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artifact on section tissue

Andreas Hjelm Brandt
This PhD project is based on a longstanding collaboration between physicists and engineers from the Center of Fast Ultrasound Imaging (CFU) at the Technical University of Denmark and medical doctors from the department of Radiology at Rigshospitalet. The intent of this cooperation is to validate new ultrasonic methods for future clinical use. 
Study I compares two B-mode ultrasound methods: the new experimental technique Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beam-forming combined with Tissue Harmonic Imaging (SASB-THI), and a conventional technique combined with THI...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Patti K Kiser, Christiane V Löhr, Danielle Meritet, Sean T Spagnoli, Milan Milovancev, Duncan S Russell
Although quantitative assessment of margins is recommended for describing excision of cutaneous malignancies, there is poor understanding of limitations associated with this technique. We described and quantified histologic artifacts in inked margins and determined the association between artifacts and variance in histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) measurements based on a novel grading scheme applied to 50 sections of normal canine skin and 56 radial margins taken from 15 different canine mast cell tumors (MCTs)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Francesco Pierconti, Esther D Rossi, Maurizio Martini, Emilio Sacco, Pier F Bassi, Luigi M Larocca
The occurrence of inked margins with crush artifact derived from the electrocauterization in radical prostatectomy and/or the presence of crushed areas with distorted glands in prostatic samples after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) can induce a significant interobserver variability during histopathologic evaluation of specimens. The specific immunostaining for basal cell markers 34BetaE12 and p63 and for alfa-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in neoplastic cells is commonly used as an ancillary tool to establish benign and malignant glands...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Timur Alexeev, Brian Kavanagh, Moyed Miften, Cem Altunbas
PURPOSE: Scattered radiation remains to be a major cause of image quality degradation in Flat Panel Detector (FPD) based Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). We have been investigating a novel two dimensional antiscatter grid (2D-ASG) concept to reduce scatter intensity, and hence improve CBCT image quality. We present the first CBCT imaging experiments performed with the 2D-ASG prototype, and demonstrate its efficacy in improving CBCT image quality. METHODS: A 2D-ASG prototype with septa focused to x-ray source was additively manufactured from tungsten and mounted on a Varian TrueBeam CBCT system...
December 12, 2017: Medical Physics
Sarah Aboulmagd, Diego Esteban-Fernández, Estefanía Moreno-Gordaliza, Boris Neumann, A H El-Khatib, Alberto Lázaro, Alberto Tejedor, M Milagros Gómez-Gómez, Michael W Linscheid
The quest for internal standards useful in MALDI imaging studies goes on to get not only lateral distribution but also reliable relative quantitative information. We developed a method based on application of matrix and dual internal standards to allow intra- and intersample normalization of lipids intensities in kidney sections of control and cisplatin-treated Wistar rats. An inkjet printer was used to deposit a custom-prepared ink with DHB as MALDI matrix, a primary lipids-based internal standard, and a spiked lanthanide as a secondary internal standard...
December 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Gláucia Aparecida Bento Dos Santos, Rafael Emídio da Silva, Ricardo Caires Neves, Maryana Alegro, Daniel Boari Coelho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Helmut Heinsen
Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
October 6, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Mario Kompauer, Sven Heiles, Bernhard Spengler
We describe an atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry imaging system that uses long-distance laser triangulation on a micrometer scale to simultaneously obtain topographic and molecular information from 3D surfaces. We studied the topographic distribution of compounds on irregular 3D surfaces of plants and parasites, and we imaged nonplanar tissue sections with high lateral resolution, thereby eliminating height-related signal artifacts.
December 2017: Nature Methods
Nadine Tinne, Georgios C Antonopoulos, Saleh Mohebbi, José Andrade, Lena Nolte, Heiko Meyer, Alexander Heisterkamp, Omid Majdani, Tammo Ripken
The present study focuses on the application of scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) for visualization of anatomical structures inside the human cochlea ex vivo. SLOT is a laser-based highly efficient microscopy technique which allows for tomographic imaging of the internal structure of transparent specimens. Thus, in the field of otology this technique is best convenient for an ex vivo study of the inner ear anatomy. For this purpose, the preparation before imaging comprises decalcification, dehydration as well as optical clearing of the cochlea samples in toto...
2017: PloS One
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Nenggang Jiang, Christopher Chen, Qiang Gong, Kristen Shields, Yuping Li, YuanYuan Chen, Joo Song, Timothy W McKeithan, Wing C Chan
The enormous number of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues available are a valuable resource of material for research. However, the use of such tissues poses many challenges, among which is the difficulty of isolating different cell populations within the tissue. In this study, we used tissue from two types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a model to demonstrate a method we have established and optimized to separate FFPE samples into distinct tumor and nonmalignant populations. Using FFPE reactive tonsil sections, various approaches for antigen retrieval and labeling, and the effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting were tested...
November 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Babak N Safa, Kyle D Meadows, Spencer E Szczesny, Dawn M Elliott
A buffer solution is often used to maintain tissue hydration during mechanical testing. The most commonly used buffer solution is a physiological concentration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, PBS increases the tissue's water content and decreases its tensile stiffness. In addition, solutes from the buffer can diffuse into the tissue and interact with its structure and mechanics. These bathing solution effects can confound the outcome and interpretation of mechanical tests. Potential bathing solution artifacts, including solute diffusion, and their effect on mechanical properties, are not well understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
J R Durkin, L Ogrich, D Morales-Neira, S Dundumalla, M Abdelmalek
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is an emerging imaging technique for rapid histological analysis. As FFOCT is introduced into the Mohs workflow, it is important to document the effect of tissue freezing on FFOCT images and any effect FFOCT has on frozen sections. Our study aimed to evaluate the changes on FFOCT images after tissue freezing as well as FFOCT imaging effects on frozen sectioning. METHODS: Six normal skin specimens were imaged using FFOCT and subsequently frozen using a cryostat...
May 24, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
Yizhong Huang, Maozhang He, Qingjie Zeng, Lin Li, Zhen Zhang, Junwu Ma, Yanyu Duan
Studies on skeletal muscle physiology face the technical challenge of appropriately processing the specimens to obtain sections with clearly visible cytoplasmic compartments. Another hurdle is the tight apposition of myofibers to the surrounding tissues. Because the process of tissue fixation and paraffin embedding leads to the shrinkage of muscle fibers, freezing is an optimal means of hardening muscle tissue for sectioning. However, a commonly encountered issue, the formation of ice crystals, occurs during the preparation of frozen sections because of the high water content of muscle...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Robert Hadzik, Przemysław Bombiński, Michał Brzewski
The double aorta artifact was described and studied thoroughly twenty-five years ago. Despite this, it is still not commonly known today and can cause diagnostic difficulty. Total aortic duplication can be considered an anatomic defect whilst partial duplication mimics aortic dissection. In the literature, this artifact has been compared with a very rare anomaly, i.e. the occurrence of two aortas in one patient. Currently, however, the differentiation of this artifact from abdominal aortic dissection seems to be of greater significance...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
Ramón Casero, Urszula Siedlecka, Elizabeth S Jones, Lena Gruscheski, Matthew Gibb, Jürgen E Schneider, Peter Kohl, Vicente Grau
Traditional histology is the gold standard for tissue studies, but it is intrinsically reliant on two-dimensional (2D) images. Study of volumetric tissue samples such as whole hearts produces a stack of misaligned and distorted 2D images that need to be reconstructed to recover a congruent volume with the original sample's shape. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework called Transformation Diffusion (TD) for stack alignment refinement as a solution to the heat diffusion equation. This general framework does not require contour segmentation, is independent of the registration method used, and is trivially parallelizable...
May 2017: Medical Image Analysis
Monika Pawłowska, Diana Legutko, Marzena Stefaniuk
One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is to understand how brain operates. For this, it would be the best to image the whole brain with at least cellular resolution, preserving the three-dimensional structure in order to capture the connections between different areas. Most currently available high-resolution imaging techniques are based on preparing thin brain sections that are next photographed one by one and subsequently bigger structures are reconstructed. These techniques are laborious and create artifacts...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
Lu Ding, Xose Luis Dean-Ben, Neal C Burton, Robert W Sobol, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Daniel Razansky
Accurate extraction of physical and biochemical parameters from optoacoustic images is often impeded due to the use of unrigorous inversion schemes, incomplete tomographic detection coverage, or other experimental factors that cannot be readily accounted for during the image acquisition and reconstruction process. For instance, inaccurate assumptions in the physical forward model may lead to negative optical absorption values in the reconstructed images. Any artifacts present in the single wavelength optoacoustic images can be significantly aggravated when performing a two-step reconstruction consisting in acoustic inversion and spectral unmixing aimed at rendering the distributions of spectrally distinct absorbers...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Esther Bär, Arthur Lalonde, Gary Royle, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Hugo Bouchard
PURPOSE: Dual-energy CT (DECT) promises improvements in estimating stopping power ratios (SPRs) for proton therapy treatment planning. Although several comparable mathematical formalisms have been proposed in literature, the optimal techniques to characterize human tissue SPRs with DECT in a clinical environment are not fully established. The aim of this work is to compare the most robust DECT methods against conventional single-energy CT (SECT) in conditions reproducing a clinical environment, where CT artifacts and noise play a major role on the accuracy of these techniques...
March 15, 2017: Medical Physics
Jeave Reserva, Zachary Kozel, Cindy Krol, Jodi Speiser, William Adams, Rebecca Tung
Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens...
November 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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