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Cerebral vasculitis

Anuja Patil, Ritu Shree, Darakhshan Naheed, Manoj K Goyal, Sahil Mehta, Chirag K Ahuja, Bishan D Radotra, Vivek Lal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Neurology
Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Mari Miyata, Shigeru Iwata, Naoaki Ohkubo, Shingo Nakayamada, Koichiro Futatsuya, Keita Watanabe, Junji Moriya, Yoshihisa Fujino, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yukunori Korogi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is related to vasculitis, which causes brain infarctions; however, the pathology of large cerebral vessels has not been fully established. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the prevalence of vessel wall lesions (VWLs) in SLE patients using 3D vessel wall imaging and to assess the relationship between VWLs and brain infarctions. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Sixty SLE patients and 50 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Tharsika Kuganesan, Allen R Huang
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease of medium and large arteries which afflicts older people. The classical presentation features include: headache, visual disturbances, and jaw claudication. Patients diagnosed with GCA have also been observed to be at higher risk for the subsequent development of strokes. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of an 84-year old right-handed man who presented to hospital with dysarthria, dysphagia, right-sided facial drop, a history of generalized weakness and multiple falls...
February 21, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Toshihide Takahashi, Wataru Katayama, Yuji Kujiraoka, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura
CASE: A 71-year-old woman was receiving dialysis for microscopic polyangiitis(MPA). She was transported to the emergency room after developing a headache and losing consciousness. She was in a coma and had dense left paralysis. Head computed tomography(CT)showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Head three-dimensional CT angiography showed an aneurysm proximal to the right M2(inferior trunk), which was considered as the source of bleeding. We performed an emergency aneurysm clipping surgery...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Carlo Salvarani, Robert D Brown, Teresa J H Christianson, John Huston, Stephen M Ansell, Caterina Giannini, Gene G Hunder
OBJECTIVES: To record the clinical findings, response to therapy, and course of patients with primary CNS vasculitis (PCNSV) associated with lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the histories of 936 patients with a diagnosis of any type of vasculitis and lymphoma who were seen at the Mayo Clinic over a 32-year period. Ten patients with both PCNSV and lymphoma were identified. We compared the findings in these 10 patients with those from 158 patients with PCNSV without lymphoma seen over 29 years...
February 2, 2018: Neurology
Zina Hijazi, Peter Lange, Rosie Watson, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the frequency and patterns of use of cerebral imaging in delirium and to describe pathological changes associated with delirium using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with delirium admitted to a tertiary hospital (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia) between January 2015 and August 2016. Data on cerebral imaging was collected and positive imaging findings were defined as: Acute or subacute infarct, haemorrhage, abscess, neoplasm, vasculitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, encephalitis, acute demyelination, or fat embolism...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
William D Longhurst, Johnathan M Sheele
Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is extremely rare and has a high mortality rate. We report a case of MRSA meningitis in an otherwise healthy young adult female with no recent trauma or neurosurgical interventions. Despite antibiotics she suffered a vasculitis-induced cerebral vascular ischemic event.
February 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Amy Kunchok, Helen C Castley, Lucie Aldous, Simon H Hawke, Emma Torzillo, Geoffrey D Parker, G Michael Halmagyi
We report four fatal cases of fulminant reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, all initially diagnosed as primary central nervous system vasculitis and treated with corticosteroids. Although reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is usually self-limiting without permanent neurologic deficits, rarely it can be fatal and worse outcomes have been associated with corticosteroid treatment.
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ali Nikkhah
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory vasculitis. KD is classified into two groups based on clinical characteristics criteria, namely classic and incomplete. Cerebral vascular abnormality, especially arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is very rare and unusual in KD. Here, we report a 4-year-old boy who was referred to our tertiary pediatric center with abrupt right hemiparesis and aphasia. At admission time, he had febrile illness and was toxic. On physical examination, we found unilateral left submandibular lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Yi-Yi Xuan, Tian-Fang Li, Lei Zhang, Sheng-Yun Liu
RATIOINALE: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare and heterogeneous disease complex of unknown origin which basically affects cartilaginous structures, 40% of which accompanied by rheumatic, hematologic, and endocrine disease. Among them, vasculitis is the most common accompanying type and usually presented with positive antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). The presence of ANCA could be primary or drug-induced like propylthiouracil (PTU). Central involvement of RP is very rare, and there is almost no report of cerebral vasculopathy manifested as moyamoya...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Leila Chimelli
Acquired and hereditary microangiopathies cause cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD) that impair cognition. The most frequent is primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS), whose diagnosis remains challenging, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Secondary vasculitis, CADASIL, miscellaneous microangiopathies and lymphomas, also cause cognitive impairment. Despite the fact that the need for biopsy has decreased in the era of new neuroimaging methods, biopsies that include small leptomeningeal and parenchymal arterial vessels still remain the gold standard to diagnose PACNS and other CSVD, and to exclude mimics such as infections and malignancies...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Venkata Krishna Pothukuchi, Alok Kumar, Chennamsetty Teja, Archana Verma
Snakebite is an important medical problem in India. Among their various manifestations, cerebral complications are uncommonly found in literature. Moreover, Ischemic stroke following snake bite is quite rare. Here we report a case series of two such cases that developed neurological manifestations following Russell's viper bite. On computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain; cerebral infarcts were revealed. Their likely mechanisms are discussed in present study which include disseminated intravascular coagulation, toxin induced vasculitis and endothelial damage...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Miramir Aghdashi, Seyed-Mostafa Seidmardani, Sara Vossoughian, Seyed Arman Seyed Mokhtari
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by serosal, synovial, or cutaneous inflammation. The central nervous system (CNS) is rarely involved in FMF. The CNS involvement includes demyelinating lesions, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, pseudotumor cerebri, optic neuritis, and cerebral vasculitis. Here, we present a 20-year-old man, a known case of FMF with abrupt left-sided hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed right periventricular infarction...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Ji Ho Ryu, Dae Sub Lee, Kang Ho Lee
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and debilitating disorder, characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa. UC can be considered a systemic disorder but UC-related manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite rare. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with repeated generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) type seizures. Based on brain CT, brain metastasis or hemorrhagic infarct was suspected. Diffusion-weighted image of brain MRI showed high signal in the left thalamus and heterogenous enhancement in the right parietal and left frontal lobes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sikawat Thanaviratananich, Bashar Katirji
Patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) usually manifest with multiple enhancing bilateral hemispheric lesions. We presented an extremely rare clinical course and follow-up of a patient with PCNSV affecting only a single (right) hemisphere. A 33-year-old previously healthy man presented with a left hand clonic seizure followed by a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure and dysarthria. MRI brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions confined to only the right hemisphere with contrast enhancement, involving both white and grey matters...
June 2017: ENeurologicalSci
O Monteventi, M Steinlin, M Regényi, E Roulet-Perez, P Weber, J Fluss
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular complications of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are poorly documented in the paediatric population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from prospectively registered cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from the Swiss NeuroPaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR) from 2000 to 2015. Only cases with serologically confirmed LNB were included. In addition, a literature review on paediatric stroke cases secondary to Lyme neuroborreliosis in the same time frame was performed...
January 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Devdeep Mukherjee, Agnisekhar Saha
Cerebral vasculitis is a serious complication of meningitis with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We report a 5 yr old girl who was admitted in May 2015 at Fortis Hospital, Kolkata, India and was diagnosed to have pneumococcal meningitis with vasculitis on DWMRI within a week of onset of fever. She was given high dose of methyl-prednisolone simultaneously with antibiotics and successfully treated without any neuro-sequelae. Although vasculitis has been documented to develop as sequelae to bacterial meningitis usually in the second week, our patient had an early presentation...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Fang-Wang Fu, Jie Rao, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Hui-Lin Wang, Jian-Guang Yang, Guo-Qing Zheng
Background: POEMS syndrome is a rare multi-systemic disease characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes. Arterial or venous thrombosis is a less-common complication of POEMS syndrome. Ischemic stroke has also been reported sporadically. However, the association between POEMS syndrome and ischemic stroke has not been entirely understood. Methods: A case of ischemic stroke caused by cerebral vasculitis in a patient with POEMS syndrome was presented...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Sae Aratani, Yukinao Sakai, Shuichi Tsuruoka
Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a primary systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects small and medium vessels. MPA is rarely complicated with central nervous system or cardiovascular disease. We report a very rare case of MPA complicated with cerebral infarction, cardiovascular disease, and fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 54-year-old man. During the first six days of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), cerebral infarction, and unstable angina...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Kamble J Harsha, Sujit A Jagtap, Tirur R Kapilamoorthy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Bejoy Thomas, Neelima Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is an uncommon disease, which is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for physicians. Large and medium vessel vasculitis is relatively easy to diagnose by angiogram compared to small vessel vasculitis, where angiograms are often normal; imaging features described till date are sensitive but not specific. PURPOSE: Here, we describe distinct magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of CNS small vessel vasculitis...
November 2017: Neurology India
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