa Fiume, Olivier Coen, Wenjia Xu, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
The seed, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, is physically protected by the seed coat. The seed coat develops from the ovule integuments after fertilization. The Arabidopsis ovule integuments are made of 5-6 cell layers of epidermal and sub-epidermal origin. The growth of the epidermal integument cell layers responds to an endosperm signal mediated by the AGAMOUS-LIKE 62 MADS box transcription factor with limited embryo contribution. By contrast, the sub-epidermal integument cell layers require the embryo to expand whereas the role of the endosperm is still unclear...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611810/evolutionary-analysis-of-mikc-c-type-mads-box-genes-in-gymnosperms-and-angiosperms
#15
Fei Chen, Xingtan Zhang, Xing Liu, Liangsheng Zhang
MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKC(c) originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609015/wuschel-related-homeobox4-wox4-like-genes-regulate-cambial-cell-division-activity-and-secondary-growth-in-populus-trees
#16
Melis Kucukoglu, Jeanette Nilsson, Bo Zheng, Salma Chaabouni, Ove Nilsson
Plant secondary growth derives from the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cell divisions in the cambium are regulated by the transcription factor WOX4, a key target of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)-RELATED 41 (CLE41) signaling pathway. However, function of the WOX4-like genes in plants that are dependent on a much more prolific secondary growth, such as trees, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of WOX4 and CLE41 homologs for stem secondary growth in Populus trees...
June 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600875/plant-elicitor-peptides-promote-plant-defenses-against-nematodes-in-soybean
#17
Min Woo Lee, Alisa Huffaker, Devany Crippen, Robert T Robbins, Fiona Goggin
Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defenses against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2, or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on aboveground growth, and upregulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defense genes...
June 10, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590517/flower-specialization-the-occluded-corolla-of-snapdragons-antirrhinum-exhibits-two-pollinator-niches-of-large-long-tongued-bees
#18
Pablo Vargas, Isabel Liberal, Concepción Ornosa, Jose María Gómez
• Flower specialization of angiosperms includes the occluded corollas of snapdragons (Antirrhinum and some relatives), which have been postulated to be one of the most efficient structures to physical limit access to pollinators. The Iberian Peninsula harbours the highest number of species (18 Iberian of the 20 species of Antirrhinum) that potentially share similar pollinator fauna. • Crossing experiments with 18 Iberian species from this study and literature revealed a general pattern of self-incompatibility-failure in this SI system has been also observed in a few plants-, which indicates the need of pollinator agents in Antirrhinum pollination...
June 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588595/the-role-of-shi-sty-srs-genes-in-organ-growth-and-carpel-development-is-conserved-in-the-distant-eudicot-species-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
Africa Gomariz-Fernández, Verónica Sánchez-Gerschon, Chloé Fourquin, Cristina Ferrándiz
Carpels are a distinctive feature of angiosperms, the ovule-bearing female reproductive organs that endow them with multiple selective advantages likely linked to the evolutionary success of flowering plants. Gene regulatory networks directing the development of carpel specialized tissues and patterning have been proposed based on genetic and molecular studies carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, studies on the conservation/diversification of the elements and the topology of this network are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588590/a-conserved-carbon-starvation-response-underlies-bud-dormancy-in-woody-and-herbaceous-species
#20
Carlos Tarancón, Eduardo González-Grandío, Juan C Oliveros, Michael Nicolas, Pilar Cubas
Plant shoot systems give rise to characteristic above-ground plant architectures. Shoots are formed from axillary meristems and buds, whose growth and development is modulated by systemic and local signals. These cues convey information about nutrient and water availability, light quality, sink/source organ activity and other variables that determine the timeliness and competence to maintain development of new shoots. This information is translated into a local response, in meristems and buds, of growth or quiescence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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