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Brain damage by epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321395/-hmgb1-as-a-representative-damp-and-anti-hmgb1-antibody-therapy
#1
Masahiro Nishibori
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a representative damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), has been reported to be involved in many inflammatory diseases. To validate HMGB1 as a target molecule of inflammatory diseases and to examine the effects of inhibition of HMGB1 on the diseases, we raised anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralizing extracellular HMGB1 and characterized it. We report the effects of anti-HMGB1 mAb on brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, brain trauma, epilepsy and neuropathic pain using animal models...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275588/-impairments-of-gray-matter-in-mri-negative-epileptic-patients-with-different-seizure-types
#2
W Quan, Q Xu, F Yang, G H Chen, Z X Lin, Q R Zhang, J H Xiao, G M Lu, Z Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238892/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-hippocampal-damage-in-developing-rats-with-seizures-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-s6-protein-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#3
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders. Recurrent seizures result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disabilities in children. Currently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to play a neuroprotective role in nervous system disorders. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO modulates epilepsy remain unknown. Based on results from numerous studies, we hypothesized that rhEPO protects against hippocampal damage in developing rats with seizures probably by modulating autophagy via the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a time-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233655/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-brain-injury-through-blunting-the-mtorc1-pathway-in-the-developing-brains-of-rats-with-seizures
#4
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
AIMS: Recurrent seizures can result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disability, which causes devastating damage in children. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered a neuroprotective factor in many nervous system diseases. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO exerts its neuroprotective effects on epilepsy remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we determined whether rhEPO protects against brain injury by inducing cortical neuronal autophagy through blunting the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the developing brains of rats with seizures...
December 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209207/antiepileptic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-oleamide-in-rat-striatum-on-kainate-induced-behavioral-seizure-and-excitotoxic-damage-via-calpain-inhibition
#6
Hye Yeon Nam, Eun Jung Na, Eunyoung Lee, Youngjoo Kwon, Hwa-Jung Kim
Oleamide was first known as a sleep-inducing fatty acid amide, and later shown to have wide range of neuropharmacological effects upon different neurochemical systems. However, the effects of oleamide on brain damage have scarcely been studied, and the molecular mechanisms and sites of its action remain elusive. Kainic acid (KA) has been used to produce an epileptic animal model that mimics human temporal lobe epilepsy and to induce calpain-activated excitotoxicity, which occurs in numerous neurodegenerative disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208406/macrophage-depletion-by-liposome-encapsulated-clodronate-suppresses-seizures-but-not-hippocampal-damage-after-acute-viral-encephalitis
#7
Inken Waltl, Christopher Käufer, Sonja Bröer, Chintan Chhatbar, Luca Ghita, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Ulrich Kalinke, Wolfgang Löscher
Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures and epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. Mouse models such as viral encephalitis induced by intracerebral infection with Theiler's virus in C57BL/6 (B6) mice allow advancing our understanding of the immunological and virological aspects of infection-induced seizures and their treatment. Previous studies using the Theiler's virus model in B6 mice have indicated that brain-infiltrating inflammatory macrophages and the cytokines released by these cells are key to the development of acute seizures and hippocampal damage in this model...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191771/silencing-rno-mir-155-5p-in-rat-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model-reduces-pathophysiological-features-and-cell-apoptosis-by-activating-sestrin-3
#8
Li-Gang Huang, Jing Zou, Qin-Chi Lu
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs are dysregulated in various pathological conditions including epilepsy. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dysregulation of these microRNAs might also be associated with the pathogenesis of TLE. In this study, we found that a microRNA, hsa-miR-155-5p, was upregulated in patients with TLE post-surgery, and hence associated with clinical and pathological manifestations and seizure outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187863/smooth-an-hnrnp-l-homolog-might-decrease-mitochondrial-metabolism-by-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-idh-and-other-metabolic-genes-in-the-sub-acute-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Arko Sen, Katherine Gurdziel, Jenney Liu, Wen Qu, Oluwademi O Nuga, Rayanne B Burl, Maik Hüttemann, Roger Pique-Regi, Douglas M Ruden
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause persistent pathological alteration of neurons. This may lead to cognitive dysfunction, depression and increased susceptibility to life threatening diseases, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the underlying genetic and molecular basis of TBI, we subjected w1118Drosophila melanogaster to mild closed head trauma and found that mitochondrial activity is reduced in the brains of these flies 24 h after inflicting trauma. To determine the transcriptomic changes after mild TBI, we collected fly heads 24 h after inflicting trauma, and performed RNA-seq analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163352/parahippocampal-involvement-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-proof-of-concept-from-memory-guided-saccades
#10
Silvia Colnaghi, Giorgio Beltrami, Guy Poloni, Anna Pichiecchio, Stefano Bastianello, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Maurizio Versino
Objective: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) may involve extrahippocampal areas of structural damage and dysfunction. The accuracy of medium-term spatial memory can be tested by memory-guided saccades (MGS) to evaluate a functional impairment of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can be used to detect a structural damage of the latter region. Methods: MGS with 3- and 30-s memorization delays were compared between 7 patients affected by right MTLE-HS (r-MTLE-HS), 6 patients affected by left MTLE-HS, and 13 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155349/endogenous-sulfur-dioxide-regulates-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-in-developing-epileptic-rats-and-is-associated-with-the-perk-signaling-pathway
#11
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Qinrui Li, Jing Zhang
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological diseases in children. Recurrent seizures can result in hippocampal damage and seriously impair learning and memory functions in children. However, the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related brain injury are unclear. Neuronal apoptosis is among the most common neuropathological manifestations of brain injury. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been shown to be involved in seizures and related neuron apoptosis. However, the role of endogenous SO2 in epilepsy remains unclear...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#12
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#13
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#14
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073475/structural-differences-in-interictal-migraine-attack-after-epilepsy-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#15
Qi Huang, Xin Lv, Yushuang He, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma, Yuhan Liao, Chao Qin, Yuan Wu
OBJECTIVE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are more likely to suffer from migraine attack, and aberrant white matter (WM) organization may be the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify WM structural differences in PWE with interictal migraine. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 13 PWE with migraine and 12 PWE without migraine. Diffusion metrics were analyzed using tract-atlas-based spatial statistics analysis...
October 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064811/-the-risk-of-epileptic-seizures-during-antibiotic-therapy
#16
Ewa Czapińska-Ciepiela
Numerous antibiotics may trigger epileptic seizures or status epilepticus by decreasing inhibitory transmission in the brain, thus lowering the seizure threshold. The most potent seizurogenic effect is exerted by penicillins, cephalosporins, fluorochinolons and carbapenems. Predisposing factors that facilitate development of epileptic seizures in the course of antibiotic therapy comprise all conditions accompanied by damage to the blood-brain barrier (including cerebral trauma and encephalitis), a high dose of an antibiotic or lack of adequate dose adjustment in patients with renal failure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056525/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-neuronal-injury-via-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-pathways-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-seizures
#17
Bao-Hui Wang, Qun Hou, Yu-Qiang Lu, Meng-Meng Jia, Tao Qiu, Xiao-Hang Wang, Zheng-Xiang Zhang, Yan Jiang
Autophagy alterations have been observed in a variety of neurological disorders, however, very few studies have focused on autophagy alterations in epilepsy. The ketogenic diet (KD) likely ameliorates neuronal loss in several seizure models. However, whether this neuroprotective function occurs via starvation-induced autophagy and its prevalence in chronic kindled seizures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of autophagy following seizure under KD, and the potential mechanism involved...
October 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#18
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018767/optical-coherence-tomography-features-in-a-case-of-type-i-sialidosis
#19
I-Hua Wang, Ting-Yu Lin, Shu-Ting Kao
A 15-year-old boy presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and unbalance gaits for 4 years. Slit lamp examination showed a punctate cataract and funduscopic examination revealed bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Macular scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed hyperreflectivity of the inner retinal layer and apparent hyperreflectivity of the photoreceptor layers in the foveal region. The clinical presentations were consistent with a Type I sialidosis which led to genetic analysis and revealed NEU1 mutation in this patient...
April 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968234/adult-onset-epilepsy-in-presymptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-retrospective-study
#20
Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Lucio Tremolizzo, Valeria Polonia, Giorgia Giussani, Elisa Bianchi, Carlotta Franchi, Alessandro Nobili, Ildebrando Appollonio, Ettore Beghi, Carlo Ferrarese
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy with onset in adulthood increases with age, mainly due to the accumulation of brain damage. However, a significant proportion of patients experience seizures of unknown cause. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizure activity is interpreted as a secondary event related to hyperexcitability caused by amyloid-β aggregation. OBJECTIVE: Since neurodegenerative processes begin several years before clinical symptoms, epilepsy could be more frequent in the presymptomatic stages of dementia...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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