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Phosphatidic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652611/common-lipid-features-of-lethal-ventricular-tarchyarrhythmias-lvtas-induced-by-myocardial-infarction-and-myocardial-ion-channel-diseases
#1
Jiayan Wu, Qian Wu, Dian Wang, Jing Kong, Wentao Dai, Xingxing Wang, Xiaojun Yu
Lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) is the most prevalent electrophysiological underpinning of sudden cardiac death (SCD), a condition that occurs in response to multiple pathophysiological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to identify common lipid features of LVTA that were induced by distinct pathophysiological conditions, thereby facilitating the discovery of novel SCD therapeutic targets. Two rat LVTA-SCD models were established to mimic myocardial infarction (MI) and myocardial ion channel diseases...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649994/membrane-binding-and-activation-of-lkb1-by-phosphatidic-acid-is-essential-for-development-and-tumour-suppression
#2
Giada Dogliotti, Lars Kullmann, Pratibha Dhumale, Christian Thiele, Olga Panichkina, Gudrun Mendl, Roland Houben, Sebastian Haferkamp, Andreas W Püschel, Michael P Krahn
The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, energy homeostasis and cell polarity and is frequently downregulated in various tumours. Many downstream pathways controlled by LKB1 have been described but little is known about the upstream regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that targeting of the kinase to the membrane by a direct binding of LKB1 to phosphatidic acid is essential to fully activate its kinase activity. Consequently, LKB1 mutants that are deficient for membrane binding fail to activate the downstream target AMPK to control mTOR signalling...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644713/an-unstructured-loop-that-is-critical-for-interactions-of-the-stalk-domain-of-drp1-with-saturated-phosphatidic-acid
#3
Yoshihiro Adachi, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a dynamin superfamily GTPase, which drives membrane constriction during mitochondrial division. To mediate mitochondrial division, Drp1 is recruited to the mitochondrial outer membrane and is assembled into the division machinery. We previously showed that Drp1 interacts with phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated phospholipids in the mitochondrial membrane, and this interaction restrains Drp1 in initiating the constriction of mitochondria. Here, we show that the role of saturated acyl chains of phospholipids is independent of their contribution to the membrane curvature or lipid packing suggesting their direct interaction with Drp1...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642776/regulation-involved-in-colonization-of-intercellular-spaces-of-host-plants-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#4
REVIEW
Yasufumi Hikichi, Yuka Mori, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai
A soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invading plant roots first colonizes the intercellular spaces of the root, and eventually enters xylem vessels, where it replicates at high levels leading to wilting symptoms. After invasion into intercellular spaces, R. solanacearum strain OE1-1 attaches to host cells and expression of the hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system (T3SS). OE1-1 then constructs T3SS and secrets effectors into host cells, inducing expression of the host gene encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642195/how-lipid-droplets-tag-along-glycerolipid-synthetic-enzymes-and-lipid-storage
#5
REVIEW
Huan Wang, Michael V Airola, Karen Reue
Triacylglycerols (TAG) serve as the predominant form of energy storage in mammalian cells, and TAG synthesis influences conditions such as obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance. In most tissues, the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway enzymes are responsible for TAG synthesis, and the regulation and function of these enzymes is therefore important for metabolic homeostasis. Here we review the sites and regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), lipin/phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme action...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634761/unveiling-the-compositional-variety-of-cardiolipins-in-rhodobacter-sphaeroides-by-liquid-chromatography-with-electrospray-ionization-and-multistage-collision-induced-dissociation-mass-spectrometry
#6
Sara Granafei, Ilario Losito, Massimo Trotta, Angela Agostiano, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
Cardiolipins (CL) contained in the lipid extracts of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (strain R26) were systematically characterized by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, performed in single (MS), tandem (MS/MS) and sequential (MS(3)) modes using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The total number of carbon atoms and C=C bonds of each CL and, subsequently, those related to each of the constituting phosphatidic acid (PA) units, along with the location of the latter on the central glycerol backbone, were inferred from MS and MS/MS data, respectively...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624494/antibacterial-activity-and-phospholipid-recognition-of-the-recombinant-defensin-j1-1-from-capsicum-genus
#7
Francisco Guillén-Chable, Iván Arenas-Sosa, Ignacio Islas-Flores, Gerardo Corzo, Cynthia Martinez-Liu, Georgina Estrada
The gene of the four disulfide-bridged defensin J1-1 from Capsicum was cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag as fusion protein. This construct was transfected into Origami strain of Escherichia coli and expressed after induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). The level of expression was 4 mg/L of culture medium, and the His-tagged recombinant defensin (HisXarJ1-1) was expressed exclusively into inclusion bodies. After solubilization, HisXarJ1-1 was purified by affinity and hydrophobic interaction chromatography...
June 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624380/plasma-phospholipids-and-sphingolipids-identify-stent-restenosis-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#8
Song Cui, Kefeng Li, Lawrence Ang, Jinghua Liu, Liqian Cui, Xiantao Song, Shuzheng Lv, Ehtisham Mahmud
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of plasma metabolomic biomarkers for in-stent restenosis (ISR). BACKGROUND: ISR remains an issue for patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. Identification of biomarkers to predict ISR could be invaluable for patient care. METHODS: Next-generation metabolomic profiling was performed in the discovery phase from the plasma of 400 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention...
June 7, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621027/aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-relevance-in-the-specificity-of-the-ph-domain
#9
Ja Morales, M Sobol, L C Rodriguez-Zapata, P Hozak, E Castano
Phosphoinositides are phosphatidylinositol derived, well known to be second messengers in various cell signaling pathways as well as in processes such as cell differentiation, cellular stress response, gene transcription, and chromatin remodeling. The pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta 1 is responsible for recognizing and binding to PI(4,5)P2 and for this reason has been widely used to study this phosphoinositide as a biosensor when it is conjugated to a fluorescent tag. In this work, we modified the primary structure of pleckstrin homology domain by site-specific mutagenesis to change the specificity for phosphoinositides...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607433/lipidomic-analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-tissues-of-p53-knockout-mice-by-nuplc-esi-ms-ms
#10
Se Mi Park, Seul Kee Byeon, Hojun Lee, Hyerim Sung, Il Yong Kim, Je Kyung Seong, Myeong Hee Moon
Tumour suppressor p53 is known to be associated with the maintenance of mitochondrial functional properties in the skeletal muscles. As deactivation or mutation of p53 can affect the synthesis of lipids, investigating the relationship between p53-related energy generation metabolism and perturbation of lipid profile is critical. In this study, 329 lipid species (among 412 identified species) in two different skeletal muscle tissues (the gastrocnemius and soleus) from p53 knockout (KO) mice were quantitatively analysed using nanoflow ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS/MS)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588114/two-glycerol-3-phosphate-dehydrogenases-from-chlamydomonas-have-distinct-roles-in-lipid-metabolism
#11
Thomas Driver, Drupad K Trivedi, Owen A McIntosh, Andrew P Dean, Royston Goodacre, Jon K Pittman
The metabolism of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is important for environmental stress responses by eukaryotic microalgae. G3P is an essential precursor for glycerolipid synthesis and the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in response to nutrient starvation. G3P dehydrogenase (GPDH) mediates G3P synthesis but the roles of specific GPDH isoforms are currently poorly understood. Of the five GPDH enzymes in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, GPD2 and GPD3 were shown to be induced by nutrient starvation and/or salt stress...
June 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572624/diacylglycerol-kinase-alpha-is-involved-in-the-vitamin-e-induced-amelioration-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-mice
#12
Daiki Hayashi, Keiko Yagi, Chihong Song, Shuji Ueda, Minoru Yamanoue, Matthew Topham, Toshinobu Suzaki, Naoaki Saito, Noriaki Emoto, Yasuhito Shirai
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of vascular complications of diabetes and is caused by abnormal protein kinase C activation as a result of increased diacylglycerol (DG) production in diabetic hyperglycaemia. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) converts DG into phosphatidic acid. Therefore, it is expected that the activation of DGK would ameliorate DN. Indeed, it has been reported that vitamin E (VtE) ameliorates DN in rat by activating DGK, and we recently reported that VtE specifically activates DGKα isoform in vitro...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572457/a-central-role-for-triacylglycerol-in-membrane-lipid-turnover-and-plant-survival-under-stress
#13
Jilian Fan, Linhui Yu, Changcheng Xu
Neutral lipid metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular homeostasis and energy balance and plays a vital role in cell survival under adverse conditions including nutrient deprivation in yeast and mammals, but the role of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in plant stress response remains largely unknown. By thoroughly characterizing mutants defective in SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) triacylglycerol lipase or PEROXISOMAL ABC TRANSPORTER 1 (PXA1), here we show that TAG is a key intermediate in the mobilization of fatty acids from membrane lipids for peroxisomal ß-oxidation under prolonged dark treatment...
June 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557389/-role-of-ceramide-in-reduction-of-the-cardiolipin-content-in-the-heart-during-aging
#14
N A Babenko, G V Storozhenko
The close correlation between ceramide accumulation and cardiolipin content decrease in cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure was well documented. Taking into account that ceramide can alter the cardiolipin metabolism the purpose of the present study was to determine the role of ceramide in age-dependent decline of cardiolipin content in rat heart tissue. In the present work the puberty young, adult and old (3-, 12-, 24-, 30- and 34-month-old) Wistar male rats were used. It has been shown, that cardiolipin content significantly decreased, while content of cardiolipin precursor, phosphatidic acid, increased during aging...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553283/the-recombinant-sea-urchin-immune-effector-protein-rsptransformer-e1-binds-to-phosphatidic-acid-and-deforms-membranes
#15
Cheng Man Lun, Robin L Samuel, Susan D Gillmor, Anthony Boyd, L Courtney Smith
The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a sophisticated innate immune system that functions without adaptive capabilities and responds to pathogens effectively by expressing the highly diverse SpTransformer gene family (formerly the Sp185/333 gene family). The swift gene expression response and the sequence diversity of SpTransformer cDNAs suggest that the encoded proteins have immune functions. Individual sea urchins can express up to 260 distinct SpTransformer proteins, and their diversity suggests that different versions may have different functions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532301/heterotrimeric-g-protein-regulatory-circuits-in-plants-conserved-and-novel-mechanisms
#16
Sona Pandey
Article Addendum Efficient activation and deactivation of Gα protein is critical for the regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein mediated signaling pathways. While the core G-protein components and their activation/deactivation chemistries are broadly conserved throughout the eukaryotic evolution, their regulatory mechanisms seem to have been rewired in plants to meet specific needs. Plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a limited number of G-protein components and their regulators, offer a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanistic details of distinct signaling pathways...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481871/suppression-of-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-and-migration-in-glioblastoma-by-nrdp1-mediated-dvl-polyubiquitination
#17
J H Wald, J Hatakeyama, I Printsev, A Cuevas, W H D Fry, M J Saldana, K VanderVorst, A Rowson-Hodel, J M Angelastro, C Sweeney, K L Carraway Rd
The lethality of the aggressive brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) results in part from its strong propensity to invade surrounding normal brain tissue. Although oncogenic drivers such as epidermal growth factor receptor activation and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog inactivation are thought to promote the motility and invasiveness of GBM cells via phosphatidylinostitol 3-kinase activation, other unexplored mechanisms may also contribute to malignancy. Here we demonstrate that several components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) arm of non-canonical Wnt signaling including VANGL1, VANGL2 and FZD7 are transcriptionally upregulated in glioma and correlate with poorer patient outcome...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451650/lipidomic-signature-of-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-chronic-renal-insufficiency-cohort
#18
Farsad Afshinnia, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Alla Karnovsky, Tanu Soni, Xue Wang, Dawei Xie, Wei Yang, Tariq Shafi, Matthew R Weir, Jiang He, Carolyn S Brecklin, Eugene P Rhee, Jeffrey R Schelling, Akinlolu Ojo, Harold Feldman, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur
INTRODUCTION: Human studies report conflicting results on the predictive power of serum lipids on progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to systematically identify the lipids that predict progression to end-stage kidney disease. METHODS: From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, 79 patients with CKD stage 2 to 3 who progressed to ESKD over 6 years of follow up were selected and frequency-matched by age, sex, race, and diabetes with 121 non-progressors with less than 25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the follow up...
November 2016: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439282/overexpression-of-cucumber-phospholipase-d-alpha-gene-cspld%C3%AE-in-tobacco-enhanced-salinity-stress-tolerance-by-regulating-na-k-balance-and-lipid-peroxidation
#19
Tuo Ji, Shuzhen Li, Meili Huang, Qinghua Di, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Qinghua Shi, Yan Li, Biao Gong, Fengjuan Yang
Plant phospholipase D (PLD), which can hydrolyze membrane phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), a secondary signaling molecule, has been proposed to function in diverse plant stress responses. In this research, we characterized the roles of the cucumber phospholipase D alpha gene (PLDα, GenBank accession number EF363796) in growth and tolerance to short- and long-term salt stress in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Fresh and dry weights of roots, PLD activity and content, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene expression, Na(+)-K(+) homeostasis, expression of genes encoding ion exchange, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances were investigated in wild type (WT) and CsPLDα-overexpression tobacco lines grown under short- and long-term high salt (250 mM) stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433954/lipidomic-profile-in-three-species-of-dinoflagellates-amphidinium-carterae-cystodinium-sp-and-peridinium-aciculiferum-containing-very-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#20
Tomáš Řezanka, Jaromír Lukavský, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
This study describes the identification of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) in three strains of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium carterae, Cystodinium sp., and Peridinium aciculiferum). The strains were cultivated and their lipidomic profiles were obtained by high resolution mass spectrometry with the aid of positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode by Orbitrap apparatus. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC/ESI) was used to separate major lipid classes of the three genera of dinoflagellates by neutral loss scan showing the ion [M + H-28:8](+), where 28:8 was octacosaoctaenoic acid, and by precursor ion scanning of ions at m/z 407, which was an ion corresponding to the structure of acyl of 28:8 acid (C27H39COO(-))...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
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