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Cerebral vasculitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238458/increased-levels-of-anti-phosphatidylcholine-and-anti-phosphatidylethanolamine-antibodies-in-pediatric-patients-with-cerebral-infarction
#1
Seigo Korematsu, Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Miyahara, Kenji Ihara
Cerebral infarction in children is rare and often occurs secondary to moyamoya disease, hereditary coagulopathies, vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, heart disease, mitochondrial disease. However, in some cases, the causes of cerebral infarction is unknown. In this study, we detected increased levels of serum anti-phosphatidylcholine and anti-phosphatidylethanolamine IgG antibodies in three pediatric patients with cerebral infarction whose primary disorders are unknown by routine examination. For the five disease control patients of cerebral infarction due to other primary disorders, there was no such increase in these antibodies levels...
February 23, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175524/354%C3%A2-diagnostic-utility-of-cerebral-biopsy-following-suggestive-cerebral-angiogram-in-the-workup-of-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#2
James Monroe Wright, Berje Haroutuon Shammassian, Jeffrey Tait Nelson, Christina Huang Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161339/amyloid-%C3%AE-related-angiitis-a-report-of-two-cases-with-unusual-presentations
#3
Denise W Ng, Shino Magaki, Kevin H Terashima, Adrienne M Keener, Noriko Salamon, Stellios Karnezis, Luke Macyszyn, Harry V Vinters
Amyloid-β related angiitis (ABRA) is a rare complication of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in which amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the leptomeningeal and cortical vessels is associated with vasculitis characterized by transmural lymphohistiocytic, often granulomatous, inflammation. Patients usually present with acute to subacute cognitive dysfunction, headaches, and focal neurologic deficits. We report two cases of ABRA with unusual clinical presentations, including one case with fatal cerebral edema leading to herniation and Duret hemorrhages, and another associated with both lobar and deep parenchymal hemorrhages with intraventricular extension as well as hypercoagulability...
February 1, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121918/intracranial-dermoid-cyst-rupture-related-brain-ischemia-case-report-and-hemodynamic-study
#4
Hang Jin, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yun Luo, Ren Zhao, Ming-Shuo Sun, Yi Yang
RATIONALE: Spontaneous rupture of intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare but serious clinical event that can result in cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm and vasculitis are considered as potential mechanisms of dermoid cyst rupture-related cerebral ischemia. However, the hemodynamic mechanisms between cerebral ischemia and dermoid cyst rupture are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with sudden receptive aphasia and right-sided hypoalgesia...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102623/ischemic-stroke-in-kawasaki-disease
#5
Wasana Prangwatanagul, Alisa Limsuwan
Pediatric stroke is considered to be rare. Stroke resulting from cerebral vasculitis is also uncommon in young children. With the increasing prevalence of Kawasaki disease (KD) diagnosis, this acquired vasculitis has been reported with various clinical presentations including neurological symptoms. Herein we describe the case of a KD patient presenting with stroke. A 15-month-old boy was referred due to stroke that occurred on the fifth day of febrile illness. He was initially admitted to another hospital due to fever and diarrhea...
January 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087351/central-nervous-system-vasculitis-in-adults-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Lívia Almeida Dutra, Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza, Gabriela Grinberg-Dias, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Simone Appenzeller
Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is a challenging diagnosis due to broad clinical manifestations and variable specificity and sensitivity of laboratory and imaging diagnostic tools. Differential diagnosis includes reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), secondary vasculitis of the CNS and other noninflammatory vasculopathies. Brain biopsy is essential for definitive diagnosis and to exclude mimickers. Recent data show that data large-vessel PCNSV present worse prognosis when compared to small-vessel PCNSV...
February 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065613/anca-negative-churg-strauss-syndrome-presenting-as-acute-multiple-cerebral-infarcts-a-case-report
#7
Klearchos Psychogios, Ilias Evmorfiadis, Spyros Dragomanovits, Athanasios Stavridis, Konstantinos Takis, Loukas Kaklamanis, Stathis Pantelis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, previously named Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a form of necrotizing vasculitis occurring in patients with asthma and eosinophilia. Ischemic stroke is a relatively rare complication of the disease. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with multiple embolic infarcts, hypereosinophilia (for >7 years), and skin rash. Elevated cardiac enzymes and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with endomyocarditis. The simultaneous presence of history of asthma, sinusitis, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis led to the diagnosis of EGPA...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034820/mycophenolate-mofetil-as-induction-and-long-term-maintaining-treatment-in-childhood-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Anna Rosati, Alessandra Cosi, Massimo Basile, Alice Brambilla, Renzo Guerrini, Rolando Cimaz, Gabriele Simonini
OBJECTIVE: To report our single centre experience in treating 4 children affected by childhood primary central nervous system vasculitis (cPACNS) using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). METHODS: From December 2011 to August 2015, 4 patients (3 males; age range: 9 months-13 years) affected by cPACNS were collected. Enrolled children received the following treatment protocol: acetylsalicylic acid and/or anticoagulant therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) 100 U/k BID replaced by acenocoumarol; methyl-prednisolone (30mg/kg/day for 3-5 days) followed by prednisone (2mg/kg/day), tapered and discontinued over 7-8 months; MMF used for induction therapy and subsequent maintenance phase (750-1000mg/m(2) BID, half-dose for the first 10-15 days followed by full-dose)...
December 26, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030895/imaging-of-intracranial-hemorrhage
#9
REVIEW
Jeremy J Heit, Michael Iv, Max Wintermark
Intracranial hemorrhage is common and is caused by diverse pathology, including trauma, hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic infarction, cerebral aneurysms, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistula, vasculitis, and venous sinus thrombosis, among other causes. Neuroimaging is essential for the treating physician to identify the cause of hemorrhage and to understand the location and severity of hemorrhage, the risk of impending cerebral injury, and to guide often emergent patient treatment...
January 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028157/brain-histopathology-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identification-of-lesions-associated-with-clinical-neuropsychiatric-lupus-syndromes-and-the-role-of-complement
#10
Daniëlle Cohen, Emilie C Rijnink, Rob J A Nabuurs, Gerda M Steup-Beekman, Maarten J Versluis, Bart J Emmer, Malu Zandbergen, Mark A van Buchem, Cornelia F Allaart, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Tom W J Huizinga, Ingeborg M Bajema
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement is a poorly understood manifestation of SLE. We studied post-mortem histopathology in relation to clinical NPSLE syndromes and complement deposition in brains of NPSLE and SLE patients and controls. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between cerebral post-mortem histopathology and ex vivo 7 T MRI findings in SLE and NPSLE. METHODS: A nationwide search for autopsy material yielded brain tissue from 16 NPSLE and 18 SLE patients...
January 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024309/stroke-as-initial-manifestation-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-deficiency
#11
Miriam Elbracht, Michael Mull, Norbert Wagner, Christiane Kuhl, Angela Abicht, Ingo Kurth, Klaus Tenbrock, Martin Häusler
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene causes an autoimmune phenotype with systemic vasculitis affecting the skin, inner organs, and the central nervous system. Typically, stroke has been reported to follow systemic inflammatory disease and predominantly affects posterior and central brain areas. Here, we describe one of the rare patients in whom acute mesencephalic stroke preceded systemic inflammation and presented as initial clinical symptom...
December 26, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004435/biopsy-proven-case-of-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-vasculitis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Kohei Kano 鹿野耕平, Takayuki Katayama, Shiori Takeguchi, Asuka Asanome, Kae Takahashi, Tsukasa Saito, Jun Sawada, Masato Saito, Ryogo Anei, Kyousuke Kamada, Naoyuki Miyokawa, Hiroshi Nishihara, Naoyuki Hasebe
A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with rapidly deteriorating consciousness disturbance. She had a 7-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) and prednisolone. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse high-intensity lesions in the cerebral subcortical and deep white matter, bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein levels and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Human immunodeficiency virus was negative...
December 22, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993446/multiple-thromboembolic-cerebral-infarctions-from-the-aorta-in-a-patient-with-churg-strauss-syndrome
#13
Hideo Okada
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a rare complication of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and its pathogenesis has not been well clarified yet. We report a case of cerebral infarction in a patient with CSS due to embolism from a thrombus on the wall of the aorta. CASE: A 39-year-old man had multiple cerebral infarctions with symptoms of mild left hemiparesis and reduced vision. He was clinically diagnosed to have CSS based on remarkable eosinophilia, history of asthma, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates, and histologically proven extravascular eosinophilic infiltrates in the specimen of gastric mucosa...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987517/-cerebral-infarction-in-a-patient-with-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
D Yang, L Qiao, L D Zhao
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytes infiltration in the exocrine glands. Central nervous system complications of primary SS are not rare, but ischemic stroke has been rarely reported. Here we report a 43-year-old female with a two-year history of primary SS, presenting with sudden cerebral infarction. Her primary SS was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, high levels of serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies, salivary gland secretion evaluation and positive sublingual gland biopsy results...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958312/cerebral-infarction-pattern-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Mei-Ling Sharon Tai, Shanthi Viswanathan, Kartini Rahmat, Hazman Mohd Nor, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir, Khean Jin Goh, Norlisah Ramli, Fatimah Kamila Abu Bakar, Norzaini Rose Mohd Zain, Jun Fai Yap, Beng Hooi Ong, Mohd Hanip Rafia, Chong Tin Tan
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective was to re-examine the concept of "TB zone" and "ischaemic zone" in cerebral infarction in patients with tuberculous meningitis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm in tuberculous meningitis infections. Between 2009 and 2014, TBM patients were recruited. Neuroimaging was performed and findings of cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm were recorded. Infarcts were classified based on arterial supply and Hsieh's classification...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920655/deep-vein-thrombosis-as-initial-manifestation-of-whipple-disease
#16
Mônica Souza de Miranda Henriques, Alexandre Rolim da Paz, Ana Beatriz Person Gaertner, Cibelle Ingrid Stephen Melo, Priscyanne Lins Filgueiras, Rafaella Alencar Jerome
INTRODUCTION: Wipple disease (WD) is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as "stroke-like syndrome" or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919794/diagnostic-utility-of-contrast-enhanced-3d-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-graves-disease
#17
Yasufumi Gon, Manabu Sakaguchi, Naoki Oyama, Hideki Mochizuki
Graves disease is rarely complicated with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases. Previous studies have suggested several hypotheses for this occurrence, including excess thyroid hormone, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn causes an abnormal hemodynamic response with consequent atherosclerotic changes, and antithyroid antibodies cause local vascular inflammation in patients with Graves disease. However, radiological findings of vasculitis in patients with Graves disease and cerebral infarction remain less known...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898024/perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-is-associated-to-materno-fetal-immune-activation-and-intracranial-arteritis
#18
Clémence Guiraut, Nicole Cauchon, Martin Lepage, Guillaume Sébire
The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS' physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836652/intracranial-vessel-wall-imaging-for-evaluation-of-steno-occlusive-diseases-and-intracranial-aneurysms
#19
REVIEW
Waleed Brinjikji, Mahmud Mossa-Basha, John Huston, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Giuseppe Lanzino, Vance T Lehman
Cerebrovascular diseases have traditionally been classified, diagnosed and managed based on their luminal characteristics. However, over the past several years, several advancements in MRI techniques have ushered in high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI), enabling evaluation of intracranial vessel wall pathology. These advancements now allow us to differentiate diseases which have a common angiographic appearance but vastly different natural histories (i.e. moyamoya versus atherosclerosis, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome versus vasculitis, stable versus unstable intracranial aneurysms)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834169/persistent-fever-with-chills-and-an-endocardial-mass-in-a-child-an-unusual-presentation-of-hughes-stovin-syndrome
#20
Marianna Fabi, Francesca Lami, Maurizio Zompatori
A 12-year-old boy with a right atrium endocardial mass was initially diagnosed as having Lemierre's syndrome on the basis of previous mastoiditis and jugular vein and cerebral venous thrombosis. Lack of response to antibiotics, persistent high fever with chills, acute-phase reactants, and peripheral arterial pseudoaneurysms made us reconsider the diagnosis. Only after the late appearance of radiological pulmonary lesions and recognition of pulmonary artery aneurysms, Hughes-Stovin syndrome was diagnosed. Hughes-Stovin syndrome is an exceedingly rare vasculitis, especially in childhood, consisting of multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms and deep venous thromboses...
November 11, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
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