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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829122/olive-component-oleuropein-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-insulin-secretion-and-protects-%C3%AE-cells-from-amylin-amyloid-induced-cytotoxicity
#1
Ling Wu, Paul Velander, Dongmin Liu, Bin Xu
Oleuropein, a natural product derived from olive leaves, has reported anti-diabetic functions. However, detailed molecular mechanisms on how it affects β-cell functions remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that oleuropein promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. The effect is dose-dependent and it stimulates ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that oleuropein inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by amylin amyloid, a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that these dual functions are structural-specific: we identified 3-hydroxytyrosol moiety of oleuropein as the main functional entity for amyloid inhibition, but the novel GSIS function requires the entire structure scaffold of the molecule...
August 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826851/jmjd1c-ensures-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-somatic-cell-reprogramming-through-controlling-microrna-expression
#2
Feng Xiao, Bing Liao, Jing Hu, Shuang Li, Haixin Zhao, Ming Sun, Junjie Gu, Ying Jin
The roles of histone demethylases (HDMs) for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency are incompletely characterized. Here, we show that JmjC-domain-containing protein 1c (JMJD1C), an H3K9 demethylase, is required for mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Depletion of Jmjd1c leads to the activation of ERK/MAPK signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to induce differentiation of ESCs. Inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling rescues the differentiation phenotype caused by Jmjd1c depletion...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820575/mbg-modified-%C3%AE-tcp-scaffold-promotes-mesenchymal-stem-cells-adhesion-and-osteogenic-differentiation-via-fak-mapk-signaling-pathway
#3
Yutong Liu, Yifan Ma, Jing Zhang, Qing Xie, Zi Wang, Shuang Yu, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
β-TCP scaffold has been widely used as bone graft substitutes, but traditional PMMA molding method-induced undesirable mechanical strength and poor interconnectivity still have not addressed till now. In this study, a MBG-based PU foam templating method was developed to fabricate β-TCP scaffolds with desirable microtopography. The MBG gel, as both binder and modifier, prepared by modified sol-gel method with controlled viscosity is incorporated with β-TCP powder and thereafter is impregnated into PU foam...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820056/involvement-of-cd24-in-multiple-cancer-related-pathways-makes-it-an-interesting-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#4
Shirin Eyvazi, Bahram Kazemi, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Mojgan Bandehpour
CD24 (cluster of differentiation 24) is a small heavy glycosylated protein, which is overexpressed in many cancer and some cancer stem cells and is associated with the development, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The exact role of CD24 in these processes is not fully understood, however, in this article, it has been tried to present collection of cancer-related mechanisms attributed to CD24. Based on the literature, CD24 dis-regulates different signaling pathways in various cancer cells, including; Src kinases, STAT3, EGFR, Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK...
August 18, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819544/hypoxia-downregulates-mapk-erk-but-not-stat3-signaling-in-ros-dependent-and-hif-1-independent-manners-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Jan Kučera, Julie Netušilová, Stanislava Sladeček, Martina Lánová, Ondřej Vašíček, Kateřina Štefková, Jarmila Navrátilová, Lukáš Kubala, Jiří Pacherník
Hypoxia is involved in the regulation of stem cell fate, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is the master regulator of hypoxic response. Here, we focus on the effect of hypoxia on intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell maintenance. We employed wild-type and HIF-1α-deficient ES cells to investigate hypoxic response in the ERK, Akt, and STAT3 pathways. Cultivation in 1% O2 for 24 h resulted in the strong dephosphorylation of ERK and its upstream kinases and to a lesser extent of Akt in an HIF-1-independent manner, while STAT3 phosphorylation remained unaffected...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818668/a-bipolar-role-of-the-transcription-factor-erg-for-cnidarian-germ-layer-formation-and-apical-domain-patterning
#6
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Taylor Chock, Paul Dahlin, Marta Iglesias, Michael Layden, Eric Röttinger, Mark Q Martindale
Germ layer formation and axial patterning are biological processes that are tightly linked during embryonic development of most metazoans. In addition to canonical WNT, it has been proposed that ERK-MAPK signaling is involved in specifying oral as well as aboral territories in cnidarians. However, the effector and the molecular mechanism underlying latter phenomenon is unknown. By screening for potential effectors of ERK-MAPK signaling in both domains, we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818497/drp1-regulates-mitochondrial-morphology-and-cell-proliferation-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Shinya Kitamura, Teruki Yanagi, Keisuke Imafuku, Hiroo Hata, Riichiro Abe, Hiroshi Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediates mitochondrial fission. Recently, several studies have shown that Drp1 plays an important role in some cancers. However, little is known about Drp1 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Drp1 in the tumorigenesis of cutaneous SCCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated cell proliferation, cell cycle, mitochondrial morphology, and MAPK signaling pathway using cutaneous SCC A431 and DJM1 cells that were transfected with shRNA vectors targeting Drp1...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811578/an-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-inducing-potential-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-in-colon-cancer
#8
Yaqiong Chen, Zhi Zhao, Yu Chen, Zhonglin Lv, Xin Ding, Renxi Wang, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Beifen Shen, Jiannan Feng, Renfeng Guo, Yan Li, Hui Peng, Gencheng Han, Guojiang Chen
Growing evidence shows that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has progression-promoting potentials in certain solid tumors, which is largely attributed to the immunomodulatory function of this cytokine in tumor niches. However, little is known about the effect of GM-CSF on cancer cells. Herein, we show that chronic exposure of colon cancer cells to GM-CSF, which harbor its receptor, leads to occurrence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in time and dose-dependent manners...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810581/protective-effect-of-glycyrrhizin-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-inflammatory-reactions-through-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-expression
#9
Xiangna Cai, Xin Wang, Jilin Li, Shuying Chen
Glycyrrhizin, which is a type of perennial leguminous caudex, has been used in various Asian countries, including P.R. China, India and Japan, for thousands of years. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through oxidative stress, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inflammatory reactions via high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: Sham; myocardial I/R injury + non-treated; myocardial I/R injury + 2 mg/kg glycyrrhizin; myocardial I/R injury + 4 mg/kg glycyrrhizin; and myocardial I/R injury + 10 mg/kg glycyrrhizin...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810254/insulin-influences-lps-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-release-through-distinct-pathways-in-mouse-macrophages-from-different-compartments
#10
Fernando H G Tessaro, Thais S Ayala, Eduardo L Nolasco, Leonardo M Bella, Joilson O Martins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic subjects are more susceptible to infections, which is partially due to insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that insulin influences cytokine release by macrophages from diabetic C57BL/6 mice stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS: Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and tissue-specific macrophages from diabetic (alloxan 60 mg/kg, i.v.) male C57BL/6 mice were stimulated by LPS (100 ng/mL) and/or treated by insulin (1 mU/mL)...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808342/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-human-corneal-epithelial-cell-viability-and-corneal-wound-healing
#11
Joo-Hee Park, Ja-Yeon Kim, Dong Ju Kim, Martha Kim, Minwook Chang, Roy S Chuck, Choul Yong Park
Although the wound healing effects of nitric oxide (NO) are known, the mechanism by which NO modulates corneal wound healing remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous NO donor (NaNO2) on corneal wound healing. We found that NaNO2 (0.1 μM to 100 μM) increased human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) viability and migration. It also modulated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a time- dependent manner in those HCECs. Further, p38 MAPK phosphorylation increased at 6 h and normalized at 24 h, while the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was increased both at 6 h and 24 h...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808050/inactivating-braf-mutations-modulate-ras-mapk-signaling
#12
(no author information available yet)
Hypoactive BRAF mutants bind more tightly to active RAS and amplify ERK signaling.
August 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807789/the-expression-of-erk-and-jnk-in-patients-with-an-endemic-osteochondropathy-kashin-beck-disease
#13
XiaoXia Dai, RuiXia Song, YongMin Xiong
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic, endemic osteochondropathy. Its etiopathogenesis is still obscure until now. Epidemiological observation has shown that low selenium play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB), an important signaling mediator for inflammatory and immune responses, is involved in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806729/erk2-and-jnk1-contribute-to-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-il-8-expression-in-synovial-fibroblasts
#14
Shinichi Namba, Rei Nakano, Taku Kitanaka, Nanako Kitanaka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Hiroshi Sugiya
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) induces the expression and secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8), which contributes to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To elucidate the mechanism of the onset of RA, we used synovial fibroblasts without autoimmune inflammatory diseases and investigated MAPK signaling pathways in TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression. Synovial fibroblasts isolated from healthy dogs were characterized by flow cytometry, which were positive for the fibroblast markers CD29, CD44, and CD90 but negative for the hematopoietic cell markers CD14, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803836/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-septic-shock-via-negative-regulation-of-the-proinflammatory-responses
#15
Mahendra Pratap Singh, Ki Young Kim, Geun-Hee Kwak, Suk-Hwan Baek, Hwa-Young Kim
Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is a major antioxidant enzyme that specifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine S-sulfoxide. In this study, we used MsrA gene-knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mice and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to investigate the role of MsrA in the regulation of inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MsrA(-/-) mice were more susceptible to LPS-induced lethal shock than wild-type (MsrA(+/+)) mice. Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α induced by LPS were higher in MsrA(-/-) than in MsrA(+/+) mice...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802646/involvement-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-erk-in-the-short-and-long-lasting-antidepressant-like-activity-of-nmda-receptor-antagonists-zinc-and-ro-25-6981-in-the-forced-swim-test-in-rats
#16
Bartłomiej Pochwat, Anna Rafało-Ulińska, Helena Domin, Paulina Misztak, Gabriel Nowak, Bernadeta Szewczyk
Short and long acting NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists exert their antidepressant-like effects by activating signaling pathways involved in the synthesis of synaptic proteins and formation of new synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats. The blockade of the ERK pathway abolishes ketamine and Ro 25-6981 antidepressant potency. However, the role of ERK in the antidepressant-like activity of short acting NMDAR antagonists is still unclear. More puzzling is the fact that the precise role of ERK in the short and long lasting effects of long-acting NMDAR antagonists is unknown...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801655/%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor-o-glycosylation-regulates-n-terminal-cleavage-and-signaling-responses-in-cardiomyocytes
#17
Misun Park, Gopireddy R Reddy, Gerd Wallukat, Yang K Xiang, Susan F Steinberg
β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) mediate catecholamine actions in cardiomyocytes by coupling to both Gs/cAMP-dependent and Gs-independent/growth-regulatory pathways. Structural studies of the β1AR define ligand-binding sites in the transmembrane helices and effector docking sites at the intracellular surface of the β1AR, but the extracellular N-terminus, which is a target for post-translational modifications, typically is ignored. This study identifies β1AR N-terminal O-glycosylation at Ser(37)/Ser(41) as a mechanism that prevents β1AR N-terminal cleavage...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801290/-quinalizarin-induces-apoptosis-in-gastric-cancer-ags-cells-via-mapk-and-akt-signaling-pathway
#18
Chang Liu, Ying-Hua Luo, Xian-Ji Piao, Yue Wang, Ling-Qi Meng, Hao Wang, Jia-Ru Wang, Yi Zhang, Jin-Qian Li, Cheng-Hao Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate quinalizarin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and explore the molecular mechanisms. METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of quinalizarin on human gastric cancer AGS, MKN-28 and MKN-45 cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry were used to assess quinalizarin-induced apoptosis in AGS cells and its effect on intracellular ROS levels; the expression levels of apoptotic proteins in the cells were determined with Western blotting...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798805/antineuroinflammatory-effects-of-modified-wu-zi-yan-zong-prescription-in-%C3%AE-amyloid-stimulated-bv2-microglia-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-erk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#19
Qian Yu, Fang-Jiao Song, Jin-Feng Chen, Xin Dong, Yong Jiang, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
Modified Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong prescription (MWP), a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction, has possessed the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanisms associated with these properties, however, are not completely understood. We designed the experiments to elucidate the antineuroinflammatory property of MWP in BV2 microglia activated by β-amyloid (Aβ), which is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The composition of MWP was studied using HPLC. BV2 microglia cells were then treated with Aβ in the presence or absence of MWP...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797567/docosahexaenoic-acid-induces-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-release-in-c6-glioma-cells-implications-of-antidepressant-effects-for-docosahexaenoic-acid
#20
Lanqiu Zhang, Zhuoran Zhu, Zhoubin Tan, Hongyan Luo, Xinwu Hu, Yan Li
Dietary deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is involved in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder. Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts antidepressant-like effect; however, the molecular mechanism of DHA action remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of DHA on the modulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for neural development, plasticity, neurogenesis, and survival. We demonstrated that DHA treatment significantly increased GDNF release in a concentration dependent manner in rat C6 glioma cells (C6 cells) and primary cultured rat astrocytes, which is also associated with increased expression of GDNF mRNA...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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