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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#1
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737333/multimodal-imaging-of-undecalcified-tissue-sections-by-maldi-ms-and-%C3%AE-xrf
#2
Anastasiya Svirkova, Anna Turyanskaya, Lukas Perneczky, Christina Streli, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI MSI) is a technique that provides localized information on intact molecules in a sample. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) imaging allows the examination of the spatial distribution of elements in a sample without any morphological changes. These methods have already been applied separately to different tissues, organs, plants and bacterial films, but, to the best of our knowledge, they have yet to be coupled in a multimodal analysis...
May 8, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696387/electron-microscopic-features-of-the-lacrimal-sac-mucopeptide-concretions
#3
Mohammad Javed Ali, Martin Schicht, Jens Heichel, Siva Kumar Nadimpalli, Friedrich Paulsen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of the mucopeptide concretions obtained from the lacrimal sac. METHODS: Mucopeptide concretions obtained from the lacrimal sacs of 10 patients during a dacryocystorhinostomy were immediately fixed for electron microscopic analysis. The surfaces were studied separately and longitudinal and transverse ultra-thin sections were obtained at different levels and all were studied using the standard protocols of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
April 26, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689283/geometry-processing-of-conventionally-produced-mouse-brain-slice-images
#4
Nitin Agarwal, Xiangmin Xu, M Gopi
BACKGROUND: Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. NEW METHOD: In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667880/motion-artifacts-lesion-type-and-parenchymal-enhancement-in-breast-mri-what-does-really-influence-diagnostic-accuracy
#5
Paola Clauser, Matthias Dietzel, Michael Weber, Clemens G Kaiser, Pascal At Baltzer
Background Motion artifacts can reduce image quality of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is a lack of data regarding their effect on diagnostic estimates. Purpose To evaluate factors that potentially influence readers' diagnostic estimates in breast MRI: motion artifacts; amount of fibroglandular tissue; background parenchymal enhancement; lesion size; and lesion type. Material and Methods This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective, cross-sectional, single-center study included 320 patients (mean age = 55...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510811/evaluation-of-new-ultrasound-techniques-for-clinical-imaging-in-selected-liver-and-vascular-applications
#6
Andreas Hjelm Brandt
This PhD project is based on a longstanding collaboration between physicists and engineers from the Center of Fast Ultrasound Imaging (CFU) at the Technical University of Denmark and medical doctors from the department of Radiology at Rigshospitalet. The intent of this cooperation is to validate new ultrasonic methods for future clinical use. 
Study I compares two B-mode ultrasound methods: the new experimental technique Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beam-forming combined with Tissue Harmonic Imaging (SASB-THI), and a conventional technique combined with THI...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429400/histologic-processing-artifacts-and-inter-pathologist-variation-in-measurement-of-inked-margins-of-canine-mast-cell-tumors
#7
Patti K Kiser, Christiane V Löhr, Danielle Meritet, Sean T Spagnoli, Milan Milovancev, Duncan S Russell
Although quantitative assessment of margins is recommended for describing excision of cutaneous malignancies, there is poor understanding of limitations associated with this technique. We described and quantified histologic artifacts in inked margins and determined the association between artifacts and variance in histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) measurements based on a novel grading scheme applied to 50 sections of normal canine skin and 56 radial margins taken from 15 different canine mast cell tumors (MCTs)...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346181/34betae12-and-alfa-methylacyl-coenzyme-a-racemase-amacr-antibodies-better-than-p63-antibody-distinguish-normal-and-neoplastic-glands-in-prostatic-tissue-with-thermal-artifacts
#8
Francesco Pierconti, Esther D Rossi, Maurizio Martini, Emilio Sacco, Pier F Bassi, Luigi M Larocca
The occurrence of inked margins with crush artifact derived from the electrocauterization in radical prostatectomy and/or the presence of crushed areas with distorted glands in prostatic samples after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) can induce a significant interobserver variability during histopathologic evaluation of specimens. The specific immunostaining for basal cell markers 34BetaE12 and p63 and for alfa-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in neoplastic cells is commonly used as an ancillary tool to establish benign and malignant glands...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235120/two-dimensional-antiscatter-grid-a-novel-scatter-rejection-device-for-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#9
Timur Alexeev, Brian Kavanagh, Moyed Miften, Cem Altunbas
PURPOSE: Scattered radiation remains to be a major cause of image quality degradation in Flat Panel Detector (FPD)-based Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). We have been investigating a novel two-dimensional antiscatter grid (2D-ASG) concept to reduce scatter intensity, and hence improve CBCT image quality. We present the first CBCT imaging experiments performed with the 2D-ASG prototype, and demonstrate its efficacy in improving CBCT image quality. METHODS: A 2D-ASG prototype with septa focused to x-ray source was additively manufactured from tungsten and mounted on a Varian TrueBeam CBCT system...
February 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124930/dual-internal-standards-with-metals-and-molecules-for-maldi-imaging-of-kidney-lipids
#10
Sarah Aboulmagd, Diego Esteban-Fernández, Estefanía Moreno-Gordaliza, Boris Neumann, A H El-Khatib, Alberto Lázaro, Alberto Tejedor, M Milagros Gómez-Gómez, Michael W Linscheid
The quest for internal standards useful in MALDI imaging studies goes on to get not only lateral distribution but also reliable relative quantitative information. We developed a method based on application of matrix and dual internal standards to allow intra- and intersample normalization of lipids intensities in kidney sections of control and cisplatin-treated Wistar rats. An inkjet printer was used to deposit a custom-prepared ink with DHB as MALDI matrix, a primary lipids-based internal standard, and a spiked lanthanide as a secondary internal standard...
December 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094303/high-thickness-histological-sections-as-alternative-to-study-the-three-dimensional-microscopic-human-sub-cortical-neuroanatomy
#11
Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Lea Grinberg, Edson Amaro, Gláucia Aparecida Bento Dos Santos, Rafael Emídio da Silva, Ricardo Caires Neves, Maryana Alegro, Daniel Boari Coelho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Helmut Heinsen
Stereotaxy is based on the precise image-guided spatial localization of targets within the human brain. Even with the recent advances in MRI technology, histological examination renders different (and complementary) information of the nervous tissue. Although several maps have been selected as a basis for correlating imaging results with the anatomical locations of sub-cortical structures, technical limitations interfere in a point-to-point correlation between imaging and anatomy due to the lack of precise correction for post-mortem tissue deformations caused by tissue fixation and processing...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984339/a-unique-immunofluorescence-protocol-to-detect-protein-expression-in-vascular-tissues-tacking-a-long-standing-pathological-hitch
#12
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945703/autofocusing-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-tissue-sections-and-3d-chemical-topography-of-nonflat-surfaces
#13
Mario Kompauer, Sven Heiles, Bernhard Spengler
We describe an atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry imaging system that uses long-distance laser triangulation on a micrometer scale to simultaneously obtain topographic and molecular information from 3D surfaces. We studied the topographic distribution of compounds on irregular 3D surfaces of plants and parasites, and we imaged nonplanar tissue sections with high lateral resolution, thereby eliminating height-related signal artifacts.
December 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873437/three-dimensional-hard-and-soft-tissue-imaging-of-the-human-cochlea-by-scanning-laser-optical-tomography-slot
#14
Nadine Tinne, Georgios C Antonopoulos, Saleh Mohebbi, José Andrade, Lena Nolte, Heiko Meyer, Alexander Heisterkamp, Omid Majdani, Tammo Ripken
The present study focuses on the application of scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) for visualization of anatomical structures inside the human cochlea ex vivo. SLOT is a laser-based highly efficient microscopy technique which allows for tomographic imaging of the internal structure of transparent specimens. Thus, in the field of otology this technique is best convenient for an ex vivo study of the inner ear anatomy. For this purpose, the preparation before imaging comprises decalcification, dehydration as well as optical clearing of the cochlea samples in toto...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832083/a-unique-immunofluorescence-protocol-to-detect-protein-expression-in-vascular-tissues-tacking-a-long-standing-pathological-hitch
#15
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783138/flow-cytometric-sorting-coupled-with-exon-capture-sequencing-identifies-somatic-mutations-in-archival-lymphoma-tissues
#16
Nenggang Jiang, Christopher Chen, Qiang Gong, Kristen Shields, Yuping Li, YuanYuan Chen, Joo Song, Timothy W McKeithan, Wing C Chan
The enormous number of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues available are a valuable resource of material for research. However, the use of such tissues poses many challenges, among which is the difficulty of isolating different cell populations within the tissue. In this study, we used tissue from two types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a model to demonstrate a method we have established and optimized to separate FFPE samples into distinct tumor and nonmalignant populations. Using FFPE reactive tonsil sections, various approaches for antigen retrieval and labeling, and the effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting were tested...
November 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720201/exposure-to-buffer-solution-alters-tendon-hydration-and-mechanics
#17
Babak N Safa, Kyle D Meadows, Spencer E Szczesny, Dawn M Elliott
A buffer solution is often used to maintain tissue hydration during mechanical testing. The most commonly used buffer solution is a physiological concentration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, PBS increases the tissue's water content and decreases its tensile stiffness. In addition, solutes from the buffer can diffuse into the tissue and interact with its structure and mechanics. These bathing solution effects can confound the outcome and interpretation of mechanical tests. Potential bathing solution artifacts, including solute diffusion, and their effect on mechanical properties, are not well understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543720/freeze-artifact-on-full-field-optical-coherence-tomography-skin-imaging
#18
J R Durkin, L Ogrich, D Morales-Neira, S Dundumalla, M Abdelmalek
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is an emerging imaging technique for rapid histological analysis. As FFOCT is introduced into the Mohs workflow, it is important to document the effect of tissue freezing on FFOCT images and any effect FFOCT has on frozen sections. Our study aimed to evaluate the changes on FFOCT images after tissue freezing as well as FFOCT imaging effects on frozen sectioning. METHODS: Six normal skin specimens were imaged using FFOCT and subsequently frozen using a cryostat...
February 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448056/a-multi-hole-cryovial-eliminates-freezing-artifacts-when-muscle-tissues-are-directly-immersed-in-liquid-nitrogen
#19
Yizhong Huang, Maozhang He, Qingjie Zeng, Lin Li, Zhen Zhang, Junwu Ma, Yanyu Duan
Studies on skeletal muscle physiology face the technical challenge of appropriately processing the specimens to obtain sections with clearly visible cytoplasmic compartments. Another hurdle is the tight apposition of myofibers to the surrounding tissues. Because the process of tissue fixation and paraffin embedding leads to the shrinkage of muscle fibers, freezing is an optimal means of hardening muscle tissue for sectioning. However, a commonly encountered issue, the formation of ice crystals, occurs during the preparation of frozen sections because of the high water content of muscle...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439427/double-aorta-artifact-in-sonography-a-diagnostic-challenge
#20
REVIEW
Robert Hadzik, Przemysław Bombiński, Michał Brzewski
The double aorta artifact was described and studied thoroughly twenty-five years ago. Despite this, it is still not commonly known today and can cause diagnostic difficulty. Total aortic duplication can be considered an anatomic defect whilst partial duplication mimics aortic dissection. In the literature, this artifact has been compared with a very rare anomaly, i.e. the occurrence of two aortas in one patient. Currently, however, the differentiation of this artifact from abdominal aortic dissection seems to be of greater significance...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
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