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Cerebral vasculitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755935/aspergillus-endocarditis-of-the-mitral-valve-with-ventricular-myocardial-invasion-cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-mycotic-aneurysm-formation-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#1
Bibin Varghese, Kevin Ting, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Cezar Iliescu, Joseph Kim, Peter Kim
Aspergillus endocarditis is a rare infection and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of mitral valve aspergillus endocarditis with ventricular myocardial invasion, cerebral vasculitis and intracranial fungal aneurysm formation in a patient with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). This case illustrates the importance of prompt investigation and treatment of masses seen on an echocardiogram for rare infections such as Aspergillus endocarditis in immunocompromised patients.
September 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749594/-non-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-secondary-to-panarteritis-nodosa-at-paediatric-age-a-case-report
#2
L Salgado-Lopez, C de Quintana-Schmidt, I Catala-Antunez, J Aibar-Duran, L San Roman-Manzanera, J Molet-Teixido
INTRODUCTION: Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotizing vasculitis that mainly affects small and medium-sized arteries in skin and internal organs. Neurological involvement is reported in around 25% of cases: ischemic stroke is relatively common, but haemorrhagic lesions are extremely rare. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in polyarteritis nodosa is an uncommon expression of this disease, mostly associated with aneurism rupture. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is just one published case in pediatric age with polyarteritis nodosa and subarachnoid haemorrhage with no underlying aneurismal disease...
May 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736428/early-treatment-for-igg4-related-disease-may-prevent-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-cerebral-vasculitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Toshihiko Usami, Shoji Kawashima, Yoshino Ueki, Takanari Toyoda, Kenji Okita, Noriyuki Matsukawa
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disease entity. A 74-year-old male presented with transient headache. He was diagnosed IgG4-RD by pancreatic biopsy at the age of 72. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed disseminated cerebral microbleeds and microinfarctions in time and space. It suggested cerebral vasculitis, however any causative factor were not confirmed. IgG4-RD rarely causes cerebral vasculitis. This might be a first case of an asymptomatic cerebral vasculitis due to IgG4-RD. Patient was started on oral prednisolone, and no neurological or neuropsychological symptom was clinically observed...
March 2018: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722896/cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-in-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-a-way-to-differentiate-from-cerebral-vasculitis
#4
Laura Kraayvanger, Peter Berlit, Philipp Albrecht, Hans-Peter Hartung, Markus Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by an acute onset of severe headache and multifocal segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries resolving within twelve weeks. Diagnostic criteria include normal or near-normal findings in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, especially leukocyte levels < 10/mm³. Distinguishing RCVS from primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is essential to avoid unnecessary and sometimes unfavorable immunosuppressive treatment...
May 3, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708006/cyclophosphamide-immunomodulation-of-tb-associated-cerebral-vasculitis
#5
Anna Celotti, Fabrizio Vianello, Andrea Sattin, Giacomo Malipiero, Roberto Faggin, Annamaria Cattelan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704959/associated-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-manifestations-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#6
C Brenière, C Blanc, H Devilliers, M Samson, B Delpont, P Bielefeld, J-F Besancenot, M Giroud, Y Béjot
Behçet's disease is a rare multisystemic vasculitis with an etiology that is still unknown. Neurological manifestations may be seen in approximately 5-15% of patients, and both parenchymal and extraparenchymal neurological involvement has been described. When cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is the main extraparenchymal manifestation of Behçet's disease, the condition is then dubbed "angio-Behçet's syndrome". However, arterial involvement is extremely rare, with only one reported case of vasculo-neuro-Behçet's disease, characterized by both venous and intracranial arterial involvement - until now...
April 25, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666731/ischemic-stroke-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-an-initial-presentation-of-neurosyphilis
#8
Kalimullah Jan, Rebecca Hoe Hui Min, Tan Seow Yen, Shekhawat Ravindra Singh
Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#9
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605630/-99m-tc-hmpao-brain-spect-in-the-monitoring-of-cerebral-vasculitis-therapy
#10
V Frantellizzi, M Morreale, M Pontico, A Francia, F M Drudi, A Farcomeni, M Liberatore
OBJECTIVE: The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases of the blood vessels, generally known as vasculitis. The clinical diagnosis of such involvement in early stages is difficult, since a mild cognitive impairment can be the only symptom. It was hypothesized that brain-perfusion SPECT would be able to reveal CNS involvement and to monitor the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was assess if and when an improvement of cerebral perfusion can be registered by SPECT during the follow-up of these diseases...
March 28, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483325/pearls-oy-sters-paraneoplastic-cerebral-vasculitis-rare-cause-of-spontaneous-convexity-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#11
Anuja Patil, Ritu Shree, Darakhshan Naheed, Manoj K Goyal, Sahil Mehta, Chirag K Ahuja, Bishan D Radotra, Vivek Lal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473985/intracranial-vessel-wall-lesions-in-patients-with-systematic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Mari Miyata, Shigeru Iwata, Naoaki Ohkubo, Shingo Nakayamada, Koichiro Futatsuya, Keita Watanabe, Junji Moriya, Yoshihisa Fujino, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yukunori Korogi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is related to vasculitis, which causes brain infarctions; however, the pathology of large cerebral vessels has not been fully established. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the prevalence of vessel wall lesions (VWLs) in SLE patients using 3D vessel wall imaging and to assess the relationship between VWLs and brain infarctions. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Sixty SLE patients and 50 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466947/stroke-as-an-atypical-initial-presentation-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#13
Tharsika Kuganesan, Allen R Huang
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease of medium and large arteries which afflicts older people. The classical presentation features include: headache, visual disturbances, and jaw claudication. Patients diagnosed with GCA have also been observed to be at higher risk for the subsequent development of strokes. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of an 84-year old right-handed man who presented to hospital with dysarthria, dysphagia, right-sided facial drop, a history of generalized weakness and multiple falls...
February 21, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449516/-a-case-of-a-ruptured-cerebral-aneurysm-associated-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#14
Toshihide Takahashi, Wataru Katayama, Yuji Kujiraoka, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura
CASE: A 71-year-old woman was receiving dialysis for microscopic polyangiitis(MPA). She was transported to the emergency room after developing a headache and losing consciousness. She was in a coma and had dense left paralysis. Head computed tomography(CT)showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Head three-dimensional CT angiography showed an aneurysm proximal to the right M2(inferior trunk), which was considered as the source of bleeding. We performed an emergency aneurysm clipping surgery...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429967/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-associated-with-lymphoma
#15
Carlo Salvarani, Robert D Brown, Teresa J H Christianson, John Huston, Stephen M Ansell, Caterina Giannini, Gene G Hunder
OBJECTIVES: To record the clinical findings, response to therapy, and course of patients with primary CNS vasculitis (PCNSV) associated with lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the histories of 936 patients with a diagnosis of any type of vasculitis and lymphoma who were seen at the Mayo Clinic over a 32-year period. Ten patients with both PCNSV and lymphoma were identified. We compared the findings in these 10 patients with those from 158 patients with PCNSV without lymphoma seen over 29 years...
March 6, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426675/the-use-of-cerebral-imaging-for-investigating-delirium-aetiology
#16
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409664/spontaneous-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-meningitis
#17
William D Longhurst, Johnathan M Sheele
Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is extremely rare and has a high mortality rate. We report a case of MRSA meningitis in an otherwise healthy young adult female with no recent trauma or neurosurgical interventions. Despite antibiotics she suffered a vasculitis-induced cerebral vascular ischemic event.
May 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406896/fatal-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#18
Amy Kunchok, Helen C Castley, Lucie Aldous, Simon H Hawke, Emma Torzillo, Geoffrey D Parker, G Michael Halmagyi
We report four fatal cases of fulminant reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, all initially diagnosed as primary central nervous system vasculitis and treated with corticosteroids. Although reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is usually self-limiting without permanent neurologic deficits, rarely it can be fatal and worse outcomes have been associated with corticosteroid treatment.
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398757/atypical-kawasaki-disease-presenting-with-hemiparesis-and-aphasia-a-case-report
#19
Ali Nikkhah
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory vasculitis. KD is classified into two groups based on clinical characteristics criteria, namely classic and incomplete. Cerebral vascular abnormality, especially arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is very rare and unusual in KD. Here, we report a 4-year-old boy who was referred to our tertiary pediatric center with abrupt right hemiparesis and aphasia. At admission time, he had febrile illness and was toxic. On physical examination, we found unilateral left submandibular lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390537/anca-positive-relapsing-polychondritis-graves-disease-and-suspected-moyamoya-disease-a-case-report
#20
Yi-Yi Xuan, Tian-Fang Li, Lei Zhang, Sheng-Yun Liu
RATIOINALE: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare and heterogeneous disease complex of unknown origin which basically affects cartilaginous structures, 40% of which accompanied by rheumatic, hematologic, and endocrine disease. Among them, vasculitis is the most common accompanying type and usually presented with positive antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). The presence of ANCA could be primary or drug-induced like propylthiouracil (PTU). Central involvement of RP is very rare, and there is almost no report of cerebral vasculopathy manifested as moyamoya...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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