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oral hypoglycemics

Gustavo L A de Oliveira, Jans B Izidoro, Felipe Ferré, Samuel R A E Sousa, Francisco A Acurcio
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average price of oral hypoglycemic agents provided by the Brazilian health system (SUS) and to compare them to other public health systems. METHODS: Cross-sectional study about drug prices purchased by Belo Horizonte (municipal level), Minas Gerais (state level) and federal institutions in January and February of 2014. Average prices were calculated by defined daily dosage (DDD) and were compared to the management levels and the program "Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular" (ATFP)...
June 20, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Saad M Alshareef, Mujahed A Alkhathlan, Abdullah A Alwabel, Abdulkarim A Al-Bawardi, Abdulrahman H Alqarni, Ali S Almuryidi, Ibrahim N Altuwaim, Monther Khalid Alhabib, Omar A Almuzaini, Turki S Alqahtani
BACKGROUND: Despite the acknowledgment that the services of diabetes educator and dietician affect outcome, the level of utilization of these services in the Saudi Arabian public health-care system is not known. The aims of the study were to establish the percentage of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) followed up by a diabetic educator and a dietician in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia and associations between follow-up by a diabetic educator and a dietician and glycemic control...
May 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Nagaraja M Phani, Manik Vohra, Ananth Kakar, Prabha Adhikari, Shivashankara K Nagri, Sydney C D'Souza, Shashikiran Umakanth, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Padmalatha S Rai
AIM: Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug is the first line of treatment for Type 2 diabetes individuals. We studied the effect of critical gene single nucleotide polymorphisms  on the glucose lowering effect of metformin. METHOD: We performed a prospective study on 221 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive Type 2 diabetes subjects. Individuals were started with metformin monotherapy and followed up for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Our association analysis revealed that SLC22A2 rs316019 and SLC47A2 rs12943590 were significantly associated with metformin drug response across co-dominant and dominant models, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Shin-Yi Lin, Nai-Yu Lin, Yu-Yao Huang, Chi-Chun Hsieh, Yhu-Chering Huang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. METHOD: A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. RESULTS: Nasal carriage rate of S...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Kedar Kalyani Abhimanyu, Chaudhari Sanjay Ravindra, Rao Srinivasa Avanapu
The data existing in this article are associated to the antidiabetic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall barks (EAPR) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats at a dose of 250 & 500 mg/kg by oral route for 21 days. The phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p), EAPR (250 & 500 mg/kg; b.wt) and standard Insulin (6 IU/animal; subcutaneous; o.i.d) were administered to the diabetic rats...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Khaled Hamden, Mohamed Ali Boujibiha, Nouha Ben Abdeljelil, Manel Njima, Boulbaba Selmi, Lotfi Achour
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the administration of phytoestrogens on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver-kidney toxicity. METHODS: Phytoestrogens (phyto(E2)) were administrated to high fructose-fat diet (HFFD). RESULTS: This study showed that administration of phyto(E2) to HFFD-mice inhibited lipase activity by 34%, decreased body weight by 20% and modulated lipid profile, showed a decrease in total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) rates in the plasma by 59% and 42%, respectively, and increased the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) level by 31%...
June 14, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Yao-Te Tsai, Ethan I Huang, Geng-He Chang, Ming-Shao Tsai, Cheng-Ming Hsu, Yao-Hsu Yang, Meng-Hung Lin, Chia-Yen Liu, Hsueh-Yu Li
OBJECTIVE: Studies have revealed that 3.5%-26.6% of patients with epiglottitis have comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM). However, whether preexisting DM is a risk factor for acute epiglottitis remains unclear. In this study, our aim was to explore the relationship between preexisting DM and acute epiglottitis in different age and sex groups by using population-based data in Taiwan. METHODS: We analyzed data between January 2000 and December 2013 obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
2018: PloS One
Muruganantham Koothappan, Roshana Devi Vellai, Iyyam Pillai Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
Due to the multifactorial and multisystemic nature of diabetes mellitus, it is often treated with a combination of therapeutic agents having different mode of action. Earlier, we have synthesized several organozinc complexes and evaluated their safety and antidiabetic properties in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). More recently, we have synthesized a metformin-3-hydroxyflavone complex and studied its antidiabetic efficacy in experimental rats. In the present study, a new zinc-mixed ligand (metformin-3-hydroxyflavone) was synthesized, characterized by spectral studies and its antidiabetic properties was evaluated in HFD fed-low dose streptozotocin induced T2DM in rats...
April 24, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Haisheng He, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Weili Zhao, Xiaochun Dong, Wei Wu
Biomimetic nanocarriers are emerging as efficient vehicles to facilitate dietary absorption of biomacromolecules. In this study, two vitamins, thiamine and niacin, are employed to decorate liposomes loaded with insulin, thus facilitating oral absorption via vitamin ligand-receptor interactions. Both vitamins are conjugated with stearamine, which works to anchor the ligands to the surface of liposomes. Liposomes prepared under optimum conditions have a mean particle size of 125-150 nm and an insulin entrapment efficiency of approximately 30%-36%...
January 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Reham Almardini, Ghazi Salaita, Jawaher Albderat, Katiba Alrabadi, Aghadir Alhadidi, Mahdi Alfarah, Ala' Abu Ruqa'a, Dina Dahabreh
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant is the best renal replacement therapy for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease; however, this procedure is not without complications. A major complication is the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus, which affects the outcomes of transplant in terms of kidney and patient survival. In this study, our objective was to calculate the percentage of pediatric patients who developed new-onset diabetes mellitus or transient hyperglycemia after kidney transplant, compare our data with international data, and discuss the related factors that predispose to diabetes...
June 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Jonathan Gapp, Muhammad Fazeel Anwar, Jai Parekh, Timothy Griffin
A 61-year-old male was admitted from the outpatient setting for treatment of severe hyperglycemia. Five months earlier, his hemoglobin A1c had been 5 mmol/mol. At presentation, hemoglobin A1c was 11.3 mmol/mol and he required insulin therapy at discharge. Later magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified bilateral renal masses, previously seen on ultrasound during workup for chronic kidney disease, as being suspicious for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). He underwent partial nephrectomy and cryoablation with pathology showing papillary type RCC...
May 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Zhihui Deng, John Davis, Flor Muniz-Rodriguez, Fran Richardson
Lifestyle modification with healthy diet and physical exercise is considered the basic strategy of prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, a commonly seen comorbidity in patients with acquired brain injury. Additionally, emotional stress with anxiety and depression is suggested to play a role in type 2 diabetes. Research studies have demonstrated the efficacy of multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention in patients with inadequate glycemic control. However, whether lifestyle approaches alone may be adequate for the management of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is unknown...
May 28, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Jialin Xu, Tingting Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Chunhui Yuan, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Feifei Liu, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
The edible berries of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (known as Jamun) are consumed in various parts of the world. Our previous studies revealed that a triterpenoid-enriched Jamun fruit extract (TJFE) showed beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic mice. Herein, the anti-diabetic effects of TJFE (100 mg kg-1 by oral gavage for ten days) were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. TJFE significantly attenuated STZ-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, suppressed the abnormal elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, and improved dyslipidemia in the mice...
May 29, 2018: Food & Function
Hyun Jeong Jeon, Eu Jeong Ku, Tae Keun Oh
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination drug therapy that consists of dapagliflozin with three other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) would have a beneficial safety and efficacy profile in T2DM patients who have uncontrolled glucose levels compared to a treatment regimen that contains of basal insulin with two different OHAs. METHODS: A total of 162 type 2 diabetic patients who are unable to control glucose on their current therapy consisting of 3 OHAs were enrolled in dapagliflozin group and 148 patients in insulin glargine group for the 24-week study period...
May 26, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yi Ru, Xiao Chen, Jie Xu, Lihong Huang, Miaoshan Jiang, Longhua Guo, Zhenyu Lin, Bin Qiu, Kwok-Yin Wong
Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, possesses anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity, etc. However, the anti-diabetic effect has not been determined. In our present study, a water-soluble polysaccharide named THP with molecular weight of 93307 Da, was isolated from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg by DEAE-52 ion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. It contains rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose in the molar ratio of 0.07:0.14:0.38:0...
May 28, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Dan-Dan Zhang, Nan Shi, Hui Fang, Liang Ma, Wei-Ping Wu, Ya-Zhong Zhang, Jin-Li Tian, Luo-Bing Tian, Kang Kang, Si Chen
Cognitive impairment is a prevalent but underestimated complication of diabetes, which can cause spatial memory and learning deficits. In the present study, a streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model was employed to investigate the effects of vildagliptin, a new oral hypoglycemic agent that acts by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4, on diabetes-associated cognitive impairments, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. The present findings demonstrated that vildagliptin treatment prevented memory impairment and decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Liping Zhang, Yanan Shi, Yina Song, Xinfeng Sun, Xuemei Zhang, Kaoxiang Sun, Youxin Li
Although oral delivery of exenatide has significant advantages, its poor permeability through intestinal epithelial membranes and rapid digestion by pepsin and ereptase in the gastrointestinal tract make effective oral delivery of exenatide a formidable challenge. In this study, we constructed a zinc ion (Zn2+ ) and exenatide complex functionalized nanoparticle (NP) oral delivery system to overcome the above-mentioned issue. Polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) was used as a drug carrier to escape enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, and low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) was used as a functional group to increase penetration of NPs into the intestinal epithelium...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
David P Betten, David J Castle, Mary J Hughes, Jason N Henney
BACKGROUND: In-hospital observation is typically recommended for patients who present to the emergency department with symptomatic hypoglycemia who are taking oral diabetes medications or long acting insulin. Individuals considered to be at low risk of further hypoglycemic episodes by treating providers are however on occasion discharged to home when a low suspicion of recurrence and close observation is available. We describe the frequency of hypoglycemia recurrence requiring further emergency department evaluation who have been recently discharged from the emergency department and are taking oral diabetes medications or long-acting insulin...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sanjay Kalra, Stephen Atkin, Antonio Cervera, Ashok Kumar Das, Orgur Demir, Tevfik Demir, Md Fariduddin, Khoa Tuan Vo, Bon Jeong Ku, Ajay Kumar, Zafar A Latif, Rachid Malek, Bien J Matawaran, Roopa Mehta, Nam Quang Tran, Araceli Panelo, Sundeep Ruder, Joel Rodriquez Saldana, Khalid A Shaikh, Amit Shakya, Dina Shrestha, A G Unnikrishnan
Insulin degludec/aspart (IDegAsp) is the first soluble insulin co-formulation, combining a long-acting insulin degludec (IDeg) and rapid-acting insulin aspart (IAsp). In type 2 diabetes patients with oral antidiabetes agent (OAD) inadequacy, insulin initiation with IDegAsp once daily provides superior long-term glycemic control compared to insulin glargine, with similar fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin doses, and numerically lower rates of overall and nocturnal hypoglycemia. Furthermore, in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes previously treated with insulins, IDegAsp twice daily effectively improves glycated hemoglobin and FPG, with fewer hypoglycemic episodes versus premix insulins and basal bolus therapy...
May 23, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Elham Karimi-Sales, Sajad Jeddi, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Mohammad Reza Alipour
Objectives: Trans-chalcone as the parent member of the chalcone series reduces circulating levels of insulin and glucose. However, the cellular mechanism of these effects is poorly understood. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a direct target of miR-34a controls homeostasis of glucose, and also improves insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigated the influence of trans-chalcone on the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway as a possible mechanism for its hypoglycemic and hypoinsulinemic effects...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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