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Clara Inés Ortiz-Ramírez, Sayonara Plata-Arboleda, Natalia Pabón-Mora
Background and Aims: The genetic basis of fruit development has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, where major transcription factors controlling valve identity (i.e. FRUITFULL), replum development (i.e. REPLUMLESS) and the differentiation of the dehiscence zones (i.e. SHATTERPROOF, INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ) have been identified. This gene regulatory network in other flowering plants is influenced by duplication events during angiosperm diversification. Here we aim to characterize candidate fruit development genes in the Solanaceae and compare them with those of Brassicaceae...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Reuben Tayengwa, Jianfei Zhao, Courtney F Pierce, Breanna E Werner, Michael M Neff
<u>S</u> UPPRESSOR<u>O</u>F PHY<u>B</u>-4<u>#5</u><u>D</u>OMINANT (sob5-D) was previously identified as a suppressor of the phyB-4 long-hypocotyl phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana Overexpression of SOB5 conferred dwarf phenotypes similar to those observed in plants containing elevated levels of cytokinin (CK) nucleotides and nucleosides. Two<u>SO</u>B-<u>F</u>IVE-<u>L</u>IKE (SOFL) proteins , AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2, which are more similar at the protein level to each other than they are to SOB5, conferred similar phenotypes to the sob5-D mutant when overexpressed...
February 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Devin K Smith, Danielle M Jones, Jonathan B R Lau, Edward R Cruz, Elizabeth Brown, Jeffrey F Harper, Ian S Wallace
During pollen-pistil interactions in angiosperms, the male gametophyte (pollen) germinates to produce a pollen tube. To fertilize ovules located within the female pistil, the pollen tube must physically penetrate specialized tissues. Whereas the process of pollen tube penetration through the pistil has been anatomically well-described, the genetic regulation remains poorly understood. In this study, we identify a novel Arabidopsis thaliana gene, O-FUCOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtOFT1), which plays a key role in pollen tube penetration through the stigma-style interface...
February 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Xuewen Wang
Flowering plant (angiosperm) genomes are exceptional in their variability with respect to genome size, ploidy, chromosome number, gene content and gene arrangement. Gene movement, although observed in some of the earliest plant genome comparisons, has been relatively under-investigated. We present herein a description of several interesting properties of plant gene and genome structure that are pertinent to the successful movement of a gene to a new location. These considerations lead us to propose a model that can explain the frequent success of plant gene mobility, namely that Small Insulated Genes Move Around (SIGMAR)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Plant
Jaana Vuosku, Katja Karppinen, Riina Muilu-Mäkelä, Tomonobu Kusano, G H M Sagor, Komlan Avia, Emmi Alakärppä, Johanna Kestilä, Marko Suokas, Kaloian Nickolov, Leena Hamberg, Outi Savolainen, Hely Häggman, Tytti Sarjala
Background and Aims: Polyamines are small metabolites present in all living cells and play fundamental roles in numerous physiological events in plants. The aminopropyltransferases (APTs), spermidine synthase (SPDS), spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (ACL5), are essential enzymes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. In angiosperms, SPMS has evolved from SPDS via gene duplication, whereas in gymnosperms APTs are mostly unexplored and no SPMS gene has been reported...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
Daniela Ben-Tov, Anat Idan-Molakandov, Anat Hugger, Ilan Ben-Shlush, Markus Günl, Bo Yang, Björn Usadel, Smadar Harpaz-Saad
The production of hydrophilic mucilage along the course of seed coat epidermal cell differentiation is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Previous studies identified COBRA-LIKE 2 (COBL2), a member of the COBRA-LIKE gene family, as a novel component required for crystalline cellulose deposition in seed coat epidermal cells. In recent years, Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells (SCEs), also called mucilage secretory cells, have emerged as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell wall components biosynthesis, secretion, assembly and de-muro modification...
February 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sean Tomlinson, Emma L Dalziell, Philip C Withers, Wolfgang Lewandrowski, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
We explore a recent innovative variation of closed-system respirometry for terrestrial organisms, whereby pO 2 is repeatedly measured fluorometrically in a constant-volume chamber over multiple time points. We outline a protocol that aligns this technology with the broader literature on aerial respirometry, including the calculations required to accurately convert O 2 depletion to metabolic rate (MR). We identify a series of assumptions, and sources of error associated with this technique, including thresholds where O 2 depletion becomes limiting, that impart errors to the calculation and interpretation of MR...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Atsuko Era, Kazuo Ebine, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The RAB GTPase is an evolutionarily conserved machinery component of membrane trafficking, which is the fundamental system for cell viability and higher-order biological functions. The composition of RAB GTPases in each organism is closely related to the complexity and organization of the membrane-trafficking pathway, which has been developed uniquely to realize the organism-specific membrane trafficking system. Comparative genomics has suggested that terrestrialization and/or multicellularization were associated with the expansion of membrane trafficking pathways in green plants, which has yet to be validated in basal land plant lineages...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Nan Ma, Chao Ma, Yang Liu, Muhammad Owais Shahid, Chengpeng Wang, Junping Gao
Flowers are highly complex organs that have evolved to enhance the reproductive success of angiosperms. As a key component of flowers, petals play a vital role in attracting pollinators and ensuring successful pollination. Having fulfilled this function, petals senesce through a process that involves many physiological and biochemical changes that also occur during leaf senescence. However, petal senescence is distinct, due to the abundance of secondary metabolites in petals and the fact that petal senescence is irreversible...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yacheng Huang, Yongjun Fang, Xiangyu Long, Linya Liu, Jia Wang, Jinheng Zhu, Yanyan Ma, Yunxia Qin, Jiyan Qi, Xinwen Hu, Chaorong Tang
Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H...
February 7, 2018: Tree Physiology
Natalia V Zhukovskaya, Elena I Bystrova, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Victor B Ivanov
Background and Aims: Information on cell cycle duration (T) in the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insight into root growth, development and evolution. We have previously proposed a simple method for evaluating T based on the dynamics of root growth (V), the number of cells in the RAM (Nm) and the length of fully elongated cells (l), which we named the rate-of-cell-production (RCP) method. Here, a global analysis was performed to confirm the reliability of this method in a range of angiosperm species and to assess the advantages of this approach...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Almuth Hammerbacher, Bettina Raguschke, Louwrance P Wright, Jonathan Gershenzon
One of the best-studied defense responses to fungal infection in Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols, which accumulate as monomers or polymers known as proanthocyanidins. The individual flavan-3-ol units consist of compounds with a 3',4'-dihydroxylated B ring [2,3-(trans)-(+)-catechin or 2,3-(cis)-(-)-epicatechin] and compounds with a 3',4',5'-trihydroxylated B ring [2,3 (trans)-(+)-gallocatechin or 2,3-(cis)-(-)-epigallocatechin]. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activity of catechin in Norway spruce, there is little comparable information about gallocatechin or epigallocatechin...
February 1, 2018: Phytochemistry
Li-Min Lu, Ling-Feng Mao, Tuo Yang, Jian-Fei Ye, Bing Liu, Hong-Lei Li, Miao Sun, Joseph T Miller, Sarah Mathews, Hai-Hua Hu, Yan-Ting Niu, Dan-Xiao Peng, You-Hua Chen, Stephen A Smith, Min Chen, Kun-Li Xiang, Chi-Toan Le, Viet-Cuong Dang, An-Ming Lu, Pamela S Soltis, Douglas E Soltis, Jian-Hua Li, Zhi-Duan Chen
High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a 'cradle' and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a 'museum'. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts-such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon-provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
Sam W Henderson, Stefanie Wege, Matthew Gilliham
Genomes of unicellular and multicellular green algae, mosses, grasses and dicots harbor genes encoding cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC). CCC proteins from the plant kingdom have been comparatively less well investigated than their animal counterparts, but proteins from both plants and animals have been shown to mediate ion fluxes, and are involved in regulation of osmotic processes. In this review, we show that CCC proteins from plants form two distinct phylogenetic clades (CCC1 and CCC2). Some lycophytes and bryophytes possess members from each clade, most land plants only have members of the CCC1 clade, and green algae possess only the CCC2 clade...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandre K Monro, Nadia Bystriakova, Longfei Fu, Fang Wen, Yigang Wei
Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment...
2018: PloS One
Konrad Neugebauer, Martin R Broadley, Hamed A El-Serehy, Timothy S George, James W McNicol, Milton Ferreira de Moraes, Philip J White
The ionome is defined as the elemental composition of a subcellular structure, cell, tissue, organ or organism. The subset of the ionome comprising mineral nutrients is termed the functional ionome. A 'standard functional ionome' of leaves of an 'average' angiosperm, defined as the nutrient composition of leaves when growth is not limited by mineral nutrients, is presented and can be used to compare the effects of environment and genetics on plant nutrition. The leaf ionome of a plant is influenced by interactions between its environment and genetics...
February 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jeffrey P Rose, Thomas J Kleist, Stefan D Löfstrand, Bryan T Drew, Jürg Schönenberger, Kenneth J Sytsma
Inferring interfamilial relationships within the eudicot order Ericales has remained one of the more recalcitrant problems in angiosperm phylogenetics, likely due to a rapid, ancient radiation. As a result, no comprehensive time-calibrated tree or biogeographical analysis of the order has been published. Here, we elucidate phylogenetic relationships within the order and then conduct time-dependent biogeographical and diversification analyses by using a taxon and locus-rich supermatrix approach on one third of the extant species diversity calibrated with 23 macrofossils and two secondary calibration points...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hongjing Deng, Jitender Cheema, Hang Zhang, Hugh Woolfenden, Matthew Norris, Zhenshan Liu, Qi Liu, Xiaofei Yang, Minglei Yang, Xian Deng, Xiaofeng Cao, Yiliang Ding
RNA secondary structure plays a critical role in gene regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world. However, RNA structure in rice has scarcely been studied. Here, for the first time we have successfully generated in vivo Structure-seq libraries in rice. We found that the structural flexibility of mRNAs might associate with the dynamics of biological function. Higher N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification tends to have less RNA structure in 3'UTR. GC content does not significantly affect in vivo mRNA structure to maintain efficient biological processes such as translation...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Plant
Jose Barba-Montoya, Mario Dos Reis, Harald Schneider, Philip C J Donoghue, Ziheng Yang
Through the lens of the fossil record, angiosperm diversification precipitated a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) in which pollinators, herbivores and predators underwent explosive co-diversification. Molecular dating studies imply that early angiosperm evolution is not documented in the fossil record. This mismatch remains controversial. We used a Bayesian molecular dating method to analyse a dataset of 83 genes from 644 taxa and 52 fossil calibrations to explore the effect of different interpretations of the fossil record, molecular clock models, data partitioning, among other factors, on angiosperm divergence time estimation...
February 5, 2018: New Phytologist
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