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Brain damage by epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749917/a-novel-neural-prosthesis-providing-long-term-electrocorticography-recording-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy-and-brain-computer-interface
#1
Pantaleo Romanelli, Marco Piangerelli, David Ratel, Christophe Gaude, Thomas Costecalde, Cosimo Puttilli, Mauro Picciafuoco, Alim Benabid, Napoleon Torres
OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694499/deformation-of-mitochondrial-cristae-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#2
Rodrigo M DA Costa, Karina Karmirian, Stevens K Rehen
Neural development represents a dynamic process where mitochondrial integrity is decisive for neuronal activity. Structural changes in these organelles may be related to neurological disorders. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsive drug commonly used for epilepsy treatment and its use is associated to increased risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently we showed changes in shape and membrane potential in mitochondria from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) exposed to VPA (da Costa et al. 2015). Here, we applied transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography to evaluate mitochondrial damage caused by VPA in NPCs...
April 23, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681801/anatomy-based-networks-and-topology-alteration-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661537/pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-is-late-onset-a-predictor-for-favorable-outcome
#4
Rooy Rlp de, F J Halbertsma, E A Struijs, Spronsen Fj van, R J Lunsing, H M Schippers, Hasselt Pm van, B Plecko, G Wohlrab, S Whalen, J F Benoist, S Valence, P B Mills, L A Bok
AIM: In pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE), patients usually present with neonatal seizures. A small subgroup is characterized by late-onset beyond 2 months of age. We aim to analyze the observation of relatively good cognitive outcome in this subgroup of late-onset PDE patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from four metabolically and genetically confirmed late-onset patients with PDE due to antiquitin (ALDH7A1) deficiency. Data were analyzed regarding ALDH7A1 mutations, alpha-Aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) and pipecolic acid (PA) levels, medication during pregnancy, delivery, treatment delay, amount of seizures, pyridoxine dose, adjuvant therapy and findings on brain MRI...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658987/does-bilingualism-increase-brain-or-cognitive-reserve-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Anny Reyes, Brianna M Paul, Anisa Marshall, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Naeim Bahrami, Leena Kansal, Vicente J Iragui, Evelyn S Tecoma, Tamar H Gollan, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Bilingual healthy adults have been shown to exhibit an advantage in executive functioning (EF) that is associated with microstructural changes in white matter (WM) networks. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often show EF deficits that are associated with WM compromise. In this study, we investigate whether bilingualism can increase cognitive reserve and/or brain reserve in bilingual patients with TLE, mitigating EF impairment and WM compromise. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was obtained in 19 bilingual and 26 monolingual patients with TLE, 12 bilingual healthy controls (HC), and 21 monolingual HC...
April 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644555/a-mechanistic-approach-to-explore-the-neuroprotective-potential-of-zonisamide-in-seizures
#6
Baldeep Kumar, Bikash Medhi, Manish Modi, Biman Saikia, Savita Verma Attri, Ajay Patial
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a disease of the brain, is one of the most common serious neurological conditions. It is associated with a group of processes which alter energy metabolism, interrupt cellular ionic homeostasis, cause receptor dysfunction, activate inflammatory cascade, alter neurotransmitter uptake and result in neuronal damage. The increasing knowledge and understanding about the basis of neuronal changes in epilepsy lead to investigate the mechanistic pathway of neuroprotective agents in epilepsy...
April 11, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605618/progressive-myoclonus-epilepsy-without-renal-failure-in-a-chinese-family-with-a-novel-mutation-in-scarb2-gene-and-literature-review
#7
Wo-Tu Tian, Xiao-Li Liu, Yang-Qi Xu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Hai-Yan Zhou, Ying Wang, Hui-Dong Tang, Sheng-Di Chen, Xing-Hua Luan, Li Cao
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) patient related with SCARB2 mutation without renal impairment and review 27 SCARB2-related PME patients from 11 countries. METHODS: The patient was a 27-year-old man with progressive action myoclonus, ataxia, epilepsy, dysarthria and absence of cognitive deterioration. Renal functional test was normal. Electroencephalography (EEG) showed progressively slowed background activity and sporadic generalized spike-and-wave discharges...
March 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593494/antiepileptogenic-effect-of-subchronic-palmitoylethanolamide-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-epilepsy
#8
Julia M Post, Sebastian Loch, Raissa Lerner, Floortje Remmers, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Research on the antiepileptic effects of (endo-)cannabinoids has remarkably progressed in the years following the discovery of fundamental role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in controlling neural excitability. Moreover, an increasing number of well-documented cases of epilepsy patients exhibiting multi-drug resistance report beneficial effects of cannabis use. Pre-clinical and clinical research has increasingly focused on the antiepileptic effectiveness of exogenous administration of cannabinoids and/or pharmacologically induced increase of eCBs such as anandamide (also known as arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA])...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590727/nonverbal-memory-capacity-in-persons-with-epilepsy-is-associated-with-depression-rather-than-anxiety
#9
Krunoslav Matešić, Meri Tadinac, Hrvoje Hećimović
Epilepsy is characterized by repeated epileptic seizures, which are manifested in various ways and depend on the location and size of foci in the brain. Long-term seizures with secondary generalization can cause memory problems. Numerous studies demonstrate the connection of memory damage and lateralization in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the results were not always consistent with the material-specific memory model. A possible explanation for these inconsistent data is the insufficient control of psychological variables that can affect memory...
December 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579554/clinical-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria-and-epilepsy-reflex-features
#10
Senay Yildiz Celik, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gurses, Betul Baykan, Aysen Gokyigit
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common form of amino acid metabolism disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. The brain damage can be prevented by early diagnosis and a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Untreated or late-treated patients may show mental retardation and other cognitive dysfunctions, as well as motor disability and/or epilepsy. METHODS: Three patients with PKU and epilepsy were recognized to have reflex epileptic features, and there were ten consecutive adult patients with PKU and epilepsy who were evaluated retrospectively...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574226/role-of-asic1a-in-a%C3%AE-induced-synaptic-alterations-in-the-hippocampus
#11
D Mango, R Nisticò
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system where they play a key role in synaptic transmission and in specific forms of memory. On the other hand, ASICs can be persistently active under pathological conditions contributing to neuronal damage in ischemic stroke, brain trauma, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. However, to date no experimental evidence has linked ASICs to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim of the present work was to investigate, in CA1 pyramidal neurons, the possible involvement of ASIC1a in the Aβ-mediated effect on metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor dependent transmission...
March 21, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547770/an-on-demand-macaque-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-induced-by-unilateral-intra-hippocampal-injection-of-penicillin
#12
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
May 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489588/disruption-of-the-glua2-gapdh-complex-using-tat-glua2nt1-3-2-peptide-protects-against-ampar-mediated-excitotoxicity-after-epilepsy
#13
Jinghui Zhang, Nana Qiao, Xiufang Ding, Jiwen Wang
Excitotoxicity and neuronal death following epilepsy involve α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). It forms a protein complex with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and co-internalizes upon activation of AMPA receptors after epilepsy. Disruption of the GluA2/GAPDH complex with an interfering peptide, TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2, protects cells against AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity, which have been identified in in-vitro and in-vivo models of brain ischemia. We postulated that disruption of the GluA2/GAPDH interaction with the TAT-GluA2NT1-3-2 peptide would also protect against AMPAR-induced neuronal injury in an in-vivo model of status epilepticus (SE)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427088/effect-of-resveratrol-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-immature-brain-during-epileptogenesis
#14
Jaroslava Folbergrová, Pavel Ješina, Hana Kubová, Jakub Otáhal
The presence of oxidative stress in immature brain has been demonstrated during the acute phase of status epilepticus (SE). The knowledge regarding the long periods of survival after SE is not unequivocal, lacking direct evidence. To examine the presence and time profile of oxidative stress, its functional effect on mitochondria and the influence of an antioxidant treatment in immature rats during epileptogenesis, status epilepticus (SE) was induced in immature 12-day-old rats by Li-pilocarpine and at selected periods of the epileptogenesis; rat pups were subjected to examinations...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410648/status-epilepticus-behavioral-and-electroencephalography-seizure-correlates-in-kainate-experimental-models
#15
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Achala Thippeswamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Various etiological factors, such as head injury, chemical intoxication, tumors, and gene mutation, can induce epileptogenesis. In animal models, status epilepticus (SE) triggers epileptogenesis. In humans, convulsive SE for >30 min can be a life-threatening medical emergency. The duration and severity of convulsive SE are highly variable in chemoconvulsant animal models. A continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording, and/or diligent direct observation, facilitates quantification of exact duration of different stages of convulsive seizures (Racine stages 3-5) to determine the severity of SE...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391032/adolescence-adult-onset-mthfr-deficiency-may-manifest-as-isolated-and-treatable-distinct-neuro-psychiatric-syndromes
#16
REVIEW
Ana Gales, Marion Masingue, Stephanie Millecamps, Stephane Giraudier, Laure Grosliere, Claude Adam, Claudio Salim, Vincent Navarro, Yann Nadjar
5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a genetic disorder that can occur at any age and can be easily detected by increased homocysteinemia. In adolescence/adult onset forms, the clinical picture is often complex with association of various neurological features and thrombosis.Here we report the cases of two adult siblings who experienced focal epilepsy at 18 years old as a first disease manifestation, without other symptom during several years. Upon diagnosis, both patients received metabolic treatment comprising B9, B12 and betaine which has stopped the occurrence of seizures, allowing discontinuation of anti-epileptic drugs...
February 1, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357320/ginsenoside-rb1-protects-the-brain-from-damage-induced-by-epileptic-seizure-via-nrf2-are-signaling
#17
Yunbo Shi, Wang Miao, Junfang Teng, Lingli Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) has been reported to have varieties of neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Rb1 on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced rat brain injury and Mg2+ free-induced neuron injury and analyzed the detailed molecular mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Seizure duration and latency were measured in epilepsy kindled rat. The cognitive impairment was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Oxidative stress parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured by the 2-thiobarbituric acid methods and the DTNB-GSSG reductase recycling methods...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321395/-hmgb1-as-a-representative-damp-and-anti-hmgb1-antibody-therapy
#18
Masahiro Nishibori
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a representative damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), has been reported to be involved in many inflammatory diseases. To validate HMGB1 as a target molecule of inflammatory diseases and to examine the effects of inhibition of HMGB1 on the diseases, we raised anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralizing extracellular HMGB1 and characterized it. We report the effects of anti-HMGB1 mAb on brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, brain trauma, epilepsy and neuropathic pain using animal models...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275588/-impairments-of-gray-matter-in-mri-negative-epileptic-patients-with-different-seizure-types
#19
W Quan, Q Xu, F Yang, G H Chen, Z X Lin, Q R Zhang, J H Xiao, G M Lu, Z Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238892/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-hippocampal-damage-in-developing-rats-with-seizures-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-s6-protein-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#20
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders. Recurrent seizures result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disabilities in children. Currently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to play a neuroprotective role in nervous system disorders. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO modulates epilepsy remain unknown. Based on results from numerous studies, we hypothesized that rhEPO protects against hippocampal damage in developing rats with seizures probably by modulating autophagy via the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a time-dependent manner...
February 2018: Neurochemical Research
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