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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793106/microplastics-in-mussels-sampled-from-coastal-waters-and-supermarkets-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Jiana Li, Christopher Green, Alan Reynolds, Huahong Shi, Jeanette M Rotchell
Global contamination of the marine environment by plastic has led to the discovery of microplastics in a range of marine species, including those for human consumption. In this study, the presence of microplastics and other anthropogenic debris in seawater and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of the U.K., as well as supermarket sources, was investigated. These were detected in all samples from all sites with spatial differences observed. Seawater samples taken from 6 locations (in triplicates) displayed 3...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792366/nutritional-characterisation-of-zambian-moringa-oleifera-acceptability-and-safety-of-short-term-daily-supplementation-in-a-group-of-malnourished-girls
#2
Michela Barichella, Gianni Pezzoli, Samanta A Faierman, Benedetta Raspini, Martina Rimoldi, Erica Cassani, Simona Bertoli, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Laura Iorio, Valentina Ferri, Giovanna Pinelli, Chiara Pusani, Carlotta Bolliri, Roberto Cilia, Serena Caronni, Patrizia De Marco, Emanuele Cereda
In Zambia, chronic malnutrition still is one of the most common problem among children. To fight against malnutrition, the easiest short-term solution could be to combine specific types of food with affordable local plants. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Zambia, such as Moringa oleifera (MO), whose leaves are known for their health benefits, but are not consumed much by local populations. We analysed Zambian MO powder obtained from dried leaves and found that it contains large amounts of protein, minerals and vitamins, such as iron, calcium and carotenoids...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792139/process-intensification-techniques-for-the-production-of-nano-and-submicronic-particles-for-food-and-medical-applications
#3
Marco Stoller, Luca Di Palma, Srikanth Vuppala, Nicola Verdone, Giorgio Vilardi
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, nanoparticles are of great interest for the industry due to their numerous possible applications in several fields. Research on this topic seeks to develop many procedures to produce nanoparticles, mostly at lab scale, batch-wise and with low yield. These procedures generally do not suit industrial needs of continuous, high capacity production. Moreover, the product characteristics require targeting narrow particle size distributions and high quality, which is difficult to achieve by traditional equipment...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791434/food-fraud-and-the-perceived-integrity-of-european-food-imports-into-china
#4
H Kendall, P Naughton, S Kuznesof, M Raley, M Dean, B Clark, H Stolz, R Home, M Y Chan, Q Zhong, P Brereton, L J Frewer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns. METHODS: A two-stage mixed method design research design was adopted. First, qualitative research (focus groups n = 7) was conducted in three Chinese cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu to explore concerns held by Chinese consumers in relation to food fraud...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791344/analytical-performance-improvement-of-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-the-processing-degree-of-wheat-flour-using-a-continuous-wavelet-transform
#5
Ping Yang, Yining Zhu, Shisong Tang, Zhongqi Hao, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Yongfeng Lu, Xiaoyan Zeng
Quality and safety of food are two of the most important matters in our lives. Wheat is one of the most important products in the modern agricultural processing industry. Issues of mislabeling and adulteration are of increasingly serious concern in the grain market. They threaten the credibility of producers and traders and the rights of the consumers. Therefore, it is very significant to guarantee the processing degree of wheat flour. In this work, two different spectral peak recognition methods, i.e., artificial spectral peak recognition and automatic spectral peak recognition, are carried out to study the adulteration problem in the food industry...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791313/acute-and-subacute-toxicity-of-aqueous-extract-of-the-tuber-of-kedrostis-africana-l-cogn-in-wistar-rats
#6
Jeremiah Oshiomame Unuofin, Gloria Aderonke Otunola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn (Cucurbitaceae) is used in South African traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia as an emetic, purgative and diuretic, and it is used against dropsy in the management of obesity. Aim of the study In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of K. africanatuber was evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in order to assess its safety profile. Materials and methods In acute toxicity, the effects of a single oral dose (2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg) of aqueous extract was determined in both sexes...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790449/pathology-of-coccidioidomycosis-in-llamas-and-alpacas
#7
Julian A Fernandez, Mireia N Hidalgo, Emir Hodzic, Santiago S Diab, Francisco A Uzal
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by either Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Anecdotal evidence suggests that camelids are particularly susceptible to this disease and that a relatively large percentage of pneumonias in these animals are caused by Coccidioides spp. In a search of 21 y (1992-2013) of records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, we found 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in camelids; 66 (84%) had pneumonia and 13 (16%) had lesions only in organs other than the lungs...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790107/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-bipolar-disorder-moving-towards-precision-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Pisanu, Urs Heilbronner, Alessio Squassina
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and disabling psychiatric condition with a severe socioeconomic impact. BD is treated with mood stabilizers, among which lithium represents the first-line treatment. Lithium alone or in combination is effective in 60% of chronically treated patients, but response remains heterogenous and a large number of patients require a change in therapy after several weeks or months. Many studies have so far tried to identify molecular and genetic markers that could help us to predict response to mood stabilizers or the risk for adverse drug reactions...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789047/concerns-for-bleeding-in-the-elderly-with-the-use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#9
Michelle Min, Stephanie Sibicky
Since Food and Drug Administration approval of dabigatran in 2010, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been alternatives to warfarin for patients who are at risk for cardioembolic complications of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, there are limited safety data available on the use of these newer agents in older adults, particularly risks of gastrointestinal, intracranial, and major bleeding (as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis) in those 75 years of age and older...
May 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788825/dioxin-like-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-marine-fish-from-shandong-china-and-human-dietary-exposure
#10
Yanping Cao, Dafeng Jiang, Fenghua Li, Jindong Chen, Wei Li, Yanni Jiao, Lu Li
The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0...
May 22, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788151/sporulation-environment-influences-spore-properties-in-bacillus-evidence-and-insights-on-underlying-molecular-and-physiological-mechanisms
#11
Christelle Bressuire-Isoard, Véronique Broussolle, Frédéric Carlin
Bacterial spores are resistant to physical and chemical insults, which make them a major concern for public health and for industry. Spores help bacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions that vegetative cells cannot tolerate. Spore resistance and dormancy are important properties for applications in medicine, veterinary health, food safety, crop protection, and other domains. The resistance of bacterial spores results from a protective multilayered structure and from the unique composition of the spore core...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787849/application-of-prickly-pear-fruit-extract-to-improve-domestic-shelf-life-quality-and-microbial-safety-of-sliced-beef
#12
Rosa Palmeri, Lucia Parafati, Cristina Restuccia, Biagio Fallico
The research aimed to expand the knowledge on the use of natural bioactive compounds for food preservation. First-crop fruit of prickly pear were subjected to water extraction and evaluated for total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, in vitro antimicrobial performance against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and betacyanin and betaxanthin content. The extract was then applied by dipping technique to packed sliced beef, to evaluate its effect on physical and chemical parameters, color and texture maintenance, as well as on microbial growth during shelf life at domestic storage conditions...
May 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787848/effects-of-steaming-on-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-levels-in-seafood
#13
Vera Barbosa, Ana Luísa Maulvault, Ricardo N Alves, Christian Kwadijk, Michiel Kotterman, Alice Tediosi, Margarita Fernández Tejedor, Jens J Sloth, Kit Granby, Rie R Rasmussen, Johan Robbens, Bavo De Witte, Laura Trabalón, José O Fernandes, Sara Cunha, António Marques
Seafood consumption is a major route for human exposure to environmental contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs). However, toxicological information about the presence of CeCs in seafood is still insufficient, especially considering the effect of cooking procedures on contaminant levels. This study is one among a few who evaluated the effect of steaming on the levels of different CeCs (toxic elements, PFCs, PAHs, musk fragrances and UV-filters) in commercially relevant seafood in Europe, and estimate the potential risks associated with its consumption for consumers...
May 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786847/assessment-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-within-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-hunan-smoked-pork-a-naturally-fermented-meat-product-in-china
#14
Jing Wang, Xinyuan Wei, Mingtao Fan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from naturally fermented smoked pork produced in Hunan, China. A total of 48 strains were isolated by selective medium and identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as follows: Staphylococcus carnosus (23), Lactobacillus plantarum (12), Lactobacillus brevis (10), Lactobacillus sakei (1), Weissella confusa (1), and Weissella cibaria (1)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786841/development-of-a-chlorine-dosing-strategy-for-fresh-produce-washing-process-to-maintain-microbial-food-safety-and-minimize-residual-chlorine
#15
Xi Chen, Yen-Con Hung
The residual free chlorine level in fresh produce wash solution is closely correlated to the chemical and microbial safety of produce. Excess amount of free chlorine can quickly react with organic matters to form hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) above EPA-permitted levels, whereas deficiency of residual chlorine in produce wash solution may result in incompletely removing pathogens on produce. The purpose of this study was to develop a chlorine dosing strategy to optimize the chlorine dosage during produce washing process without impacting the microbial safety of fresh produce...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784861/genome-variation-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-salmonella-typhimurium-pathovariants
#16
Priscilla Branchu, Matt Bawn, Robert A Kingsley
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) is one of approximately 2500 distinct serovars of the genus Salmonella , but is exceptional in its wide distribution in the environment, livestock, and wild animals. S Typhimurium causes a large proportion of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) infections, accounting for a quarter of infections, second only to S Enteritidis in incidence. S Typhimurium was once considered the archetypal broad host range Salmonella serovar due to its wide distribution in livestock and wild animals and much of what we know of the interaction of Salmonella with the host comes from research using a small number of laboratory strains of the serovar (LT2, SL1344, ATCC14028)...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784079/analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-hydromorphone-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#17
Emily A Evenson, Christoph Mans
Limited information is available regarding the efficacy of opioid analgesics in chinchillas. Here we sought to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of hydromorphone in chinchillas. In a randomized, controlled, blind, complete crossover design, hydromorphone was administered at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg SC to 16 chinchillas. Analgesic efficacy was determined by measuring hindlimb withdrawal latencies after a thermal noxious stimulus (Hargreaves method) at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Changes in daily food intake and fecal output after hydromorphone administration were recorded...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783622/risk-mitigation-for-immunocompromised-consumers-of-mucormycete-spoiled-and-fermented-foods-germain-guidance-and-remaining-needs
#18
REVIEW
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Mucoralean invasive fungal infections, while unusual among the general population, have a high mortality rate among immunocompromised individuals who become infected. They are also common spoilage organisms in cultured dairy products, some fresh produce, and baked goods. Additionally, Mucor and Rhizopus spp. are utilized in the production of traditional fermented foods including mold ripened cheeses and fermented soy products. The risk that consumption of these foods poses to immunocompromised consumers has been previously identified...
May 18, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783265/-international-experience-in-the-legal-regulation-of-the-circulation-of-medicines-through-the-prism-of-the-law-of-the-world-trade-organization
#19
Olena V Pasechnyk, Nataliia V Hendel
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782822/simultaneous-determination-of-intestinal-permeability-and-potential-drug-interactions-of-complex-mixtures-using-caco-2-cells-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-studies-with-rauwolfia-serpentina-extract
#20
Thomas J Flynn, Sanah N Vohra
Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components...
May 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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