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Brain damage by epilepsy

Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas Covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Zhiqiang Zhang, Wei Liao, Qiang Xu, Wei Wei, Helen Juan Zhou, Kangjian Sun, Fang Yang, Dante Mantini, Xueman Ji, Guangming Lu
In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the causal relationship of morphometric alterations between hippocampus and the other regions, that is, how the hippocampal atrophy leads to progressive morphometric alterations in the epileptic network regions remains largely unclear. In this study, a causal network of structural covariance (CaSCN) was proposed to map the causal effects of hippocampal atrophy on the network-based morphometric alterations in mTLE. It was hypothesized that if cross-sectional morphometric MRI data could be attributed temporal information, for example, by sequencing the data according to disease progression information, GCA would be a feasible approach for constructing a CaSCN...
September 28, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Marie St-Laurent, Morris Moscovitch, Mary Pat McAndrews
We assessed whether perceptual richness, a defining feature of episodic memory, depends on the engagement and integrity of the hippocampus during episodic memory retrieval. We tested participants' memory for complex laboratory events (LEs) that differed in perceptual content: short stories were either presented as perceptually rich film clips or as perceptually impoverished narratives. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while retrieving these LEs (narratives and clips), as well as events from their personal life (autobiographical memories)...
August 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Alexander V Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Sylvain Doré, Paul R Carney, Ronald L Hayes
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most common and devastating complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, the etiopathology and mechanisms of PTE are poorly understood and as a result, there is no effective treatment or means to prevent it. Antiepileptic drugs remain common preventive strategies in the management of TBI to control acute posttraumatic seizures and to prevent the development of PTE, although their efficacy in the latter case is disputed. Different strategies of PTE prophylaxis have been showing promise in preclinical models, but their translation to the clinic still remains elusive due in part to the variability of these models and the fact they do not recapitulate all complex pathologies associated with human TBI...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicholas H Varvel, Jonas J Neher, Andrea Bosch, Wenyi Wang, Richard M Ransohoff, Richard J Miller, Raymond Dingledine
The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not infiltrate the healthy CNS, monocytes can enter the brain in response to injury and contribute to the immune response. We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Erol Ayaz, Şule Aydın Türkoğlu, Hayriye Orallar
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Chunjie Li, Shaomeng Chai, Yongzhi Ju, Lu Hou, Hang Zhao, Wei Ma, Tian Li, Jun Sheng, Wei Shi
Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Mahyar Janahmadi, Ali Yadollahpour
Epilepsy affects about 1-2 % of world population as a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by repeated and consecutive seizures (Grone and Baraban, Nat Neurosci 18(3):339-343, 2015). There is no definitive therapy for epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs cannot offer a permanent and definitive cure for epilepsy, and most epileptic patients become drug resistant (Sasa, J Pharmacol Sci 100(5):487-494, 2006). Surgery and removal of the epileptic focus is a substitute method for treating drug-resistant patients and epilepsy surgery of either side of the brain improves seizure control...
August 26, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Berrin Oztas, Deniz Sahin, Hale Kir, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Mert Musul, Sevinç Kuskay, Nurbay Ates
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained...
August 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
Yu A Grigoryan, A R Sitnikov, A V Timoshenkov, G Yu Grigoryan
UNLABELLED: The mediobasal temporal region (MTR) is located near the brain stem and surrounded by the eloquent neurovascular structures. The supracerebellar transtentorial approach (STA) is safe access to the posterior MTR structures, however its use for resection of anterior MTR lesions still remains controversial. The article describes the technique and outcome of surgery for different MTR structures using STA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The paramedian STA was used in 18 patients (13 females and 5 males) for 7 years...
2016: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Zanhua Liu, Jinjie Liu, Suping Wang, Sibo Liu, Yongbo Zhao
It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Farras Abdelnour, Ashish Raj, Orrin Devinsky, Thomas Thesen
The two most common types of temporal lobe epilepsy are medial temporal sclerosis epilepsy (TLE-MTS) and MRI-normal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-no). TLE-MTS is specified by its stereotyped focus and spread pattern of neuronal damage, with pronounced neuronal loss in the hippocampus. TLE-no exhibits normal-appearing hippocampus and more widepsread neuronal loss. In both cases neuronal loss spread appears to be constrained by the white matter connections. Both varieties of epilepsy reveal pathological abnormalities in increased mean diffusivity (MD)...
July 13, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Pramod K Mishra, Qun Li, Luis E Munoz, Chris A Mares, Elizabeth G Morris, Judy M Teale, Astrid E Cardona
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jaroslava Folbergrová, Pavel Ješina, Hana Kubová, Rastislav Druga, Jakub Otáhal
Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zhigang Lei, Hui Zhang, Yanling Liang, Zao C Xu
PURPOSE: Post-stroke seizures are considered as a major cause of epilepsy in adults. The pathophysiologic mechanisms resulting in post-stroke seizures are not fully understood. The present study attempted to reveal a new mechanism underlying neuronal hyperexcitability responsible to the seizure development after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Transient global ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats using the 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method. The spontaneous behavioral seizures were defined by the Racine scale III-V...
August 2016: Epilepsy Research
M H A Noureldine, G Harifi, A Berjawi, A A Haydar, M Nader, R Elnawar, A Sweid, J Al Saleh, M A Khamashta, I Uthman
Epilepsy and seizures are reported among the neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) at a prevalence rate of approximately 8%, which is nearly 10 times the prevalence of epilepsy in the general population. The association of seizures with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is even more significant in the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this review, we discuss the epidemiological, pathophysiological, laboratory, clinical, and radiological aspects of this association, and derive suggestions on when to consider testing for aPL in epileptic patients and how to manage seizures secondary to APS based on literature data...
May 25, 2016: Lupus
Qing-Peng Hu, Ding-An Mao
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Seizure-induced TLR4/MYD88 signaling plays a critical role in activating microglia and triggering neuron apoptosis. SAHA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that regulates gene expression by increasing chromatin histone acetylation. In this study, we investigated the role of SAHA in TLR4/MYD88 signaling in a rat seizure model. RESULTS: Sprague-Dawley rats with kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures were treated with SAHA...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Eduardo Ortega, Rosa I Muñoz, Nelly Luza, Francisco Guerra, Monserrat Guerra, Karin Vio, Roberto Henzi, Jaime Jaque, Sara Rodriguez, James P McAllister, Esteban Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Mutant rodent models have highlighted the importance of the ventricular ependymal cells and the subcommissural organ (a brain gland secreting glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid) in the development of fetal onset hydrocephalus. Evidence indicates that communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus can be two sequential phases of a single pathological phenomenon triggered by ependymal disruption and/or abnormal function of the subcommissural organ. We have hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may occur in human cases with fetal onset hydrocephalus...
2016: BMC Neurology
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