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M Clare Butler Ellis, Marc C Kennedy, Christian J Kuster, Rafael Alanis, Clive R Tuck
The BREAM (Bystander and Resident Exposure Assessment Model) (Kennedy et al. in BREAM: A probabilistic bystander and resident exposure assessment model of spray drift from an agricultural boom sprayer. Comput Electron Agric 2012;88:63-71) for bystander and resident exposure to spray drift from boom sprayers has recently been incorporated into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance for determining non-dietary exposures of humans to plant protection products. The component of BREAM, which relates airborne spray concentrations to bystander and resident dermal exposure, has been reviewed to identify whether it is possible to improve this and its description of variability captured in the model...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
A Leiva, F Granados-Chinchilla, M Redondo-Solano, M Arrieta-González, E Pineda-Salazar, A Molina
Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i...
March 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Roxanne C Oriel, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe effective management strategies in nursery or school based upon research findings. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of food allergy and number of emergency department visits for food-related anaphylaxis are increasing in children and adolescents. As there is currently no cure, the most effective strategy to decrease allergic reactions is food allergen avoidance. However, allergic reactions are inevitable in both food allergic children as well as in first-time reactors...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Saber Jan, Braveen Ragunanthan, Sandra R DiBrito, Omolabake Alabi, Maria Gutierrez
Background: Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat a variety of infections. The US Food and Drug Administration approved its use in certain types of infections among pediatric patients, and yet there have been mixed data about its efficacy and safety in this population. Objective: The objective of this review is to compare efficacy and all-cause mortality of cefepime to other clinically indicated antibiotics among children. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, and clinicaltrials...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Natasha Rodrigues, Mei Peng, Indrawati Oey, Bernard Joseph Venn
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The European Food Safety Authority approved a health claim (ID558) relating to lowered postprandial glycaemia when fructose replaces 30% of sucrose in foods and beverages. We assessed the effects of partial replacement of sucrose with fructose on serum glucose, uric acid and blood pressure. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised, crossover, double blind trial of 12 normoglycaemic participants consuming beverages containing 50 g blends of fructose and sucrose in proportions; 67% sucrose/33% fructose (67%S:33%F); 50% each (50%S:50%F) and 33%S:67%F; a 100% sucrose reference beverage was tested twice...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rajesh Yadav, Dundaiah Somashekar, Samir V Sodha, Kayla F Laserson, Srinivasa Venkatesh, Himanshu Chauhan
OBJECTIVES: Torrential rainfall and flooding from September 2-6, 2014 submerged >350 villages in Jammu and Kashmir state. We conducted rapid needs assessment in capital Srinagar from 27 September to 1 October to assess population health and safety needs. METHODS: Based on Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology, we selected 7 households each from 30 census blocks using 2-stage cluster sampling. We collected information on demographics, needs, and illnesses using structured questionnaire...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Weiwei Zhang, Yungang Liu, Yufei Liu, Boheng Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yingyue Li, Yuhua Zhang, Jie Huang, Chao Yu, Kuncai Chen
Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rashi I Mehta, Rupal I Mehta
Hydrophilic polymers are ubiquitously applied as surface coatings on catheters and intravascular medical technologies. Recent clinical literature has heightened awareness on the complication of hydrophilic polymer embolism, the phenomenon wherein polymer coating layers separate from catheter and device surfaces, and may be affiliated with a range of unanticipated adverse reactions. Significant system barriers have limited and delayed reporting on this iatrogenic complication, the full effects of which remain underrecognized by healthcare providers and manufacturers of various branded devices...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Joseph Wambui, Peter Lamuka, Edward Karuri, Joseph Matofari, Patrick Murigu Kamau Njage
The microbial contamination level profiles (MCLPs) attributed to contamination of beef carcasses, personnel, and equipment in five Kenyan small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses were determined. Aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella were used to determine contamination at four different slaughter stages, namely, dehiding, evisceration, splitting, and dispatch. Microbiological criteria of the four microorganisms were used to score contamination levels (CLs) as poor (0), poor to average (1), average (2), or good (3)...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W Marion
Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Margaret R Caplan, Eric S Daar, Katya C Corado
Treatment options for patients with HIV-1 infection have grown over the past two decades to include multiple fixed-dose combination pharmacotherapies that have greatly simplified administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both patients and providers. Effective virologic control can often be achieved with once-daily use of a single-tablet regimen. Over the past three years, ART drug development has focused on the next generation of fixed-dose combinations for initial and maintenance therapy with improved efficacy, safety and tolerability...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Frédérique Rodieux, Laszlo Vutskits, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Walid Habre, Valérie Piguet, Jules A Desmeules, Caroline F Samer
Children represent a vulnerable population in which management of nociceptive pain is complex. Drug responses in children differ from adults due to age-related differences. Moreover, therapeutic choices are limited by the lack of indication for a number of analgesic drugs due to the challenge of conducting clinical trials in children. Furthermore the assessment of efficacy as well as tolerance may be complicated by children's inability to communicate properly. According to the World Health Organization, weak opioids such as tramadol and codeine, may be used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen for moderate nociceptive pain in both children and adults...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Adel Alharf, Nasser Alqahtani, Ghazi Saeed, Ali Alshahrani, Mubarak Alshahrani, Nasser Aljasser, Mohammed Alquwaizani, Saleh Bawazir
Pharmacovigilance is vital to public health. Adopting a robust spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug events can counteract most hazards that arise from utilizing medicinal products. Prior to the establishment of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the number of pharmacovigilance-related activities in Saudi Arabia was limited. In 2009, the SFDA established the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center (Saudi Vigilance). The pharmacovigilance system has remarkably improved during the past few years...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Natalie Koch Levy, Natasha A Orzeck-Byrnes, Sneha R Aidasani, Dana N Moloney, Lisa H Nguyen, Agnes Park, Lu Hu, Aisha T Langford, Binhuan Wang, Mary Ann Sevick, Erin S Rogers
BACKGROUND: The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) program helps patients with type 2 diabetes find their correct basal insulin dose without in-person care. Requiring only basic cell phone technology (text messages and phone calls), MITI is highly accessible to patients receiving care in safety-net settings. MITI was shown in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be efficacious at a New York City (NYC) safety-net clinic where patients often have challenges coming for in-person care...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rit Bahadur Gurung, Dae Hee Kim, Lila Kim, Albert W Lee, Yonglin Gao, Zhenhua Wang
We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tianfu Wei, Zhengyi Chen, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang
Aflatoxins are highly toxic mycotoxin contamination, which pose serious food safety incidents. It is very important to precisely and rapidly determine trace aflatoxins in food. In this study, we designed porous monolithic column based on covalent cross-linked polymer gels for online extraction and analysis of trace aflatoxins in food samples with complicated matrices coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The prepared monolithic column showed excellent enrichment performance due to its good permeability, good reproducibility and long life span...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel, Timothy LaBranche, Joseph A Dybowski, Marjorie A Peraza, Susan S Portugal, Daniel J Lettiere
Glomerulopathy and body weight gain were noted after chronic oral administration of a novel nonsteroidal dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor compound, fosdagrocorat, to beagle dogs fed an ad libitum diet. To further investigate the role of diet and treatment with either fosdagrocorat or the glucocorticoid comparator, prednisone, on renal safety, a 13-week investigative study was conducted in beagle dogs. Renal histopathology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body weight, heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and hematology were investigated in restricted- and ad libitum-fed dogs administered prednisone (2...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Minely Cerón-Bustamante, Todd J Ward, Amy Kelly, Martha M Vaughan, Susan P McCormick, Christina Cowger, Santos G Leyva-Mir, Héctor E Villaseñor-Mir, Victoria Ayala-Escobar, Cristian Nava-Díaz
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals and a major food safety concern. Epidemics result in substantial yield losses, reduction in crop quality, and contamination of grains with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. A number of different fusaria can cause FHB, and there are significant regional differences in the occurrence and prevalence of FHB pathogen species and their associated mycotoxins. Information on FHB pathogen and mycotoxin diversity in Mexico has been extremely limited, but is needed to improve disease and mycotoxin control efforts...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gary D Novack
Because of the epidemic of myopia with both its short-term and long-term effects, we desperately need ways to slow myopic progression. In this study which was part of a myopia prevention symposium, the author answers the following question: Assuming that researchers did come up with a pharmacological treatment to slow myopic progression-what would it take to obtain regulatory approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? Previous publicly available information (a 2003 FDA advisory committee on this topic, International Conference on Harmonisation guidances on drug development, and published articles) as well as the author's experience is used...
March 16, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
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