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visual analytics

Robert Froud, Shilpa Patel, Dévan Rajendran, Philip Bright, Tom Bjørkli, Rachelle Buchbinder, Sandra Eldridge, Martin Underwood
BACKGROUND: Increasing patient-reported outcome measures in the 1980s and 1990s led to the development of recommendations at the turn of the millennium for standardising outcome measures in non-specific low back pain (LBP) trials. Whether these recommendations impacted use is unclear. Previous work has examined citation counts, but actual use and change over time, has not been explored. Since 2011, there has been some consensus on the optimal methods for reporting back pain trial outcomes...
2016: PloS One
Gaël Reecht, Christian Lotze, Dmytro Sysoiev, Thomas Huhn, Katharina J Franke
Diarylethene molecules are prototype molecular switches with their two isomeric forms exhibiting strikingly different conductance, while maintaining similar length. We employed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to resolve the energy and the spatial extend of the molecular orbitals of the open and closed isomers when lying on a Au(111) surface. We find an intriguing difference in the extension of the respective HOMOs and a peculiar energy splitting of the formerly degenerate LUMO of the open isomer...
October 24, 2016: ACS Nano
Shavini Wijesuriya, Krishna Burugapalli, Ruth Mackay, Godwin Chukwuebuka Ajaezi, Wamadeva Balachandran
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates manufactured using complex nano-patterning techniques have become the norm. However, their cost of manufacture makes them unaffordable to incorporate into most biosensors. The technique shown in this paper is low-cost, reliable and highly sensitive. Chemical etching of solid Ag metal was used to produce simple, yet robust SERS substrates with broadband characteristics. Etching with ammonium hydroxide (NH₄OH) and nitric acid (HNO₃) helped obtain roughened Ag SERS substrates...
October 19, 2016: Sensors
F Jagla
It is accepted that the formulation of the motor program in the brain is not only the perceptual and motor function but also the cognitive one. Therefore it is not surprising that the execution of saccadic eye movements can by substantially affected be the on-going mental activity of a given person. Not only the distribution of attention, but also the focusing the attention may influence the main gain of saccades, their accuracy. Patients suffering from mental disorders have strongly engaged their attention focused at their mental processes...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Pavel Kubáň, Knut Fredrik Seip, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
This work investigated selective micro-electromembrane extractions (μ-EMEs) of the colored indicators metanil yellow and congo red (visual proof-of-principle) and the small drug substances nortriptyline, papaverine, mianserin, and citalopram (model analytes) based on their acid-base strength. With two free liquid membranes (FLMs), the target analytes were extracted from aqueous donor solution, across FLM 1 (1-pentanol, 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene (ENB) or 4-nitrocumene (4-NC)), into aqueous acceptor solution 1, further across FLM 2 (1-pentanol, ENB or 4-NC), and finally into aqueous acceptor solution 2...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Travis L Goron, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is a primary transport form of nitrogen in vasculature following root uptake, critical for the location/timing of growth in maize and other cereals. Analytical chemistry methods do not permit in situ analysis of Gln, including visualization within the vascular network. Their cost and tissue requirement are barriers to exploring the complexity of Gln dynamics. We previously reported a biosensor, GlnLux, which can measure relative Gln levels inexpensively with tiny amounts of tissue...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lin Yuan, Yue Pan, Tian-Bing Ren, Dan Cheng, Ze-Bing Zeng, Xiao-Bing Zhang
Thiophenols are highly toxic industrial materials that once released, will accumulate in environment and ultimately into human bodies, causing serious health problems. To achieve their selective and sensitive detection, herein a novel near-infrared fluorescent probe CCP-1 from a focused library was developed for thiophenol species. Our studies show that CCP-1 displays a thiophenol-triggered 28-fold fluorescence intensity enhancement at 706 nm, with a detection limit of 34 nM observed. It is also able to differentiate thiophenols from various other thiol-containing analytes including hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen persulfide and aliphatic thiols...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Yu Sun, Jesper Østergaard
Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Zhuo Wang, Alan A Stocker, Daniel D Lee
The efficient coding hypothesis assumes that biological sensory systems use neural codes that are optimized to best possibly represent the stimuli that occur in their environment. Most common models use information-theoretic measures, whereas alternative formulations propose incorporating downstream decoding performance. Here we provide a systematic evaluation of different optimality criteria using a parametric formulation of the efficient coding problem based on the Lp reconstruction error of the maximum likelihood decoder...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Yoonsik Shim, Andrew Philippides, Kevin Staras, Phil Husbands
We propose a biologically plausible architecture for unsupervised ensemble learning in a population of spiking neural network classifiers. A mixture of experts type organisation is shown to be effective, with the individual classifier outputs combined via a gating network whose operation is driven by input timing dependent plasticity (ITDP). The ITDP gating mechanism is based on recent experimental findings. An abstract, analytically tractable model of the ITDP driven ensemble architecture is derived from a logical model based on the probabilities of neural firing events...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Mustapha Abubakar, Nick Orr, Frances Daley, Penny Coulson, H Raza Ali, Fiona Blows, Javier Benitez, Roger Milne, Herman Brenner, Christa Stegmaier, Arto Mannermaa, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Peter Sinn, Fergus J Couch, Peter Devilee, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Jonine Figueroa, Mark E Sherman, Jolanta Lissowska, Stephen Hewitt, Diana Eccles, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, John W M Martens, Carolien H M van Deurzen, kConFab Investigators, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Michael Jones, Minouk Schoemaker, Jelle Wesseling, Flora E van Leeuwen, Laura Van 't Veer, Douglas Easton, Anthony J Swerdlow, Mitch Dowsett, Paul D Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Montserrat Garcia-Closas
BACKGROUND: The value of KI67 in breast cancer prognostication has been questioned due to concerns on the analytical validity of visual KI67 assessment and methodological limitations of published studies. Here, we investigate the prognostic value of automated KI67 scoring in a large, multicentre study, and compare this with pathologists' visual scores available in a subset of patients. METHODS: We utilised 143 tissue microarrays containing 15,313 tumour tissue cores from 8088 breast cancer patients in 10 collaborating studies...
October 18, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Yiru Wang, Zhengpeng Qin, David R Boulware, Bobbi S Pritt, Lynne M Sloan, Iveth J González, David Bell, Roxanne R Rees-Channer, Peter Chiodini, Warren C W Chan, John C Bischof
There is an increasing need for highly sensitive and quantitative diagnostics at the point-of-care. The lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is one of the most widely used point-of-care diagnostic tests; however, LFAs generally suffers from low sensitivity and lack of quantification. To overcome these limitations, thermal contrast amplification (TCA) is a new method that is based on the laser excitation of gold nanoparticles (GNP), the most commonly used visual signature, to evoke a thermal signature. To facilitate the clinical translation of the TCA technology, we present the development of a TCA reader, a platform technology that significantly improves the limit of detection and provides quantification of disease antigens in LFAs...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Michael Hund, Dominic Böhm, Werner Sturm, Michael Sedlmair, Tobias Schreck, Torsten Ullrich, Daniel A Keim, Ljiljana Majnaric, Andreas Holzinger
Medical doctors and researchers in bio-medicine are increasingly confronted with complex patient data, posing new and difficult analysis challenges. These data are often comprising high-dimensional descriptions of patient conditions and measurements on the success of certain therapies. An important analysis question in such data is to compare and correlate patient conditions and therapy results along with combinations of dimensions. As the number of dimensions is often very large, one needs to map them to a smaller number of relevant dimensions to be more amenable for expert analysis...
March 21, 2016: Brain Informatics
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
October 14, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
I-Min A Chen, Victor M Markowitz, Ken Chu, Krishna Palaniappan, Ernest Szeto, Manoj Pillay, Anna Ratner, Jinghua Huang, Evan Andersen, Marcel Huntemann, Neha Varghese, Michalis Hadjithomas, Kristin Tennessen, Torben Nielsen, Natalia N Ivanova, Nikos C Kyrpides
The Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples (IMG/M: system contains annotated DNA and RNA sequence data of (i) archaeal, bacterial, eukaryotic and viral genomes from cultured organisms, (ii) single cell genomes (SCG) and genomes from metagenomes (GFM) from uncultured archaea, bacteria and viruses and (iii) metagenomes from environmental, host associated and engineered microbiome samples. Sequence data are generated by DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), submitted by individual scientists, or collected from public sequence data archives...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Robert Eugene Hoyt, Dallas Snider, Carla Thompson, Sarita Mantravadi
BACKGROUND: We live in an era of explosive data generation that will continue to grow and involve all industries. One of the results of this explosion is the need for newer and more efficient data analytics procedures. Traditionally, data analytics required a substantial background in statistics and computer science. In 2015, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) released the IBM Watson Analytics (IBMWA) software that delivered advanced statistical procedures based on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)...
October 11, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Santino Gaudio, Lyle Wiemerslage, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
This paper systematically reviews the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in anorexia nervosa (AN), classifying studies on the basis of different analysis approaches. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Fifteen papers were included, investigating a total of 294 participants with current or past AN and 285 controls. The studies used seed-based, whole-brain independent component analysis (ICA), network-of-interest ICA based and graph analysis approaches...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nicolas Courty, Remi Flamary, Devis Tuia, Alain Rakotomamonjy
Domain adaptation is one of the most challenging tasks of modern data analytics. If the adaptation is done correctly, models built on a specific data representation become more robust when confronted to data depicting the same classes, but described by another observation system. Among the many strategies proposed, finding domain-invariant representations has shown excellent properties, in particular since it allows to train a unique classifier effective in all domains. In this paper, we propose a regularized unsupervised optimal transportation model to perform the alignment of the representations in the source and target domains...
October 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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