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Fernanda S Nascimento, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Michael J Arrowood, Delynn Moss, Alexandre J da Silva, Eldin Talundzic, Yvonne Qvarnstrom
Illumina library preparation methods for ultra-low input amounts were compared using genomic DNA from two foodborne parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Cyclospora cayetanensis) as examples. The Ovation Ultralow method resulted in libraries with the highest concentration and produced quality sequencing data, even when the input DNA was in the picogram range.
November 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yaqiong Guo, Dawn M Roellig, Na Li, Kevin Tang, Michael Frace, Ynes Ortega, Michael J Arrowood, Yaoyu Feng, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Lin Wang, Delynn M Moss, Longxian Zhang, Lihua Xiao
Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking.
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mahmoud Agholi, Shahrbanou Naderi Shahabadi, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Gholam Reza Hatam
The genus Sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. It might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. This study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate Sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patients in Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Morgan E Milton, Scott W Nelson
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for many devastating diseases including malaria (Plasmodium spp.), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), babesiosis (Babesia bovis), and cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora cayetanensis). Most Apicomplexans contain a unique and essential organelle called the apicoplast. Derived from an ancient chloroplast, the apicoplast replicates and maintains a 35 kilobase (kb) circular genome. Due to its essential nature within the parasite, drugs targeted to proteins involved in DNA replication and repair of the apicoplast should be potent and specific...
August 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Judit Plutzer, Panagiotis Karanis
Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Shiyou Liu, Lin Wang, Huajun Zheng, Zhixiao Xu, Dawn M Roellig, Na Li, Michael A Frace, Kevin Tang, Michael J Arrowood, Delynn M Moss, Longxian Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an apicomplexan that causes diarrhea in humans. The investigation of foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis has been hampered by a lack of genetic data and poor understanding of pathogen biology. In this study we sequenced the genome of C. cayetanensis and inferred its metabolism and invasion components based on comparative genomic analysis. RESULTS: The genome organization, metabolic capabilities and potential invasion mechanism of C...
2016: BMC Genomics
Maysa A I Awadallah, Lobna M A Salem
AIM: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection...
August 2015: Veterinary World
Eman M Hussein, Amal A El-Moamly, Moushira A Mahmoud, Nayera S Ateek
A variable clinical picture of cyclosporiasis including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptomatic or asymptomatic beside extraintestinal consequences suggests a possibility of heterogenicity of Cyclospora cayetanensis. The present work aimed to explore the possibility of genetic variation of C. cayetanensis using high-resolution melting (HRM) curve of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 18S rRNA genes. DNAs extracted from the stool samples of 70 cyclosporiasis patients were amplified and scanned by PCR/HRM curve...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
Dinesh Bhandari, Sarmila Tandukar, Hiramani Parajuli, Pratigya Thapa, Prakash Chaudhary, Dhiraj Shrestha, Pradeep K Shah, Jatan B Sherchan, Jeevan B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The intestinal coccidian protozoa Cyclospora cayetanensis has emerged as an important cause of parasitic diarrhea among children living in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora among the school children of Kathmandu with reference to various associated risk factors. METHODOLOGY: A total of five hundred and seven stool samples from students between the age of 3-14 years, studying in 13 different schools in Kathmandu were collected during the study period (May-November, 2014) and processed at the Public Health Research Laboratory, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal...
December 2015: Tropical Medicine and Health
Rina Girard Kaminsky, Javier Lagos, Gabriela Raudales Santos, Samuel Urrutia
BACKGROUND: Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. METHODS: Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporulate in 2...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dickson Shey Nsagha, Anna Longdoh Njunda, Nguedia Jules Clement Assob, Charlotte Wenze Ayima, Elvis Asangbeng Tanue, Odette Dzemo Kibu, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are a major public health concern in HIV/AIDS patients particularly in resource-limited settings of Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies investigating the relationship between intestinal parasitic infections and CD4(+) T cell counts and diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients with or without antiretroviral therapy in the region are not readily available hence the need to perform this study. METHODS: In a comparative cross-sectional study involving 52 pre-ART and 248 on-ART HIV patients...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Henry S Bishop, Barbara L Herwaldt, Delynn M Moss, Vishal Nayak, Ganesh Srinivasamoorthy, Mili Sheth, Michael J Arrowood
The parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis causes foodborne diarrheal illness. Here, we report draft genome sequences obtained from C. cayetanensis oocysts purified from a human stool sample. The genome assembly consists of 865 contigs with a total length of 44,563,857 bases. These sequences can facilitate the development of subtyping tools to aid outbreak investigations.
2015: Genome Announcements
Gordon L Nichols, Joanne Freedman, Kevin G Pollock, Caroline Rumble, Rachel M Chalmers, Peter Chiodini, Gillian Hawkins, Claire L Alexander, Gauri Godbole, Christopher Williams, Hilary A Kirkbride, Meghan Hamel, Jeremy I Hawker
Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in 176 returned travellers from the Riviera Maya region of Mexico between 1 June and 22 September 2015; 79 in the United Kingdom (UK) and 97 in Canada. UK cases completed a food exposure questionnaire. This increase in reported Cyclospora cases highlights risks of gastrointestinal infections through travelling, limitations in Cyclospora surveillance and the need for improved hygiene in the production of food consumed in holiday resorts.
2015: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Yousry A Hawash, Laila Sh Dorgham, El-Amir M Amir, Osama F Sharaf
It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits...
2015: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Ulku Karaman, Nilgun Daldal, Ali Ozer, Ozgur Enginyurt, Omer Erturk
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora species are rare among other Coccidia parasites and can cause recurrent gastroenteritis. Cyclospora spp. can infect reptiles, insects, rodents, and mammals. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. in Malatya province and its neighboring provinces. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Totally, 2281 stool samples taken from patients with digestive system complaints who referred to the polyclinics affiliated with Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine in Malatya Province and its neighboring provinces, in 2006, and whose stool specimens were submitted to the parasitology department were examined...
July 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Khadijeh Khanaliha, Mehdi Mohebali, Setareh Davoudi, Omid Reza Hosseini, Fatemeh Tarighi, Tahereh Rezaeian, Mostafa Rezaeian
Coccidian protozoa of Cyclospora cayetanensis are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that infect the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine of immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. A 25- years old woman from around, Tehran with complaint of faintness and fatigue with HIV positive/AIDS confirmed eight months ago was admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patient suffered from intestinal and lung symptoms like watery diarrhea, flu-like symptoms. The stool was examined by direct preparation and concentration technique, stained with modified acid-fast staining method, and observed with light and then Immunofluorescence microscope...
June 2015: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Małgorzata Bednarska, Anna Bajer, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Andrzej Pawełas
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan parasite causing intestinal infections. A prolonged course of infection is often observed in immunocompromised individuals. In Europe, less than 100 cases of C. cayetanensis infection have been reported to date, almost all of which being diagnosed in individuals after travelling abroad. FINDINGS: We described cases of three businessmen who developed acute traveller's diarrhoea after they returned to Poland from Indonesia...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Annunziata Giangaspero, Marianna Marangi, Anson V Koehler, R Papini, G Normanno, V Lacasella, A Lonigro, Robin B Gasser
To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing...
October 15, 2015: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Kevin Tang, Yaqiong Guo, Longxian Zhang, Lori A Rowe, Dawn M Roellig, Michael A Frace, Na Li, Shiyou Liu, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an important cause for diarrhea in children in developing countries and foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in industrialized nations. To improve understanding of the basic biology of Cyclospora spp. and development of molecular diagnostic tools and therapeutics, we sequenced the complete apicoplast and mitochondrial genomes of C. cayetanensis. METHODS: The genome of one Chinese C. cayetanensis isolate was sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina technologies...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Joyobrato Nath, Gulzar Hussain, Baby Singha, Jaishree Paul, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
Intestinal diarrheagenic polyparasitic infections are among the major public health concerns in developing countries. Here we examined stool specimens by microscopy, DNA dot blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the co-infection of four principal protozoans among amoebic dysentery cases from Northeast Indian population. The multiplex PCR confirmed Entamoeba histolytica (8.1%), Entamoeba dispar (4.8%) and mixed infection of both the parasites (3.4%) in 68 of 356 stool specimens that were positive in microscopy and/or HMe probe based DNA dot blot screening...
September 2015: Parasitology
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