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artifact on section tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873437/three-dimensional-hard-and-soft-tissue-imaging-of-the-human-cochlea-by-scanning-laser-optical-tomography-slot
#1
Nadine Tinne, Georgios C Antonopoulos, Saleh Mohebbi, José Andrade, Lena Nolte, Heiko Meyer, Alexander Heisterkamp, Omid Majdani, Tammo Ripken
The present study focuses on the application of scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) for visualization of anatomical structures inside the human cochlea ex vivo. SLOT is a laser-based highly efficient microscopy technique which allows for tomographic imaging of the internal structure of transparent specimens. Thus, in the field of otology this technique is best convenient for an ex vivo study of the inner ear anatomy. For this purpose, the preparation before imaging comprises decalcification, dehydration as well as optical clearing of the cochlea samples in toto...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832083/a-unique-immunofluorescence-protocol-to-detect-protein-expression-in-vascular-tissues-tacking-a-long-standing-pathological-hitch
#2
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783138/flow-cytometric-sorting-coupled-with-exon-capture-sequencing-identifies-somatic-mutations-in-archival-lymphoma-tissues
#3
Nenggang Jiang, Christopher Chen, Qiang Gong, Kristen Shields, Yuping Li, YuanYuan Chen, Joo Song, Timothy W McKeithan, Wing C Chan
The enormous number of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues available are a valuable resource of material for research. However, the use of such tissues poses many challenges, among which is the difficulty of isolating different cell populations within the tissue. In this study, we used tissue from two types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a model to demonstrate a method we have established and optimized to separate FFPE samples into distinct tumor and nonmalignant populations. Using FFPE reactive tonsil sections, various approaches for antigen retrieval and labeling, and the effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting were tested...
August 7, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720201/exposure-to-buffer-solution-alters-tendon-hydration-and-mechanics
#4
Babak N Safa, Kyle D Meadows, Spencer E Szczesny, Dawn M Elliott
A buffer solution is often used to maintain tissue hydration during mechanical testing. The most commonly used buffer solution is a physiological concentration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, PBS increases the tissue's water content and decreases its tensile stiffness. In addition, solutes from the buffer can diffuse into the tissue and interact with its structure and mechanics. These bathing solution effects can confound the outcome and interpretation of mechanical tests. Potential bathing solution artifacts, including solute diffusion, and their effect on mechanical properties, are not well understood...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543720/freeze-artifact-on-full-field-optical-coherence-tomography-skin-imaging
#5
J R Durkin, L Ogrich, D Morales-Neira, S Dundumalla, M Abdelmalek
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is an emerging imaging technique for rapid histological analysis. As FFOCT is introduced into the Mohs workflow, it is important to document the effect of tissue freezing on FFOCT images and any effect FFOCT has on frozen sections. Our study aimed to evaluate the changes on FFOCT images after tissue freezing as well as FFOCT imaging effects on frozen sectioning. METHODS: Six normal skin specimens were imaged using FFOCT and subsequently frozen using a cryostat...
May 24, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448056/a-multi-hole-cryovial-eliminates-freezing-artifacts-when-muscle-tissues-are-directly-immersed-in-liquid-nitrogen
#6
Yizhong Huang, Maozhang He, Qingjie Zeng, Lin Li, Zhen Zhang, Junwu Ma, Yanyu Duan
Studies on skeletal muscle physiology face the technical challenge of appropriately processing the specimens to obtain sections with clearly visible cytoplasmic compartments. Another hurdle is the tight apposition of myofibers to the surrounding tissues. Because the process of tissue fixation and paraffin embedding leads to the shrinkage of muscle fibers, freezing is an optimal means of hardening muscle tissue for sectioning. However, a commonly encountered issue, the formation of ice crystals, occurs during the preparation of frozen sections because of the high water content of muscle...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439427/double-aorta-artifact-in-sonography-a-diagnostic-challenge
#7
REVIEW
Robert Hadzik, Przemysław Bombiński, Michał Brzewski
The double aorta artifact was described and studied thoroughly twenty-five years ago. Despite this, it is still not commonly known today and can cause diagnostic difficulty. Total aortic duplication can be considered an anatomic defect whilst partial duplication mimics aortic dissection. In the literature, this artifact has been compared with a very rare anomaly, i.e. the occurrence of two aortas in one patient. Currently, however, the differentiation of this artifact from abdominal aortic dissection seems to be of greater significance...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411458/transformation-diffusion-reconstruction-of-three-dimensional-histology-volumes-from-two-dimensional-image-stacks
#8
Ramón Casero, Urszula Siedlecka, Elizabeth S Jones, Lena Gruscheski, Matthew Gibb, Jürgen E Schneider, Peter Kohl, Vicente Grau
Traditional histology is the gold standard for tissue studies, but it is intrinsically reliant on two-dimensional (2D) images. Study of volumetric tissue samples such as whole hearts produces a stack of misaligned and distorted 2D images that need to be reconstructed to recover a congruent volume with the original sample's shape. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework called Transformation Diffusion (TD) for stack alignment refinement as a solution to the heat diffusion equation. This general framework does not require contour segmentation, is independent of the registration method used, and is trivially parallelizable...
May 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409571/-getting-an-insight-into-the-brain-new-optical-clearing-techniques-and-imaging-using-light-sheet-microscope
#9
Monika Pawłowska, Diana Legutko, Marzena Stefaniuk
One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is to understand how brain operates. For this, it would be the best to image the whole brain with at least cellular resolution, preserving the three-dimensional structure in order to capture the connections between different areas. Most currently available high-resolution imaging techniques are based on preparing thin brain sections that are next photographed one by one and subsequently bigger structures are reconstructed. These techniques are laborious and create artifacts...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333622/constrained-inversion-and-spectral-unmixing-in-multispectral-optoacoustic-tomography
#10
Lu Ding, Xose Luis Dean-Ben, Neal C Burton, Robert W Sobol, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Daniel Razansky
Accurate extraction of physical and biochemical parameters from optoacoustic images is often impeded due to the use of unrigorous inversion schemes, incomplete tomographic detection coverage, or other experimental factors that cannot be readily accounted for during the image acquisition and reconstruction process. For instance, inaccurate assumptions in the physical forward model may lead to negative optical absorption values in the reconstructed images. Any artifacts present in the single wavelength optoacoustic images can be significantly aggravated when performing a two-step reconstruction consisting in acoustic inversion and spectral unmixing aimed at rendering the distributions of spectrally distinct absorbers...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295434/the-potential-of-dual-energy-ct-to-reduce-proton-beam-range-uncertainties
#11
Esther Bär, Arthur Lalonde, Gary Royle, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Hugo Bouchard
PURPOSE: Dual-energy CT (DECT) promises improvements in estimating stopping power ratios (SPRs) for proton therapy treatment planning. Although several comparable mathematical formalisms have been proposed in literature, the optimal techniques to characterize human tissue SPRs with DECT in a clinical environment are not fully established. The aim of this work is to compare the most robust DECT methods against conventional single-energy CT (SECT) in conditions reproducing a clinical environment, where CT artifacts and noise play a major role on the accuracy of these techniques...
March 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178008/processing-adipose-rich-mohs-samples-a-comparative-study-of-effectiveness-of-pretreatment-with-liquid-nitrogen-versus-flash-freezing-spray
#12
Jeave Reserva, Zachary Kozel, Cindy Krol, Jodi Speiser, William Adams, Rebecca Tung
Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens...
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125603/relation-between-the-macroscopic-pattern-of-elephant-ivory-and-its-three-dimensional-micro-tubular-network
#13
Marie Albéric, Mason N Dean, Aurélien Gourrier, Wolfgang Wagermaier, John W C Dunlop, Andreas Staude, Peter Fratzl, Ina Reiche
Macroscopic, periodic, dark and bright patterns are observed on sections of elephant tusk, in the dentin part (ivory). The motifs-also called Schreger pattern-vary depending on the orientation in the tusk: on sections perpendicular to the tusk axis, a checkerboard pattern is present whereas on sections longitudinal to it, alternating stripes are observed. This pattern has been used to identify elephant and mammoth ivory in archeological artifacts and informs on the continuous tissue growth mechanisms of tusk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102942/a-platform-independent-method-to-reduce-ct-truncation-artifacts-using-discriminative-dictionary-representations
#14
Yang Chen, Adam Budde, Ke Li, Yinsheng Li, Jiang Hsieh, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: When the scan field of view (SFOV) of a CT system is not large enough to enclose the entire cross-section of the patient, or the patient needs to be positioned partially outside the SFOV for certain clinical applications, truncation artifacts often appear in the reconstructed CT images. Many truncation artifact correction methods perform extrapolations of the truncated projection data based on certain a priori assumptions. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel CT truncation artifact reduction method that directly operates on DICOM images...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056167/filter-paper-assisted-cell-transfer-fact-technique-a-novel-cell-sampling-technique-for-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#15
Jumpei Kawamura, Shingo Kamoshida, Takaaki Shimakata, Yurie Hayashi, Kuniko Sakamaki, Tamami Denda, Kenji Kawai, Sadahito Kuwao
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides critical guidance to surgeons in the determination of surgical resection margins and treatment. The techniques and preparations used for the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors include frozen sectioning and cytologic methods (squash smear and touch imprint). Cytologic specimens, which do not have freezing artifacts, are important as an adjuvant tool to frozen sections. However, if the amount of submitted tissue samples is limited, then it is difficult to prepare both frozen sections and squash smears or touch imprint specimens from a single sample at the same time...
April 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046202/intracerebral-injections-and-ultrastructural-analysis-of-high-pressure-frozen-brain-tissue
#16
Marie-Theres Weil, Torben Ruhwedel, Wiebke Möbius, Mikael Simons
Intracerebral injections are an invasive method to bypass the blood brain barrier and are widely used to study molecular and cellular mechanisms of the central nervous system. The administered substances are injected directly at the site of interest, executing their effect locally. By combining injections in the rat brain with state-of-the-art electron microscopy, subtle changes in ultrastructure of the nervous tissue can be detected prior to overt damage or disease. The protocol presented here involves stereotactic injection into the corpus callosum of Lewis rats and the cryopreparation of freshly dissected tissue for electron microscopy...
January 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869625/asymptomatic-pseudotumors-in-patients-with-taper-corrosion-of-a-dual-taper-modular-femoral-stem-mars-mri-and-metal-ion-study
#17
COMMENT
Young-Min Kwon, Sariah Khormaee, Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Andrew A Freiberg, Harry E Rubash
BACKGROUND: Modularity in total hip arthroplasty facilitates intraoperative restoration of patient anatomy. Although dual-taper modular total hip arthroplasty offers potential advantages for optimizing the hip center of rotation, it has been associated with modular taper corrosion. This corrosion has led to adverse local tissue reactions (pseudotumors) at the neck-stem junction and elevated metal-ion levels. However, the occurrence of taper-corrosion-related pseudotumors in patients who remain asymptomatic following total hip arthroplasty with a dual-taper modular femoral stem remains largely unknown...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649947/frozen-section-evaluation-of-margins-in-radical-prostatectomy-specimens-a-contemporary-study-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Amberly L Nunez, Giovanna A Giannico, Faisal Mukhtar, Virginia Dailey, Rizk El-Galley, Omar Hameed
The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign...
October 2016: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603676/use-of-digitally-stained-multimodal-confocal-mosaic-images-to-screen-for-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer
#19
Euphemia W Mu, Jesse M Lewin, Mary L Stevenson, Shane A Meehan, John A Carucci, Daniel S Gareau
Importance: Confocal microscopy has the potential to provide rapid bedside pathologic analysis, but clinical adoption has been limited in part by the need for physician retraining to interpret grayscale images. Digitally stained confocal mosaics (DSCMs) mimic the colors of routine histologic specimens and may increase adaptability of this technology. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of 3 physicians using DSCMs before and after training to detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Mohs micrographic surgery fresh-tissue specimens...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118353/evaluation-of-the-painful-dual-taper-modular-neck-stem-total-hip-arthroplasty-do-they-all-require%C3%A2-revision
#20
Young-Min Kwon
Although dual taper modular-neck total hip arthroplasty (THA) design with additional neck-stem modularity has the potential to optimize hip biomechanical parameters by facilitating adjustments of leg length, femoral neck version and offset, there is increasing concern regarding this stem design as a result of the growing numbers of adverse local tissue reactions due to fretting and corrosion at the neck-stem taper junction. Implant factors such as taper cone angle, taper surface roughness, taper contact area, modular neck taper metallurgy, and femoral head size play important roles in influencing extent of taper corrosion...
July 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
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