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Critical appraisal

Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Michelle Hadjiconstantinou, Jo Byrne, Danielle H Bodicoat, Noelle Robertson, Helen Eborall, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
BACKGROUND: Poor diabetes self-care can have a negative impact on psychological well-being and quality of life. Given the scarcity of traditional psychological support and the barriers to uptake of and attendance at face-to-face education programs, Web-based interventions are becoming a popular approach to provide an additional platform for psychological support in long-term conditions. However, there is limited evidence to assess the effect of Web-based psychological support in people with type 2 diabetes...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Daniel Kolinsky, Samuel M Keim, Brian G Cohn, Evan S Schwarz, Donald M Yealy
BACKGROUND: The current standards for domestic emergency medical services suggest that all patients suspected of opioid overdose be transported to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment. This includes patients who improve after naloxone administration in the field because of concerns for rebound toxicity. However, various emergency medical services systems release such patients at the scene after a 15- to 20-min observation period as long as they return to their baseline...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kristy S Yap, Murray B Urowitz, Quenby Mahood, Jorge Medina-Rosas, Arthy Sabapathy, Daeria Lawson, Jiandong Su, Dafna D Gladman, Zahi Touma
OBJECTIVES: To study the utility of lupus serology as a predictor for kidney graft outcome in (a) a systematic literature review (SLR) and (b) the Toronto lupus cohort (TLC). METHODS: For the SLR, a comprehensive literature search was performed to identify the articles reporting on the serology at renal transplantation (RT) and on the outcome of RT. Studies were critically appraised using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Patients who underwent RT in the TLC were identified and grouped into graft failure and graft survival...
September 21, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Tove Lise Nielsen, Kirsten Schultz Petersen, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Janni Strøm, Monica Milters Ehlers, Merete Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home-based OT for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. AIM: This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based OT for older adults at home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Peer-reviewed quantitative papers were included. PARTICIPANTS:  ≥ 60-year-old adults with functional limitations...
October 21, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Ilona Willempje Maria Verburg, Alireza Atashi, Saeid Eslami, Rebecca Holman, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Everest de Jonge, Niels Peek, Nicolette Fransisca de Keizer
OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed models to predict adult ICU length of stay. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Ovid EMBASE and MEDLINE databases for studies on the development or validation of ICU length of stay prediction models. STUDY SELECTION: We identified 11 studies describing the development of 31 prediction models and three describing external validation of one of these models. DATA EXTRACTION: Clinicians use ICU length of stay predictions for planning ICU capacity, identifying unexpectedly long ICU length of stay, and benchmarking ICUs...
October 20, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
I Absah, A Rishi, N J Talley, D Katzka, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless and repetitive regurgitation of recently ingested food from the stomach to the oral cavity followed by either re-swallowing or spitting. Rumination is thought to occur due to a reversal of the esophagogastric pressure gradient. This is achieved by a coordinated abdominothoracic maneuver consisting of a thoracic suction, crural diaphragm relaxation and an increase in intragastric pressure...
October 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
James Demetrios Douketis
The American College of Chest Physicians recently updated their practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism, comprising deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The 2016 guidelines represent the tenth iteration of these guidelines, which are widely used, and are considered as the reference standard for practice guidelines related to venous thromboembolism. The objectives of this review are to highlight the key recommendations that are new in these guidelines, to address recommendations that may be considered controversial, and to touch on areas of ongoing research that may better inform some of these recommendations...
October 20, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Pierre Force
This article offers a critical discussion of Pocock's analysis of the relationship between Gibbon and Voltaire, and particularly the extent to which Decline and Fall was inspired by Voltaire's Essai sur les moeurs. It shows that "Momigliano's hypothesis" about the divorce of philosophy and erudition and their reconciliation in Gibbon was initially a commentary by Momigliano on Voltaire's historical work. It argues that the "Momiglianian model" plays a central role in Pocock's argument in Barbarism and Religion...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Gregory A Schmidt, Timothy D Girard, John P Kress, Peter E Morris, Daniel R Ouellette, Waleed Alhazzani, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Jonathon D Truwit
BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Timothy D Girard, Waleed Alhazzani, John P Kress, Daniel R Ouellette, Gregory A Schmidt, Jonathon D Truwit, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Peter E Morris
BACKGROUND: Interventions that lead to earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation can improve patient outcomes. This guideline, a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), provides evidence-based recommendations to optimize liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. METHODS: Two methodologists performed evidence syntheses to summarize available evidence relevant to key questions about liberation from mechanical ventilation...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Maria Agapova, Brian B Bresnahan, Mitchell Higashi, Larry Kessler, Louis P Garrison, Beth Devine
The American College of Radiology develops evidence-based practice guidelines to aid appropriate utilization of radiological procedures. Panel members use expert opinion to weight trade-offs and consensus methods to rate appropriateness of imaging tests. These ratings include an equivocal range, assigned when there is disagreement about a technology's appropriateness and the evidence base is weak or for special circumstances. It is not clear how expert consensus merges with the evidence base to arrive at an equivocal rating...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Saad Mohammed Dahlawi, Samreen Siddiqui
Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Moutzouri, N Gleeson, E Billis, E Tsepis, I Panoutsopoulou, J Gliatis
PURPOSE: Despite the high incidence of falls in patients with OA, few studies have explored whether falls risk is affected after patients undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify the extent of the effects of TKA on balance and incidence of falls by critically reviewing the available literature. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature sources was conducted up to March 2014. All studies assessing balance and incidence of falls after TKA (without physiotherapeutic intervention) were included...
October 19, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Barry Edwards, Beth Stickney, Andrew Milat, Danielle Campbell, Sarah Thackway
Issue addressed: An organisational culture that values and uses research and evaluation (R&E) evidence to inform policy and practice is fundamental to improving health outcomes. The 2016 NSW Government Program Evaluation Guidelines recommend investment in training and development to improve evaluation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the approaches taken by the NSW Ministry of Health to develop R&E capacity and assess these against existing models of practice.Method: The Ministry of Health's Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (CEE) takes an evidence-based approach to building R&E capacity in population health...
October 19, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Julian C Harnoss, Isabelle Zelienka, Pascal Probst, Kathrin Grummich, Catharina Müller-Lantzsch, Jonathan M Harnoss, Alexis Ulrich, Markus W Büchler, Markus K Diener
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate available evidence regarding effectiveness and safety of surgical versus conservative treatment of acute appendicitis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is ongoing debate on the merits of surgical and conservative treatment for acute appendicitis. METHODS: A systematic literature search (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase) and hand search of retrieved reference lists up to January 2016 was conducted to identify randomized and nonrandomized studies...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
James E Archer, Adrian C Gardner, Helen P Roper, Ashish A Chikermane, Andrew J Tatman
This study summaries the current management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A literature review of Medline was performed and the collected articles critically appraised. This literature is discussed to give an overview of the current management of scoliosis within Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Importantly, improvements in respiratory care, the use of steroids and improving surgical techniques have allowed patients to maintain quality of life and improved life expectancy in this patient group...
September 2016: J Spine Surg
Anne-Christine Mupepele, Jessica C Walsh, William J Sutherland, Carsten F Dormann
Reliability of scientific findings is important, especially if they directly impact decision making, such as in environmental management. In the 1990s, assessments of reliability in the medical field resulted in the development of evidence-based practice. Ten years later, evidence-based practice was translated into conservation, but so far no guidelines exist on how to assess the evidence of individual studies. Assessing the evidence of individual studies is essential to appropriately identify and synthesize the confidence in research findings...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Deborah Edwards, Judith Carrier, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malnutrition for older adults (>65 years) in hospital and rehabilitation units has been reported as being as high as 60%; some older patients with good appetites do not receive sufficient nourishment because of inadequate feeding assistance. Mealtime assistance can therefore enhance nutritional intake, clinical outcomes and patient experience. OBJECTIVES: This mixed methods review sought to develop an aggregated synthesis of quantitative and qualitative data on assistance at mealtimes for older adults in hospital settings and rehabilitation units to determine current practices, what practices work, and the perceptions of patients, families, and healthcare professionals of mealtime assistance...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Cedric Mabire, Andrew Dwyer, Antoine Garnier, Joanie Pellet
BACKGROUND: Inadequate discharge planning for the growing elderly population poses significant challenges for health services. Effective discharge planning interventions have been examined in several studies, but little information is available on nursing's role or the specific components of these interventions. Despite the research published on the importance of discharge planning, the impact on patient's health outcomes still needs to be proven in practice. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best available evidence on the effectiveness of discharge planning interventions involving at least one nurse on health-related outcomes for elderly inpatients discharged home and to assess the relative impact of individual components of discharge planning interventions...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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