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Phosphatidic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340795/the-sesquiterpene-botrydial-from-botrytis-cinerea-induces-phosphatidic-acid-production-in-tomato-cell-suspensions
#1
Juan Martin D'Ambrosio, Gabriela Gonorazky, Daniela J Sueldo, Javier Moraga, Andrés Arruebarrena Di Palma, Lorenzo Lamattina, Isidro González Collado, Ana Maria Laxalt
The phytotoxin botrydial triggers PA production in tomato cell suspensions via PLD and PLC/DGK activation. PLC/DGK-derived PA is partially required for botrydial-induced ROS generation. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a phospholipid second messenger involved in the induction of plant defense responses. It is generated via two distinct enzymatic pathways, either via phospholipase D (PLD) or by the sequential action of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase (PLC/DGK). Botrydial is a phytotoxic sesquiterpene generated by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea that induces diverse plant defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339280/simultaneous-degumming-and-production-of-a-natural-gum-from-crotalaria-juncea-seeds-physicochemical-and-rheological-characterization
#2
Suvra Sadhukhan, Annesha Bhattacharjee, Ujjaini Sarkar, Pabitra Kumar Baidya, Sibashish Baksi
The oil extracted from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-hemp) contains 70% of gum. Several methods of degumming are attempted in order to maximize the yield of gum. During appropriate water induced degumming, about 95-98% of phosphatides are separated. The maximum oil yield for two types of degummimg processes are 0.59% and 0.69% corresponding to hot water and pure O-phosphoric acid (19.88 N) treatment respectively. The % oil yield obtained for TOP degumming is about 0.78%. Physico-chemical characteristics of the isolated gum such as moisture, ash, protein, fat and aqueous solubility along with FTIR and TGA analysis are studied in order to evaluate the effect of extraction process...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323242/adipose-specific-lipin1-overexpression-in-mice-protects-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury
#3
Wenliang Zhang, Wei Zhong, Qian Sun, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
Excessive fatty acid release from the white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Lipin1 (LPIN1), as a co-regulator of DNA-bound transcription factors and a phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase (PAP) enzyme that dephosphorylates PA to form diacylglycerol (DAG), is dramatically reduced by alcohol in the WAT. This study aimed at determining the role of adipose LPIN1 in alcohol-induced lipodystrophy and the development of ALD. Transgenic mice overexpressing LPIN1 in adipose tissue (LPIN1-Tg) and wild type (WT) mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin control liquid diet for 8 weeks...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311141/a-unique-homeostatic-signaling-pathway-links-synaptic-inactivity-to-postsynaptic-mtorc1
#4
Fredrick E Henry, Xiao Wang, David Serrano, Amanda S Perez, Cynthia J L Carruthers, Edward L Stuenkel, Michael A Sutton
mTORC1-dependent translational control plays a key role in several enduring forms of synaptic plasticity such as long term potentiation (LTP) and mGluR-dependent long term depression. Recent evidence demonstrates an additional role in regulating synaptic homeostasis in response to inactivity, where dendritic mTORC1 serves to modulate presynaptic function via retrograde signaling. Presently, it is unclear if LTP and homeostatic plasticity utilize a common route to mTORC1-dependent signaling or if each engage mTORC1 through distinct pathways...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297254/amelioration-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-oral-administration-of-d-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-its-mechanisms
#5
Daiki Hayashi, Shuji Ueda, Minoru Yamanoue, Hitoshi Ashida, Yasuhito Shirai
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a diabetic vascular complication, and abnormal protein kinase C (PKC) activation from increased diacylglycerol (DG) production in diabetic hyperglycemia is one of the causes of DN. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) converts DG into phosphatidic acid. In other words, DGK can attenuate PKC activity by reducing the amount of DG. Recently, we reported that intraperitoneally administered d-α-tocopherol (vitamin E, αToc) induces an amelioration of DN in vivo through the activation of DGKα and the prevention of podocyte loss...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287445/phospholipids-composition-and-molecular-species-of-large-yellow-croaker-pseudosciaena-crocea-roe
#6
Peng Liang, Ruifen Li, He Sun, Min Zhang, Wenjian Cheng, Lijiao Chen, Xinwei Cheng, Casimir C Akoh
The research aims to study phospholipids (PL) classes and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Both gas chromatographymass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were utilized to analyze and identify the PLs fatty acids compositions and classes in the P. crocea roe, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) account for 35.0% and 6.9% of the PLs. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylinositols (PI) account for 76...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278716/2-o-carba-oleoyl-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-induces-glial-proliferation-through-the-activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor
#7
Shingo Nakajima, Mari Gotoh, Keiko Fukasawa, Hiromu Murofushi, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) are one of the lipid mediators regulating cell proliferation and differentiation through the activation of LPA receptors. An LPA receptor-mediated signal is important for the development of the central nervous system, while it has been demonstrated that LPA caused microglial activation and astroglial dysfunction. Previously, we have reported that cPA and carba analog of cPA, 2-O-carba-cPA (2ccPA), protected neural damage caused by transient ischemia...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273739/crude-phosphorylation-mixtures-containing-racemic-lipid-amphiphiles-self-assemble-to-give-stable-primitive-compartments
#8
Dimitri Fayolle, Emiliano Altamura, Alice D'Onofrio, Warren Madanamothoo, Bernard Fenet, Fabio Mavelli, René Buchet, Pasquale Stano, Michele Fiore, Peter Strazewski
It is an open question how the chemical structure of prebiotic vesicle-forming amphiphiles complexified to produce robust primitive compartments that could safely host foreign molecules. Previous work suggests that comparingly labile vesicles composed of plausibly prebiotic fatty acids were eventually chemically transformed with glycerol and a suitable phosphate source into phospholipids that would form robust vesicles. Here we show that phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids can be obtained from racemic dioleoyl glycerol under plausibly prebiotic phosphorylation conditions...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258184/lysophospholipid-related-diseases-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Tamotsu Tsukahara, Yoshikazu Matsuda, Hisao Haniu
The nuclear receptor superfamily includes ligand-inducible transcription factors that play diverse roles in cell metabolism and are associated with pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) belongs to a family of lipid mediators. LPA and its naturally occurring analogues interact with G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface and an intracellular nuclear hormone receptor. In addition, several enzymes that utilize LPA as a substrate or generate it as a product are under its regulatory control...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250095/biochemical-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-membrane-lipid-metabolism-in-maize-leaves-under-low-temperature
#10
Yingnan Gu, Lin He, Changjiang Zhao, Feng Wang, Bowei Yan, Yuqiao Gao, Zuotong Li, Kejun Yang, Jingyu Xu
Membrane lipid modulation is one of the major strategies plants have developed for cold acclimation. In this study, a combined lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis was conducted, and the changes in glycerolipids contents and species, and transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in maize leaves under low temperature treatment (5°C) were investigated. The lipidomic analysis showed an increase in the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) and a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC). And an increase in digalactosyldiacylglycerol and a decrease in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol of the galactolipid class...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247611/cobalt-and-nickel-affect-the-fluidity-of-negatively-charged-biomimetic-membranes
#11
Jenelle Umbsaar, Evan Kerek, Elmar J Prenner
Elevated levels of the essential trace metals cobalt and nickel are associated with a variety of toxic effects, which are not well-understood, and may involve interactions with the lipid membrane. Fluidity changes of biomimetic lipid membranes upon exposure to CoCl2 and NiCl2 were studied using the fluorescent probe Laurdan, which senses changes in environment polarity. Liposomes were prepared by extrusion in 20 mM HEPES + 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4. Additionally, dynamic light scattering was used to monitor metal induced size changes of liposomes composed of: phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylcholine (PC), with saturated and unsaturated acyl chains...
December 13, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246161/bioactive-lipids-are-altered-in-the-kidney-of-chronic-undernourished-rats-is-there-any-correlation-with-the-progression-of-prevalent-nephropathies
#12
Luzia S Sampaio, Paulo A da Silva, Valdilene S Ribeiro, Carmem Castro-Chaves, Lucienne S Lara, Adalberto Vieyra, M Einicker-Lamas
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during childhood leads to chronic diseases in adult life including hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Here we explore the hypothesis that physiological alterations in the bioactive lipids pattern within kidney tissue might be involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Membrane fractions from kidney homogenates of undernourished rats (RBD) were submitted to lipid extraction and analysis by thin layer chromatography and cholesterol determination...
December 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242835/characterization-of-the-mechanisms-of-daptomycin-resistance-among-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogens-by-multidimensional-lipidomics
#13
Kelly M Hines, Adam Waalkes, Kelsi Penewit, Elizabeth A Holmes, Stephen J Salipante, Brian J Werth, Libin Xu
Previous work suggests that altered lipid metabolism may be associated with daptomycin resistance in Gram-positive pathogens, but lipidomic changes underlying resistance are not fully understood. We performed untargeted lipidomics by using three-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (HILIC-IM-MS) to characterize alterations in the lipidomes of daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant isogenic strain pairs of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Corynebacterium striatum...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233919/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE-deficiency-alters-inflammation-markers-in-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-high-fat-diet
#14
Emmani B M Nascimento, Louise Mannerås Holm, Alexander V Chibalin, Marie Björnholm, Juleen R Zierath
Conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid is mediated by diacylglycerol kinases (DGK), with DGKα specifically linked to adaptive immune responses. We determined the role of DGKα in obesity and inflammatory responses to a high fat diet (HFD). DGKα knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates were either a) chow-fed, b) HFD-fed for 12 weeks (Long-Term HFD), or c) HFD-fed for 3 days (Acute HFD). Body weight/composition, oxygen consumption, food intake and glucose tolerance (IPGT) was unaltered between chow-fed DGKα KO and WT mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229879/small-phosphatidate-phosphatase-ttpah2-of-tetrahymena-complements-respiratory-function-and-not-membrane-biogenesis-function-of-yeast-pah1
#15
Anoop Narayana Pillai, Sushmita Shukla, Sudhanshu Gautam, Abdur Rahaman
Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report the presence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphatase assay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) family. Loss of function of TtPAH2 did not affect the growth of Tetrahymena. Unlike other known PAH homologs, TtPAH2 did not regulate lipid droplet number and ER morphology...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223009/influence-of-spermatozoal-lipidomic-profile-on-the-cryoresistance-of-frozen-spermatozoa-from-stallions
#16
T Cabrera, C Ramires-Neto, K R A Belaz, C P Freitas-Dell'aqua, D Zampieri, A Tata, M N Eberlin, M A Alvarenga, F F Souza
The membrane of spermatozoa, which contributes to cellular cryoresistance, contains numerous lipids with a composition that directly affects membrane fluidity and the fertilization process. In light of variations in the degree of sensitivity in equine seminal freezing, this study aimed to correlate equine semen lipids with post-thawing characteristics of spermatozoa. We used ejaculates from 34 stallions, which were evaluated (total motility ≥ 60%), frozen and thawed and reevaluated for motility of spermatozoa, membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation...
November 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221154/expression-of-ganglioside-gd2-reprogram-the-lipid-metabolism-and-emt-phenotype-in-bladder-cancer
#17
Venkatrao Vantaku, Sri Ramya Donepudi, Chandrashekar R Ambati, Feng Jin, Vasanta Putluri, Khoa Nguyen, Kimal Rajapakshe, Cristian Coarfa, Venkata Lokesh Battula, Yair Lotan, Nagireddy Putluri
High-grade Bladder Cancer (BLCA) represents the most aggressive and treatment-resistant cancer that renders the patients with poor survival. However, only a few biomarkers have been identified for the detection and treatment of BLCA. Recent studies show that ganglioside GD2 can be used as cancer biomarker and/or therapeutic target for various cancers. Despite its potential relevance in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics, the role of GD2 is unknown in BLCA. Here, we report for the first time that high-grade BLCA tissues and cell lines have higher expression of GD2 compared to low-grade by high-resolution Mass Spectrometry...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216246/draft-genome-sequence-of-actinotignum-schaalii-dsm-15541t-genetic-insights-into-the-lifestyle-cell-fitness-and-virulence
#18
Atteyet F Yassin, Stefan Langenberg, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Supratim Mukherjee, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides
The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209301/the-antifungal-plant-defensin-hsafp1-is-a-phosphatidic-acid-interacting-peptide-inducing-membrane-permeabilization
#19
Tanne L Cools, Kim Vriens, Caroline Struyfs, Sara Verbandt, Marcelo H S Ramada, Guilherme D Brand, Carlos Bloch, Barbara Koch, Ana Traven, Jan W Drijfhout, Liesbeth Demuyser, Soňa Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Dragana Spasic, Jeroen Lammertyn, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen
HsAFP1, a plant defensin isolated from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), is characterized by broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Previous studies indicated that HsAFP1 binds to specific fungal membrane components, which had hitherto not been identified, and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell membrane permeabilization. In this study, we show that HsAFP1 reversibly interacts with the membrane phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of other phospholipids, and to a lesser extent with various phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PtdInsP's)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207248/effect-of-ph-and-salt-on-surface-pka-of-phosphatidic-acid-monolayers
#20
Ting Zhang, Shelby L Brantley, Dominique Verreault, Raja Dhankani, Steven A Corcelli, Heather Cecile Allen
The pH-induced surface speciation of organic surfactants such as fatty acids and phospholipids in monolayers and coatings is considered to be an important factor controlling their interfacial organization and properties. Yet, correctly predicting the surface speciation requires the determination of the surface dissociation constants (surface-pKa) of the protic functional group(s) present. Here, we use three independent methods, compression isotherms, surface tension pH titration, and infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) to study the protonation state of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers on water and NaCl solutions...
December 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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