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artifact on section tissue

Young-Min Kwon, Sariah Khormaee, Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Andrew A Freiberg, Harry E Rubash
BACKGROUND: Modularity in total hip arthroplasty facilitates intraoperative restoration of patient anatomy. Although dual-taper modular total hip arthroplasty offers potential advantages for optimizing the hip center of rotation, it has been associated with modular taper corrosion. This corrosion has led to adverse local tissue reactions (pseudotumors) at the neck-stem junction and elevated metal-ion levels. However, the occurrence of taper-corrosion-related pseudotumors in patients who remain asymptomatic following total hip arthroplasty with a dual-taper modular femoral stem remains largely unknown...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Amberly L Nunez, Giovanna A Giannico, Faisal Mukhtar, Virginia Dailey, Rizk El-Galley, Omar Hameed
The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign...
October 2016: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Euphemia W Mu, Jesse M Lewin, Mary L Stevenson, Shane A Meehan, John A Carucci, Daniel S Gareau
Importance: Confocal microscopy has the potential to provide rapid bedside pathologic analysis, but clinical adoption has been limited in part by the need for physician retraining to interpret grayscale images. Digitally stained confocal mosaics (DSCMs) mimic the colors of routine histologic specimens and may increase adaptability of this technology. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of 3 physicians using DSCMs before and after training to detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Mohs micrographic surgery fresh-tissue specimens...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Young-Min Kwon
Although dual taper modular-neck total hip arthroplasty (THA) design with additional neck-stem modularity has the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters by facilitating adjustments of leg length, femoral neck version and offset, there is increasing concern regarding this stem design as a result of the growing numbers of adverse local tissue reactions due to fretting and corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. Implant factors such as taper cone angle, taper surface roughness, taper contact area, modular neck taper metallurgy, and femoral head size play important roles in influencing extent of taper corrosion...
July 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Pramod K Jali, Mandana Donoghue, Mohsin Gadiwan
BACKGROUND: Surgical pathology is an integral part of diagnosis and management planning in patient care. In the absence of widespread automation, many small laboratories are unable to provide this service due to lack of time. Currently, the shortest processing schedule for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues is 16 working hours; most small laboratories cannot complete the rapid schedules within the average 8-9 working hours. Thus, the availability of an 8-9 h processing schedule that provide satisfactory results can help many small laboratories in routinely providing surgical pathology services...
September 2015: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Michal Franek, Jana Suchánková, Petra Sehnalová, Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Stanislav Kozubek, Josef Večeřa, Dmitry V Sorokin, Eva Bártová
Studies on fixed samples or genome-wide analyses of nuclear processes are useful for generating snapshots of a cell population at a particular time point. However, these experimental approaches do not provide information at the single-cell level. Genome-wide studies cannot assess variability between individual cells that are cultured in vitro or originate from different pathological stages. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence are fundamental experimental approaches in clinical laboratories and are also widely used in basic research...
April 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jeffrey M Goldstein, Thomas K Fehring, Keith A Fehring
BACKGROUND: The presence of pain as a harbinger of bearing-related problems has recently been challenged. Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) have been noted on cross-sectional imaging even in asymptomatic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of such lesions in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: Eighty-three asymptomatic patients with modular metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties underwent metal ion reports and metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI)...
July 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Young-Min Kwon, Dimitris Dimitriou, Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Guoan Li
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend longitudinal monitoring of at-risk metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasty patients with cross-sectional imaging such as metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound. During follow-up evaluations, the clinical focus is on the relative interval changes in symptoms, radiographs, laboratory tests, and cross-sectional imaging modalities. Although MRI has the capacity for the detection of adverse local soft tissue reactions (ALTRs), the potential disadvantages of MARS MRI include the obscuration of periprosthetic tissues by metal artifacts and the cost...
August 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kevin Lindgren, Mike B Anderson, Christopher L Peters, Christopher E Pelt, Jeremy M Gililland
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the prevalence of soft tissue changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and determine if the presence of pseudotumors was associated with metal ion levels, acetabular cup position, outcomes scores, and femoral head size. METHODS: After receiving an institutional review board exemption for secondary data analysis, we performed a cross-sectional study identifying 55 patients (55 hips) that underwent primary THA with a MOM articulation and had subsequent MRI imaging between February 2013 and February 2014 at a single academic medical center...
July 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Jianguo Zhang, Gang Ji, Xiaojun Huang, Wei Xu, Fei Sun
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides great insights into the ultrastructure of cells and tissues in their native state and provides a promising way to study the in situ 3D structures of macromolecular complexes. However, this technique has been limited on the very thin specimen, which is not applicable for most cells and tissues. Besides cryo-sectioning approach, cryo focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) appeared recently to achieve 'artifact-free' thin frozen hydrated lamella via fabrication. Considering that the current cryo-FIB methods need modified holders or cartridges, here, with a "D-shaped" molybdenum grid and a specific shutter system, we developed a simple cryo-FIB approach for thin frozen hydrated lamella fabrication, which fits both standard transmission cryo-electron microscopes with side-entry cryo-holders and state-of-the-art ones with AutoGrids...
May 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Fabien Forest, Gilles Thuret, Philippe Gain, Jean-Marc Dumollard, Michel Peoc'h, Chantal Perrache, Zhiguo He
PURPOSE: In the literature, immunohistochemistry on cross sections is the main technique used to study protein expression in corneal endothelial cells (ECs), even though this method allows visualization of few ECs, without clear subcellular localization, and is subject to the staining artifacts frequently encountered at tissue borders. We previously proposed several protocols, using fixation in 0.5% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or in methanol, allowing immunostaining on flatmounted corneas for proteins of different cell compartments...
2015: Molecular Vision
Yukako Yagi, Gregory Riedlinger, Xun Xu, Akira Nakamura, Bruce Levy, A John Iafrate, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Veronica E Klepeis
Pathologists are required to integrate data from multiple sources when making a diagnosis. Furthermore, whole slide imaging (WSI) and next generation sequencing will escalate data size and complexity. Development of well-designed databases that can allow efficient navigation between multiple data types is necessary for both clinical and research purposes. We developed and evaluated an interactive, web-based database that integrates clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and genetic information to aid in pathologic diagnosis and interpretation with nine lung adenocarcinoma cases...
February 2016: Pathology International
Dong Han, Jeffrey V Siebers, Jeffrey F Williamson
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy and robustness of a simple, linear, separable, two-parameter model (basis vector model, BVM) in mapping proton stopping powers via dual energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging. METHODS: The BVM assumes that photon cross sections (attenuation coefficients) of unknown materials are linear combinations of the corresponding radiological quantities of dissimilar basis substances (i.e., polystyrene, CaCl2 aqueous solution, and water)...
January 2016: Medical Physics
Kelsey Branchfield, Rongbo Li, Vlasta Lungova, Jamie M Verheyden, David McCulley, Xin Sun
Alveologenesis is the final step of lung maturation, which subdivides the alveolar region of the lung into smaller units called alveoli. Each of the nascent dividers serves as a new gas-exchange surface, and collectively they drastically increase the surface area for breathing. Disruption of alveologenesis results in simplification of alveoli, as is seen in premature infants diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a prevalent lung disease that is often associated with lifelong breathing deficiencies...
January 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Arne Marino Aarås, Truls André Reitan-Gjersøe, Anne Waage, Tom Mala, Bjørn Edwin, Else Marit Løberg, Andreas Abildgaard, Bård Ingvald Røsok
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in ectopic liver tissue is extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 64-year-old woman presented initially with abdominal complaints. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a tumor in the diaphragm and laparoscopic resection of the tumor was performed. Histology showed HCC. During the next 4 years four more tumors, all of which showed HCC on histology and were located extrahepatically, was treated with laparoscopic resection...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jun Moriya, Mishie Ann Tanino, Tomoko Takenami, Tomoko Endoh, Masana Urushido, Yasutaka Kato, Lei Wang, Taichi Kimura, Masumi Tsuda, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shinya Tanaka
The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections...
January 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Roger N Gunn, Mark Slifstein, Graham E Searle, Julie C Price
PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction...
November 21, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ye Chen, Danni Wang, Altaz Khan, Yu Wang, Sabine Borwege, Nader Sanai, Jonathan T C Liu
Video-rate optical-sectioning microscopy of living organisms would allow for the investigation of dynamic biological processes and would also reduce motion artifacts, especially for in vivo imaging applications. Previous feasibility studies, with a slow stage-scanned line-scanned dual-axis confocal (LS-DAC) microscope, have demonstrated that LS-DAC microscopy is capable of imaging tissues with subcellular resolution and high contrast at moderate depths of up to several hundred microns. However, the sensitivity and performance of a video-rate LS-DAC imaging system, with low-numerical aperture optics, have yet to be demonstrated...
October 2015: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Cecilia J Strudley, Kenneth C Young, Padraig Looney, Fiona J Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: To develop tomosynthesis quality control (QC) test methods and use them alongside established two-dimensional (2D) QC tests to measure the performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems used in a comparative trial with 2D mammography. METHODS: DBT QC protocols and associated analysis were developed, incorporating adaptions of some 2D tests as well as some novel tests. The tomosynthesis tests were: mean glandular dose to the standard breast model; contrast-to-noise ratio in reconstructed focal planes; geometric distortion; artefact spread; threshold contrast detail detection in reconstructed focal planes, alignment of the X-ray beam to the reconstructed image and missed tissue; reproducibility of the tomosynthesis exposure; and homogeneity of the reconstructed focal planes...
2015: British Journal of Radiology
James S Molton, Francesca A A Leek, Lay Hong Stevia Ng, John J Totman, Nicholas I Paton
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using a modified portable isolation chamber, which conforms to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) isolation requirements, in the imaging of infectious patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the ethics committee, and all participants gave written informed consent. In this prospective study, the isolation chamber was assessed for computed tomographic (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomographic (PET) image uniformity and noise by using uniform phantoms...
March 2016: Radiology
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