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Critical appraisal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437761/negative-appraisals-and-fear-extinction-are-independently-related-to-ptsd-symptoms
#1
Daniel V Zuj, Matthew A Palmer, Kate E Gray, Chia-Ming K Hsu, Emma L Nicholson, Gin S Malhi, Richard A Bryant, Kim L Felmingham
BACKGROUND: Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of participants with PTSD (n =21), and trauma-exposed controls (n =33) underwent a standardized differential fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, with skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude serving as the index of conditioned responses...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437031/patient-reported-outcome-pro-questionnaires-for-men-who-have-radical-surgery-for-prostate-cancer-a-conceptual-review-of-existing-instruments
#2
REVIEW
Evangelia Protopapa, Jan van der Meulen, Caroline M Moore, Sarah C Smith
OBJECTIVES: To critically review conceptual frameworks for available patient reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires in men having radical prostatectomy; psychometrically evaluate each questionnaire; identify whether each is appropriate for use at the level of the individual patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, the Reports and Publications database of the University of Oxford Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Group and the website of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) for psychometric reviews of prostate cancer specific PRO questionnaires...
April 24, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437025/effectiveness-of-paracetamol-versus-ibuprofen-administration-in-febrile-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
Kaajal Narayan, Simon Cooper, Julia Morphet, Kelli Innes
AIM: The use of antipyretics to manage the febrile child is becoming increasingly popular. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the most commonly used interventions to manage fever in children; however, there have been no comparative analyses. The aim of the study is to evaluate the evidence comparing paracetamol to ibuprofen in the treatment of fever in children. METHODS: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials investigating the administration of oral paracetamol and ibuprofen to reduce fever in children...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436244/a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis-of-the-qualitative-literature-exploring-the-experiences-and-quality-of-life-of-survivors-of-a-cardiac-arrest
#4
Gunilla Haydon, Pamela van der Riet, Kerry Inder
BACKGROUND: Survival following cardiac arrest and subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasing worldwide, mainly due to greater awareness of the symptoms of cardiac events and an increased attention to CPR training. Although patient outcomes remain unpredictable and quantitative studies suggest that the overall quality of life (QOL) is acceptable, it is valuable to synthesise qualitative studies exploring these phenomena in depth, providing a deeper knowledge of survivors' experiences and QOL...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435507/blog-and-podcast-watch-orthopedic-emergencies
#5
Andrew Grock, Salim Rezaie, Anand Swaminathan, Alice Min, Kaushal H Shah, Michelle Lin
INTRODUCTION: The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) based on the ongoing ALiEM Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of orthopedic emergencies from the AIR series. METHODS: The AIR series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) annual testing schedule...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435498/security-violent-events-and-anticipated-surge-capabilities-of-emergency-departments-in-washington-state
#6
Jonathan S Weyand, Emily Junck, Christopher S Kang, Jason D Heiner
INTRODUCTION: Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434919/a-review-of-dtca-techniques-appraising-their-success-and-potential-impact-on-medication-users
#7
REVIEW
Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Ashna Medina Siraj, Louise Curley
BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has been present in some countries for nearly two decades. Its success and ramifications have been examined but not yet cataloged recently in a comprehensive manner. OBJECTIVE: To review existing literature studies on the topic of DTCA techniques to provide an analysis of the current methods considered by drug marketers to enhance the effect of pharmaceutical product promotion and its success, as well as examine ramifications on the drug use process...
April 12, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434251/a-mock-randomized-controlled-trial-with-audience-response-technology-for-teaching-and-learning-epidemiology
#8
Philip R A Baker, Daniel P Francis, Abby Cathcart
The study's objective was to apply and assess an active learning approach to epidemiology and critical appraisal. Active learning comprised a mock, randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted with learners in 3 countries. The mock trial consisted of blindly eating red Smarties candy (intervention) compared to yellow Smarties (control) to determine whether red Smarties increase happiness. Audience response devices were employed with the 3-fold purposes to produce outcome data for analysis of the effects of red Smarties, identify baseline and subsequent changes in participant's knowledge and confidence in understanding of RCTs, and assess the teaching approach...
April 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432823/-gerimedjc-the-twitter-complement-to-the-traditional-format-geriatric-medicine-journal-club
#9
Amanda I Gardhouse, Laura Budd, Seu Y C Yang, Camilla L Wong
Twitter is a public microblogging platform that overcomes physical limitations and allows unrestricted participation beyond academic silos, enabling interactive discussions. Twitter-based journal clubs have demonstrated growth, sustainability, and worldwide communication, using a hashtag (#) to follow participation. This article describes the first year of #GeriMedJC, a monthly 1-hour live, 23-hour asynchronous Twitter-based complement to the traditional-format geriatric medicine journal club. The Twitter moderator tweets from the handle @GeriMedJC; encourages use of #GeriMedJC; and invites content experts, study authors, and followers to participate in critical appraisal of medical literature...
April 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432574/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-quality-of-adult-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-guidelines-in-osteoporosis-using-the-agree-ii-tool-an-euroaim-initiative
#10
Carmelo Messina, Bianca Bignotti, Alberto Bazzocchi, Catherine M Phan, Alberto Tagliafico, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Francesco Sardanelli, Luca Maria Sconfienza
OBJECTIVES: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used technique to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Appropriate and accurate use of DXA is of great importance, and several guidelines have been developed in the last years. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of published guidelines on DXA for adults. METHODS: Between June and July 2016 we conducted an online search for DXA guidelines, which were evaluated by four independent readers blinded to each other using the AGREE II instrument...
April 21, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432076/is-lower-hip-range-of-motion-a-risk-factor-for-groin-pain-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-with-clinical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Igor Tak, Leonie Engelaar, Vincent Gouttebarge, Maarten Barendrecht, Sylvia Van den Heuvel, Gino Kerkhoffs, Rob Langhout, Janine Stubbe, Adam Weir
BACKGROUND: Whether hip range of motion (ROM) is a risk factor for groin pain in athletes is not known. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the relationship between hip ROM and groin pain in athletes in cross-sectional/case-control and prospective studies. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review, prospectively registered (PROSPERO) according to PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched up to December 2015...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431333/regeneration-and-health-a-structured-rapid-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
G McCartney, W Hearty, M Taulbut, R Mitchell, R Dryden, C Collins
OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesise what is known about the impacts of regeneration on health, health inequalities and their socio-economic determinants. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid, structured literature review. METHODS: A rapid, structured approach was undertaken to identifying relevant studies involving a search of peer-reviewed literature databases, an Internet search to identify relevant grey literature, and a review of articles citing two key systematic reviews...
April 17, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429867/health-related-quality-of-life-questionnaires-in-individuals-with-haemophilia-a-systematic-review-of-their-measurement-properties
#13
REVIEW
P F Limperg, C B Terwee, N L Young, V E Price, S C Gouw, M Peters, M A Grootenhuis, V Blanchette, L Haverman
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of health related quality of life (HRQOL) is essential for a full assessment of the influence of an illness on patients' lives. The aim of this paper is to critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of HRQOL questionnaires studied in haemophilia. METHODS: Bibliographic databases (Embase, Medline, Cinahl and PsycInfo) were searched for articles evaluating measurement properties of HRQOL questionnaires in haemophilia. Articles were excluded that did not report HRQOL measurement properties, or when <50% of the study population had haemophilia...
April 21, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428567/novel-oral-anticoagulants-and-exodontia-the-evidence
#14
S Nathwani, C Wanis
Background Haemostasis is crucial for the success of oral surgical treatment as bleeding problems can cause complications both pre- and post-operatively. Patients on anticoagulant drugs present a challenge due to their increased risk of bleeding.Aims To review the evidence for the management of oral surgery patients on novel oral anticoagulant therapy.Methods A literature review was conducted in May 2016 of free-text and MESH searches (keywords: apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and dental extractions) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed and CINAHL...
April 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428157/texting-and-mobile-phone-app-interventions-for-improving-adherence-to-preventive-behavior-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#15
Sherif M Badawy, Lisa M Kuhns
BACKGROUND: Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy...
April 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426274/a-critical-appraisal-of-shingrix-a-novel-herpes-zoster-subunit-hz-su-or-gsk1437173a-vaccine-for-varicella-zoster-virus
#16
Tehmina Bharucha, Damien Ming, Judith Breuer
HZ/Su, branded as 'Shingrix', is one of the newest vaccines to be submitted for multi-national regulatory approval. It is targeted to prevent shingles, predominantly affecting the elderly, but a global concern with ageing populations and significant associated morbidity and mortality. A vaccine for shingles has been available for over a decade, however it is contraindicated in specific subgroups of people, and there are added concerns regarding long-term immunogenicity. HZ/Su is the first subunit vaccine developed to protect against shingles...
April 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425401/mre-in-nafld-promising-but-further-validation-is-required
#17
John D Ryan, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
MR elastography is a novel method for non-invasive fibrosis assessment, not yet sufficiently validated. In a recent study in 104 patients Park, Gastroenterology 2017; 152: 598-602), MRE was compared to transient elastography for the diagnosis of fibrosis is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The current viewpoint critically appraises this study.
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424882/effectiveness-of-dry-needling-and-high-volume-image-guided-injection-in-the-management-of-chronic-mid-portion-achilles-tendinopathy-in-adult-population-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
F A Chaudhry
Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse condition affecting the adult population. The incidence is on the rise because of greater participation of people in recreational or competitive sporting activities. There are several treatment options available both non-operative and operative. Ultrasound-guided dry needling and high-volume image-guided injection is relatively a new procedure. The aim of this study was to find out the effectiveness of dry needling and HVIGI in the management of mid-portion chronic Achilles tendinopathy by performing a literature review...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424762/assessment-of-sensory-processing-characteristics-in-children-between-3-and-11-years-old-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Sara Jorquera-Cabrera, Dulce Romero-Ayuso, Gemma Rodriguez-Gil, José-Matías Triviño-Juárez
The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424086/questioning-the-application-of-risk-of-bias-tools-in-appraising-evidence-from-natural-experimental-studies-critical-reflections-on-benton-et-al-ijbnpa-2016
#20
David K Humphreys, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
We recently read the article by Benton et al. which reviewed risk of bias in natural experimental studies investigating the impact of the built environment on physical activity (Benton et al., 2016; Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:107). As a technical exercise in assessing risk of bias to understand study quality, we found the results of this study both interesting and potentially useful. However, it prompted a number of concerns with the use of risk of bias tools for assessing the quality of evidence from studies exploiting natural experiments...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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