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"Critical appraisal"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633696/cross-border-collaboration-for-improved-tuberculosis-prevention-and-care-policies-tools-and-experiences
#1
M Dara, G Sulis, R Centis, L D'Ambrosio, G de Vries, P Douglas, D Garcia, N Jansen, E Zuroweste, G B Migliori
As tuberculosis (TB) spreads beyond borders with people movements, several interventions ensuring the continuity of care are essential, although difficult to put in place in the absence of well-defined agreements allowing data sharing and easy referral of patients to appropriate health facilities. This article first sets out general principles for cross-border collaboration and continuity of care. It then presents a series of case studies. Policies and practices on cross-border collaboration in selected low-incidence countries (Australia, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States) are described and critically appraised...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633460/guidelines-for-composing-and-assessing-a-paper-on-treatment-of-pain
#2
Nikolai Bogduk, David J Kennedy, Yakov Vorobeychik, Andrew Engel
Authors, readers, and editors share a common focus. Authors want to publish their work. Readers want to see high-quality, new information. Referees and editors serve to ensure that authors provide valid conclusions based on the quality of information that readers want. Common to each of these roles are instructions to authors. However, these are typically written in an uninspiring, legalistic style, as if they are a set of rules that authors must obey if they expect to get published. This renders the instructions boring and oppressive, if not forbidding...
June 17, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632890/minimally-invasive-surgery-and-its-impact-on-30-day-postoperative-complications-unplanned-readmissions-and-mortality
#3
A Sood, C P Meyer, F Abdollah, J D Sammon, M Sun, S R Lipsitz, M Hollis, J S Weissman, M Menon, Q-D Trinh
BACKGROUND: A critical appraisal of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is needed, but is lacking. This study examined the associations between MIS and 30-day postoperative outcomes including complications graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, unplanned readmissions, hospital stay and mortality for five common surgical procedures. METHODS: Patients undergoing appendicectomy, colectomy, inguinal hernia repair, hysterectomy and prostatectomy were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631532/measuring-sleep-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-critical-appraisal-of-the-use-of-subjective-methods
#4
Emma L Jeffs, Julie L Darbyshire
OBJECTIVES: To collate and appraise the use of subjective measures to assess sleep in the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: A systematic search and critical review of the published literature. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Scopus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched using combinations of the key words "Sleep," "Critical Care," "Intensive Care," and "Sleep Disorders," and this was complemented by hand searching the most recent systematic reviews on related topics...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630238/impact-of-sex-on-cardiac-troponin-concentrations-a-critical-appraisal
#5
REVIEW
Kai M Eggers, Bertil Lindahl
BACKGROUND: The use of sex-specific cutoffs for cardiac troponin (cTn) is currently debated. Although endorsed by scientific working groups, concerns have been raised that sex-specific cutoffs may have only a small clinical effect at the cost of increased complexity in decision-making. METHODS: We reviewed studies investigating the interrelations between high-sensitivity (hs) cTn results and sex, diagnoses, and outcome. Investigated populations included community-dwelling subjects and patients with stable angina, congestive heart failure, or acute chest pain including those with acute coronary syndromes...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628524/experiences-of-non-specialist-nurses-caring-for-patients-and-their-significant-others-undergoing-transitions-during-palliative-end-of-life-cancer-care-a-systematic-review
#6
Hrønn Thorn, Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt
BACKGROUND: Non-specialist nurses, who are providing palliative end-of-life cancer care to patients and significant others undergoing psychosocial and existential transitions, may experience dissatisfaction, frustration and sorrow. On the other hand, they may also experience happiness, increased knowledge and personal growth. OBJECTIVE/QUESTION: What are non-specialist nurses' experiences when providing palliative end-of-life cancer care that involves the psychosocial and existential transitions of their patients and significant others? INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review considered studies that included a description of the experiences of non-specialist trained registered nurses (RNs) working in non-specialist wards...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628523/effectiveness-of-surgery-for-adults-with-hallux-valgus-deformity-a-systematic-review
#7
Jitka Klugarova, Victoria Hood, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Miloslav Klugar, Jana Mareckova, Zuzana Kelnarova
BACKGROUND: Hallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity. In severe stages of this condition, surgery is often necessary. Currently, there is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of surgery over conservative treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to establish the effectiveness of surgery compared to conservatory management for adults with HV. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review included adults (18 years or over) with HV deformity, excluding adults with neurological problems causing foot deformities, for example, cerebral palsy, neuropathy, stroke and multiple sclerosis...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628522/patient-experiences-of-partnering-with-healthcare-professionals-for-hand-hygiene-compliance-a-systematic-review
#8
Samantha Butenko, Craig Lockwood, Alexa McArthur
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections pose a significant risk to patients in acute healthcare settings such as hospitals. Increasingly, patients are encouraged to be active participants and partner with healthcare professionals to positively influence their own safety and overall experience throughout their healthcare journey. Patient-focused safety initiatives include the empowerment of patients to be active partners with healthcare professionals in order to influence the hand hygiene behaviors and compliance of the healthcare professionals providing care to them...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628521/experiences-of-acute-pain-in-children-who-present-to-a-healthcare-facility-for-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#9
Nicole Pope, Mary Tallon, Ruth McConigley, Gavin Leslie, Sally Wilson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a universal and complex phenomenon that is personal, subjective and specific. Despite growing knowledge in pediatric pain, management of children's pain remains sub-optimal and is linked to negative behavioral and physiological consequences later in life. As there is no synthesis of these studies, it was timely to undertake a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To identify, evaluate and synthesize the existing qualitative evidence on children's experiences of acute pain, including pain management, within a healthcare facility...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621549/age-appropriate-services-for-people-diagnosed-with-young-onset-dementia-yod-a-systematic-review
#10
Andrea Mayrhofer, Elspeth Mathie, Jane McKeown, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
BACKGROUND: Literature agrees that post-diagnostic services for people living with young onset dementia (YOD) need to be age-appropriate, but there is insufficient evidence of 'what works' to inform service design and delivery. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence base of age-appropriate services and to review the perceived effectiveness of current interventions. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review including all types of research relating to interventions for YOD...
June 16, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617980/instruments-to-assess-self-care-among-healthy-children-a-systematic-review-of-measurement-properties
#11
REVIEW
Ana-María Urpí-Fernández, Edurne Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Javier Montes-Hidalgo, Joaquín Tomás-Sábado, Juan-Francisco Roldán-Merino, María-Teresa Lluch-Canut
AIM: To identify, critically appraise and summarise the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. BACKGROUND: Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarises instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. DESIGN: Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617237/reforming-refugee-healthcare-in-canada-exploring-the-use-of-policy-tools
#12
Ethan Holtzer, Alicia Moore-Dean, Amirrtha Srikanthan, Kerry Kuluski
Refugee healthcare in Canada has been a controversial and heavily debated topic over the past several years. In this paper, we present a policy analysis of the 2012 Canadian federal government decision to change the criteria and funding of the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP). The IFHP provides federally funded healthcare coverage for refugees until they gain access to provincially funded health insurance. The paper offers a policy perspective on the changes to refugee health coverage over time. We draw on the policy concepts of agenda setting, framing, venues and causal stories to explore this topic...
May 2017: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615731/the-role-of-il-6-in-host-defence-against-infections-immunobiology-and-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Stefan Rose-John, Kevin Winthrop, Leonard Calabrese
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad-ranging effects within the integrated immune response. One of the roles of IL-6 is to support immunocompetence, defined as the ability of a host to respond to infections. Understanding the precise role of this cytokine in immunocompetence requires a critical appraisal of data derived from both preclinical and clinical studies. Primary immunodeficiency diseases involving IL-6 or its signalling pathways reveal that IL-6 is critical in the defence against numerous types of pathogens...
June 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614164/multi-component-musculoskeletal-movement-assessment-tools-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-their-development-and-applicability-to-professional-practice
#14
Hunter Bennett, Kade Davison, John Arnold, Kevin Norton, Flynn Slattery, Max Martin
Multi-component movement assessment tools have become commonplace to measure movement quality, proposing to indicate injury risk and performance capabilities. Despite popular use, there has been no attempt to compare the components of each tool reported in the literature, the processes in which they were developed, or the underpinning rationale for their included content. As such, the objective of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of current movement assessment tools, and appraise the evidence supporting their development...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612056/critical-appraisal-of-the-top-down-approach-for-vesicoureteral-reflux
#15
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdelhalim, Antoine E Khoury
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been linked to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), renal scarring, hypertension, renal insufficiency and end-stage kidney disease. Different imaging strategies have been proposed to approach children presenting with UTI to sort out patients with significant VUR while minimizing patient morbidity, radiation exposure and financial burden. None of these imaging strategies is universally accepted. The"top-down approach" (TDA) aims at restricting the number of voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) and its associated morbidity while identifying patients with clinically-significant reflux...
June 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611944/pre-operative-lugol-s-iodine-treatment-in-the-management-of-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy-for-graves-disease-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas Hope, Andrew Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a review of the relevant English literature published on the pre-operative use of Lugol's iodine in the management of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. SEARCH STRATEGY: We reviewed all relevant papers found through Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and the American Thyroid Association website. Searches were limited to the English language only. EVALUATION METHOD: The critical appraisal tool CASP was used to help analyse the papers...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610071/error-cascade-in-taxonomy-the-case-of-i-cardiomya-i-i-perrostrata-i-mollusca-bivalvia-cuspidariidae-in-brazilian-waters
#17
Cléo D C Oliveira, André F Sartori, Ricardo S Absalão
Successions of erroneous taxonomic identifications in biodiversity studies are an undesirable but not rare phenomenon. Such cascades of errors frequently involve taxa with few, polymorphic diagnostic characters, such as representatives of the cuspidariid genus Cardiomya. Four species of the genus are believed to live in Brazilian waters: C. cleryana (d'Orbigny, 1842), C. ornatissima (d'Orbigny, 1853), C. striata (Jeffreys, 1876) and C. perrostrata (Dall, 1881). Many reported occurrences of these species are based on misidentifications, but the error cascade of incorrect records of C...
March 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608364/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-application-of-propensity-score-methods-in-the-urology-literature
#18
Madhur Nayan, Robert J Hamilton, David N Juurlink, Antonio Finelli, Girish S Kulkarni, Peter C Austin
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether studies that used propensity score (PS) methods in the urology literature provided sufficient detail to allow scientific reproducibility and whether appropriate statistical tests were used to obtain valid measures of effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched OVID Medline and the Science Citation Index from inception to November 2016 to identify studies that used PS methods from 5 general urology journals. From each included article, we extracted pertinent information related to the PS methodology such as estimation of the PS, whether balance diagnostics were performed, and the statistical analysis performed...
June 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608329/assessment-of-evidence-based-practice-among-hospital-pharmacists-in-saudi-arabia-attitude-awareness-and-practice
#19
Abdulrazaq S Al-Jazairi, Reem Alharbi
Background Many studies have previously looked at the perceptions, attitude, and use of Evidence-based Practice (EBP) among healthcare providers. However, limited data is available on the implementation of EBP among pharmacists in general, and Saudi Arabia in particular. Objective To evaluate the awareness, attitude, and practice of EBP among hospital practicing pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Setting Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia with a bed capacity of ≥200 Methods This is a cross sectional, survey-based study where a validated selfadministrated questionnaire was utilized...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608175/reliability-and-validity-of-clinical-tests-to-assess-the-anatomical-integrity-of-the-cervical-spine-in-adults-with-neck-pain-and-its-associated-disorders-part-1-a-systematic-review-from-the-cervical-assessment-and-diagnosis-research-evaluation-cadre-collaboration
#20
REVIEW
Nadège Lemeunier, S da Silva-Oolup, N Chow, D Southerst, L Carroll, J J Wong, H Shearer, P Mastragostino, J Cox, E Côté, K Murnaghan, D Sutton, P Côté
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability and validity of clinical tests to assess the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders. METHODS: We updated the systematic review of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders. We also searched the literature to identify studies on the reliability and validity of Doppler velocimetry for the evaluation of cervical arteries. Two independent reviewers screened and critically appraised studies...
June 12, 2017: European Spine Journal
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