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Theodosia Vallianatou, Nicole Strittmatter, Anna Nilsson, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Gregory Hamm, Marcela Pereira, Patrik Källback, Per Svenningsson, Maria Karlgren, Richard J A Goodwin, Per E Andrén
There is a high need to develop quantitative imaging methods capable of providing detailed brain localization information of several molecular species simultaneously. In addition, extensive information on the effect of the blood-brain barrier on the penetration, distribution and efficacy of neuroactive compounds is required. Thus, we have developed a mass spectrometry imaging method to visualize and quantify the brain distribution of drugs with varying blood-brain barrier permeability. With this approach, we were able to determine blood-brain barrier transport of different drugs and define the drug distribution in very small brain structures (e...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Tesfaye Tolessa, Zhi-Qiang Tan, Jing-Fu Liu
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element which causes different health problems including cardiac problems and lung cancer in humans, and its levels in surface water can be noticeably increased to 100 μg/L typically in the proximity of anthropogenic sources. Thus, besides instrumental techniques, it is of great significance to develop a simple, sensitive and selective analytical method for direct analysis of Sb(III) at trace level without the need of any expensive and/or complicated instrumentations and sample preparation processes...
April 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Min-Gang Su, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Justin Bo-Kai Hsu, Kai-Yao Huang, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Protein post-translational modification (PTM) plays an essential role in various cellular processes that modulates the physical and chemical properties, folding, conformation, stability and activity of proteins, thereby modifying the functions of proteins. The improved throughput of mass spectrometry (MS) or MS/MS technology has not only brought about a surge in proteome-scale studies, but also contributed to a fruitful list of identified PTMs. However, with the increase in the number of identified PTMs, perhaps the more crucial question is what kind of biological mechanisms these PTMs are involved in...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Masanori Ishii, Pattarachaya Preechakasedkit, Kentaro Yamada, Orawon Chailapakul, Koji Suzuki, Daniel Citterio
Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are widely used analytical tools characterized by portability, operator simplicity and short analysis times. A remaining challenge is their limited analytical sensitivity, which in classical immunoassay formats is overcome by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats. The implementation of ELISA to an LFT format however, is hampered by the complexity of the procedure requiring the enzyme substrate addition after sample addition. In this work, a simple method for automation of this procedure without user interference is presented...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Dan Zhou, Yang Xu, Cheng Zhang, Meng-Xue Hu, Yun Huang, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen, Chang-Liang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in Southeast Asia. The widespread emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito species poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control measures, particularly in China. Recently, the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of An. sinensis (China strain) has been finished. A series of insecticide-resistant studies in An. sinensis have also been reported. There is a growing need to integrate these valuable data to provide a comprehensive database for further studies on insecticide-resistant management of An...
January 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jinmeng Xu, Yan Zhang, Li Li, Qingkun Kong, Lina Zhang, Shenguang Ge, Jinghua Yu
A highly selective two-point separation strategy was designed based on a cross-like all-in-one lab-on-paper analytical device. The stable and cleavable enzyme-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-PdAu probe was fabricated as the signal reporter to enable visualization and electrochemiluminecence (ECL) dual mode sensing of Pb2+. Concretely, the experimental workflow consists of the following process, (i) fabrication of the lab-on-paper device and growth of Au NPs on ECL detection zone, (ii) immobilization of Pb2+-specific DNAzyme, (iii) hybridization between DNAzyme and rGO-PdAu-glucose oxidase (GOx) labeled oligonucleotide to form double-stranded DNA...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sara Bernardi, Annachiara Colombi, Marco Scianna
In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field...
January 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Cynthia Y H Chan, Antoni B Chan, Tatia M C Lee, Janet H Hsiao
The Hidden Markov Modeling approach for eye-movement data analysis is able to quantitatively assess differences and similarities among individual patterns. Here we applied this approach to examine the relationships between eye-movement patterns in face recognition and age-related cognitive decline. We found that significantly more older than young adults adopted "holistic" patterns, in which most eye fixations landed around the face center, as opposed to "analytic" patterns, in which eye movements switched among the two eyes and the face center...
January 8, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
R Andrew Taylor, Arjun Venkatesh, Vivek Parwani, Sharon Chekijian, Marc Shapiro, Andrew Oh, David Harriman, Asim Tarabar, Andrew Ulrich
BACKGROUND: Emergency Department (ED) leaders are increasingly confronted with large amounts of data with the potential to inform and guide operational decisions. Routine use of advanced analytic methods may provide additional insights. OBJECTIVES: To examine the practical application of available advanced analytic methods to guide operational decision making around patient boarding. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the effect of boarding on ED operational metrics from a single site between 1/2015 and 1/2017...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
B Leslie, S F Crowe
Cognitive deficits are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) regardless of overt neuropsychiatric involvement; however, a clear neuropsychological profile of SLE has not emerged. This study undertook a literature search of the PubMed, Scopus and Ovid (PsychINFO) databases for studies investigating cognitive alterations in SLE, using standardized neuropsychological (NP) measures. The data were analysed using meta-analytical procedures. The results support the observation that relative to healthy controls, SLE (regardless of overt neuropsychiatric involvement) is associated with statistically significant, small effect-sized deficits in visual attention, cognitive fluency, immediate visual memory and visual reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Heidi R Pethybridge, C Anela Choy, Jeffrey J Polovina, Elizabeth A Fulton
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Marine Bruneau, Thierry Mottet, Serge Moulin, Maël Kerbiriou, Franz Chouly, Stéphane Chretien, Christophe Guyeux
In this article, a new Python package for nucleotide sequences clustering is proposed. This package, freely available on-line, implements a Laplacian eigenmap embedding and a Gaussian Mixture Model for DNA clustering. It takes nucleotide sequences as input, and produces the optimal number of clusters along with a relevant visualization. Despite the fact that we did not optimise the computational speed, our method still performs reasonably well in practice. Our focus was mainly on data analytics and accuracy and as a result, our approach outperforms the state of the art, even in the case of divergent sequences...
December 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nicolas Tokhadze, Philip Chennell, Yoann Le Basle, Valerie Sautou
Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Over the past few years, many studies have assessed that monoclonal antibodies are prone to aggregation under stress conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of solutions of an infliximab biosimilar (Inflectra®) at different concentrations (0.4, 2 and 10 mg/mL). These solutions were separately submitted to three temperature conditions that are likely to happen during the drug dispensing system: -20 °C, 5 °C and 25 °C...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Chunxin Zhao, Hongbo Cui, Jing Duan, Shenghai Zhang, Jiagen Lv
We report the unique self-catalyzing chemiluminescence (CL) property of luminol-diazonium ion (N<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>-luminol) and its analytical potential. Visual CL emission was initially observed when N<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>-luminol was subjected to alkaline H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> aqueous without the aid of any catalysts. Further experimental investigations found the peroxidase-like activity of N<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>-luminol on the cleavage of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>into OH• radical...
December 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Rong Liu, Zhibin Yin, Xiaoling Cheng, Yifan Meng, Wei Hang, Benli Huang
Laser desorption laser postionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (L2MS) was applied for unambiguous discrimination of pigment-based inks in blue, black, and red gel pens and molecular imaging of equivocal documents in a quasi-non-destructive way. In comparison to laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS), additional discriminatory information on ink components is acquired uniquely, facilitating the distinct differentiation of various pigmented gel inks. More importantly, diversified images of additional characteristic ions achieved using L2MS offer reliable support to discriminate forged documents and decipher important hidden contents...
December 28, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Se Yeon Oh
INTRODUCTION: Aroma is important in night-flowering species, as visually they can not be observed well. Thus, the analysis of the volatiles of evening-primrose is of great interest in biological fields and therapy. Furthermore, the analysis of volatiles demands rapid and simple procedure, because volatiles decompose. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to show the rapid monitoring of the volatiles of evening-primrose according to the flowering or closing by fast gas chromatography/surface acoustic wave GC/SAW...
December 26, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Zhuoyue Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Huihui Liu, Xiang Mao, Wei Liu, Shouting Zhang, Zongxiu Nie, Xiaoquan Lu
Visual inspection is expected as an ideal technique, which can directly and conveniently detect heavy metal ions by observing the color change. Insensitivity of detecting weakly colored heavy transition metal ions and low adsorptivity of metal ions on nanoparticle surface are two main factors hindering the application of visual detection in heavy metal ions detection. Herein, we demonstrated an operational colorimetric sensor based on the color dependence of nanoparticles aggregation to selective and facile detect weakly colored transition heavy metal Cd2+ ions that have been considered as the origin of the "Itai-itai" disease...
December 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Juanjuan Peng, Junyao Li, Wang Xu, Lu Wang, Dongdong Su, Chai Lean Teoh, Young-Tae Chang
Sensitivity and detection limit are two vital factors that affect fluorophores-based sensing and imaging system. However, it remains a challenge to improve the sensitivity and detection limit of fluorophores, largely due to their limited response and photophysical properties. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach to enhance the sensitivity and detection limit of probes using silica nanoparticles, also known as silica nanoparticles-enhanced fluorescence (SiEF). SiEF can drastically improve the fluorescence intensities and detection limit of fluorophores...
December 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Zhi Han, Travis Johnson, Jie Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Kun Huang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/3035481.].
2017: BioMed Research International
Uzi Harush, Baruch Barzel
Although networks are extensively used to visualize information flow in biological, social and technological systems, translating topology into dynamic flow continues to challenge us, as similar networks exhibit fundamentally different flow patterns, driven by different interaction mechanisms. To uncover a network's actual flow patterns, here we use a perturbative formalism, analytically tracking the contribution of all nodes/paths to the flow of information, exposing the rules that link structure and dynamic information flow for a broad range of nonlinear systems...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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