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Brain damage by epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155349/endogenous-sulfur-dioxide-regulates-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-in-developing-epileptic-rats-and-is-associated-with-the-perk-signaling-pathway
#1
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Qinrui Li, Jing Zhang
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological diseases in children. Recurrent seizures can result in hippocampal damage and seriously impair learning and memory functions in children. However, the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related brain injury are unclear. Neuronal apoptosis is among the most common neuropathological manifestations of brain injury. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been shown to be involved in seizures and related neuron apoptosis. However, the role of endogenous SO2 in epilepsy remains unclear...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#2
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#3
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#4
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073475/structural-differences-in-interictal-migraine-attack-after-epilepsy-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#5
Qi Huang, Xin Lv, Yushuang He, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma, Yuhan Liao, Chao Qin, Yuan Wu
OBJECTIVE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are more likely to suffer from migraine attack, and aberrant white matter (WM) organization may be the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify WM structural differences in PWE with interictal migraine. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 13 PWE with migraine and 12 PWE without migraine. Diffusion metrics were analyzed using tract-atlas-based spatial statistics analysis...
October 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064811/-the-risk-of-epileptic-seizures-during-antibiotic-therapy
#6
Ewa Czapińska-Ciepiela
Numerous antibiotics may trigger epileptic seizures or status epilepticus by decreasing inhibitory transmission in the brain, thus lowering the seizure threshold. The most potent seizurogenic effect is exerted by penicillins, cephalosporins, fluorochinolons and carbapenems. Predisposing factors that facilitate development of epileptic seizures in the course of antibiotic therapy comprise all conditions accompanied by damage to the blood-brain barrier (including cerebral trauma and encephalitis), a high dose of an antibiotic or lack of adequate dose adjustment in patients with renal failure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056525/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-neuronal-injury-via-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-pathways-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-seizures
#7
Bao-Hui Wang, Qun Hou, Yu-Qiang Lu, Meng-Meng Jia, Tao Qiu, Xiao-Hang Wang, Zheng-Xiang Zhang, Yan Jiang
Autophagy alterations have been observed in a variety of neurological disorders, however, very few studies have focused on autophagy alterations in epilepsy. The ketogenic diet (KD) likely ameliorates neuronal loss in several seizure models. However, whether this neuroprotective function occurs via starvation-induced autophagy and its prevalence in chronic kindled seizures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of autophagy following seizure under KD, and the potential mechanism involved...
October 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#8
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018767/optical-coherence-tomography-features-in-a-case-of-type-i-sialidosis
#9
I-Hua Wang, Ting-Yu Lin, Shu-Ting Kao
A 15-year-old boy presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and unbalance gaits for 4 years. Slit lamp examination showed a punctate cataract and funduscopic examination revealed bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Macular scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed hyperreflectivity of the inner retinal layer and apparent hyperreflectivity of the photoreceptor layers in the foveal region. The clinical presentations were consistent with a Type I sialidosis which led to genetic analysis and revealed NEU1 mutation in this patient...
April 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968234/adult-onset-epilepsy-in-presymptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-retrospective-study
#10
Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Lucio Tremolizzo, Valeria Polonia, Giorgia Giussani, Elisa Bianchi, Carlotta Franchi, Alessandro Nobili, Ildebrando Appollonio, Ettore Beghi, Carlo Ferrarese
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy with onset in adulthood increases with age, mainly due to the accumulation of brain damage. However, a significant proportion of patients experience seizures of unknown cause. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizure activity is interpreted as a secondary event related to hyperexcitability caused by amyloid-β aggregation. OBJECTIVE: Since neurodegenerative processes begin several years before clinical symptoms, epilepsy could be more frequent in the presymptomatic stages of dementia...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942474/svct2-expression-and-function-in-reactive-astrocytes-is-a-common-event-in-different-brain-pathologies
#11
Katterine Salazar, Fernando Martínez, Margarita Pérez-Martín, Manuel Cifuentes, Laura Trigueros, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Natalia Saldivia, Romina Bertinat, Katherine Forman, María José Oviedo, Antonio J López-Gambero, Christian Bonansco, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA), the reduced form of vitamin C, acts as a neuroprotector by eliminating free radicals in the brain. Sodium/vitamin C co-transporter isoform 2 (SVCT2) mediates uptake of AA by neurons. It has been reported that SVCT2 mRNA is induced in astrocytes under ischemic damage, suggesting that its expression is enhanced in pathological conditions. However, it remains to be established if SVCT expression is altered in the presence of reactive astrogliosis generated by different brain pathologies. In the present work, we demonstrate that SVCT2 expression is increased in astrocytes present at sites of neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of a GFP-adenovirus or the microbial enzyme, neuraminidase...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931825/disrupted-topological-organization-of-structural-brain-networks-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#12
Wenchao Qiu, Chuanyong Yu, Yuan Gao, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Wenwen Jiang, Jintao Sun, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common paediatric epilepsy syndrome and is characterized by frequent and transient impairment of consciousness. In this study, we explored structural brain network alterations in CAE and their association with clinical characteristics. A whole-brain structural network was constructed for each participant based on diffusion-weighted MRI and probabilistic tractography. The topological metrics were then evaluated. For the first time, we uncovered modular topology in CAE patients that was similar to healthy controls...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#13
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#14
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899505/an-alkaloid-extract-obtained-from-phlegmariurus-saururus-induces-neuroprotection-after-status-epilepticus
#15
Víctor Danelon, Laura Montroull, Mariana Vallejo, José Cabrera, Alicia Agnese, María Gabriela Ortega, Daniel Mascó
BACKGROUND: The brain is exposed to many excitotoxic insults that can lead to neuronal damage. Among these, Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects a large percentage of world population and is commonly associated with cognitive disorders and excitotoxic neuronal death. Most experimental strategies are focused on preventing Status Epilepticus (SE), but once it has already occurred, the key question is whether it is possible to save neurons. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if a purified alkaloid extract (AE) obtained from Phlegmariurus saururus, a genus of Lycophyte plants (sometimes known as firmossesor fir club mosses) could induce neuroprotection following SE...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892741/effect-of-diet-with-omega-3-in-basal-brain-electrical-activity-and-during-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#16
Daniella Tavares Pessoa, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Edbhergue Ventura Lola Costa, Romildo Albuquerque Nogueira
Western diets are high in saturated fat and low in omega-3. Certain animals cannot produce omega-3 from their own lipids, making it necessary for it to be acquired from the diet. However, omega-3s are important components of the plasma membrane, and altering their proportions can promote physical and chemical alterations in the membranes, which may modify neuronal excitability. These alterations occur in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with epilepsy who are more sensitive to changes in brain electrical activity...
September 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890320/neuropsychologist-s-re-view-resective-versus-ablative-amygdalohippocampectomies
#17
REVIEW
Juri-Alexander Witt, Christian Hoppe, Christoph Helmstaedter
Pharmacoresistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) represents the major indication for epilepsy surgery. Since epilepsy surgery is an elective treatment option, preserving cognition is a high priority. Given the essential role of temporomesial structures in declarative long-term memory formation, surgical treatment for mTLE is primarily associated with a risk of material-specific memory decline, but other cognitive domains may be affected as well. The major determinants for the neuropsychological outcome are the functional integrity of surgically affected tissues, the functional reserve capacities of the remnant brain, the postoperative seizure outcome, as well as the quantitative and qualitative changes of antiepileptic drugs...
September 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875534/postmortem-dti-reveals-altered-hippocampal-connectivity-in-wild-sea-lions-diagnosed-with-chronic-toxicosis-from-algal-exposure
#18
Peter F Cook, Gregory S Berns, Kathleen Colegrove, Shawn Johnson, Frances Gulland
Hundreds of wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) exposed to the algal neurotoxin domoic acid are treated in veterinary rehabilitation centers each year. Common chronic effects of toxic exposure in these animals are seizures and hippocampal damage, and they have been proposed as a natural animal model for human epilepsy. Humans with medial temporal lobe epilepsy present with white matter pathology in a number of tracts including the fornix and increased structural connectivity between the hippocampus and thalamus...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814872/microrna-expression-profiles-in-chronic-epilepsy-rats-and-neuroprotection-from-seizures-by-targeting-mir-344a
#19
Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Xiuxiu Wang, Donghua Zou, Chun Luo, Chongdong Jian, Yuan Wu
MicroRNA (miRNA) is believed to play a crucial role in the cause and treatment of epilepsy by controlling gene expression. However, it is still unclear how miRNA profiles change after multiple prolonged seizures and aggravation of brain injury in chronic epilepsy (CE). To investigate the role of miRNA in epilepsy, we utilized the CE rat models with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and miRNA profiles in the hippocampus. miRNA profiles were characterized using miRNA microarray analysis and were compared with the rats in the sham group, which received 0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795432/subcellular-reorganization-and-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin43-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Tushar Deshpande, Tingsong Li, Michel K Herde, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Martin K Schwarz, Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
Dysfunctional astrocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the development and progression of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). One of the dramatic changes astrocytes undergo in MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. In addition to conventional confocal analysis of immunohistochemical staining we employed expansion microscopy, which allowed visualization of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) associated cellular elements at a sub-µm scale...
November 2017: Glia
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