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Phosphatidic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924045/interaction-between-repressor-opi1p-and-er-membrane-protein-scs2p-facilitates-transit-of-phosphatidic-acid-from-the-er-to-mitochondria-and-is-essential-for-ino1-gene-expression-in-the-presence-of-choline
#1
Maria L Gaspar, Yu-Fang Chang, Stephen A Jesch, Manuel Aregullin, Susan A Henry
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the ER membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921708/scopoletin-supplementation-ameliorates-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#2
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Hae-In Lee, Hyun Wook Cho, Myung-Sook Choi, Seok-Kyu Park, Jin Lee, Myung-Joo Kim, Kwon-Il Seo, Mi-Kyung Lee
Scopoletin is a bioactive component in many edible plants and fruits. This study investigated the effects of scopoletin on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a high-fat diet fed type 1 diabetic mice by comparison with metformin. Scopoletin (0.01%, w/w) or metformin (0.5%, w/w) was provided with a high-fat diet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice for 11 weeks. Both scopoletin and metformin lowered blood glucose and HbA1c , serum ALT, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, glucose intolerance, and hepatic lipid accumulation compared with the diabetic control group...
September 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915027/structure-and-dynamics-of-membrane-proteins-and-membrane-associated-proteins-with-native-bicelles-from-eukaryotic-tissues
#4
Sean T Smrt, Adrian W Draney, Indira Singaram, Justin L Lorieau
In vitro studies of protein structure, function and dynamics typically preclude the complex range of molecular interactions found in living tissues. In vivo studies elucidate these complex relationships, yet they are typically incompatible with the extensive and controlled biophysical experiments available in vitro. We present an alternative approach by extracting membranes from eukaryotic tissues to produce native bicelles to capture the rich and complex molecular environment of in vivo studies while retaining the advantages of in vitro experiments...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911913/phosphatidic-acid-and-cardiolipin-coordinate-mitochondrial-dynamics
#5
REVIEW
Shoichiro Kameoka, Yoshihiro Adachi, Koji Okamoto, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Membrane organelles comprise both proteins and lipids. Remodeling of these membrane structures is controlled by interactions between specific proteins and lipids. Mitochondrial structure and function depend on regulated fusion and the division of both the outer and inner membranes. Here we discuss recent advances in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics by two critical phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and cardiolipin (CL). These two lipids interact with the core components of mitochondrial fusion and division (Opa1, mitofusin, and Drp1) to activate and inhibit these dynamin-related GTPases...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901903/halobacterium-litoreum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-marine-solar-saltern
#6
Zhen-Zhen Lü, Yang Li, Yao Zhou, Heng-Lin Cui, Zheng-Rong Li
Halophilic archaeal strain ZS-54-S2T was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies on an agar plate. Strain ZS-54-S2T was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M), at 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, two glycolipids, which were chromatographically identical to sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether and galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether, and an unidentified glycolipid, which was chromatographically identical to one detected in Halobacterium salinarum ATCC 33171T...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892293/phospholipase-d-and-phosphatidic-acid-mediate-heat-stress-induced-secondary-metabolism-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#7
Yong-Nan Liu, Xiao-Xiao Lu, Chen Dai, Ya-Ping Lu, Ang Ren, Liang Shi, Jing Zhu, Ai-Liang Jiang, Han-Shou Yu, Ming-Wen Zhao
Phospholipid-mediated signal transduction plays a key role in responses to environmental changes, but little is known about the role of phospholipid signalling in microorganisms. Heat stress (HS) is one of the most important environmental factors. Our previous study found that HS could induce the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites, ganoderic acids (GA). Here, we performed a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analysis to investigate HS-induced lipid remodelling in Ganoderma lucidum. In particular, we observed a significant accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) upon HS...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890071/serum-lipid-alterations-in-gba-associated-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Leonor Correia Guedes, Robin Barry Chan, Marcos António Gomes, Vasco A Conceição, Raquel Bouça Machado, Tiago Soares, Yimeng Xu, Paulo Gaspar, Joao André Carriço, Roy N Alcalay, Joaquim J Ferreira, Tiago Fleming Outeiro, Gabriel Miltenberger-Miltenyi
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the GBA gene, encoding for the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, are associated with Gaucher disease. Alterations in plasma sphingolipids have been reported in Gaucher, and similarly in brain extracts in Lewy body disease. As GBA mutations are prevalent risk factors for Parkinson's disease and overlap of molecular pathways are presumable, here we assessed the lipid profiles in Parkinson's patients with and without GBA mutations. METHODS: We sequenced all GBA exons in 415 Parkinson's patients, previously genotyped for LRRK2...
September 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877444/new-tethered-phospholipid-bilayers-integrating-functional-g-protein-coupled-receptor-membrane-protein
#9
Meriem Chadli, Samuel Rebaud, Ofelia Maniti, Bruno Tillier, Sandra Cortès, Agnes Girard-Egrot
Membrane proteins exhibiting extra- and intra-cellular domains require an adequate near-native lipid platform for their functional reconstitution. With this aim, we developed a new technology enabling the formation of a peptide-tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane (pep-tBLM), a lipid bilayer grafted onto peptide spacers, by the way of a metal-chelate interaction. To this end, we designed an original peptide spacer derived from the natural α-laminin thiopeptide (P19), possessing a cysteine residue in N-terminal extremity for grafting on gold and modified in C-terminal extremity by four histidine residues (P19-4H)...
September 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872427/long-term-dietary-supplementation-with-yerba-mate-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-by-regulating-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
Myung-Sook Choi, Hyo Jin Park, Sang Ryong Kim, Do Yeon Kim, Un Ju Jung
This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852571/glycerol-kinase-like-proteins-cooperate-with-pld6-in-regulating-sperm-mitochondrial-sheath-formation-and-male-fertility
#11
Yuxi Chen, Puping Liang, Yan Huang, Minyan Li, Xiya Zhang, Chenhui Ding, Junyan Feng, Zhen Zhang, Xueqing Zhang, Yuanzhu Gao, Qinfeng Zhang, Shanbo Cao, Haiyan Zheng, Dan Liu, Zhou Songyang, Junjiu Huang
Spermatids undergo the final steps of maturation during spermiogenesis, a process that necessitates extensive rearrangement of organelles such as the mitochondria. Male infertility has been linked to mitochondrial disorder, for example, hypospermatogenesis and asthenozoospermia. However, the mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial dynamics during spermiogenesis remain largely unknown. We found the glycerol kinase (Gyk)-like proteins glycerol kinase-like 1 (Gykl1) and glycerol kinase 2 (Gk2) were specifically localized to the mitochondria in spermatids...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844958/growth-arrest-and-dna-damage-inducible-45%C3%AE-protects-against-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-induced-by-methionine-and-choline-deficient-diet
#12
Naoki Tanaka, Shogo Takahashi, Xiao Hu, Lu Yu, Naoyuki Fujimori, Srujana Golla, Zhong-Ze Fang, Toshifumi Aoyama, Kristopher W Krausz, Frank J Gonzalez
Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 α (Gadd45α) is a stress-inducible protein that plays an important role in cell survival/death and DNA repair, but its contribution to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been investigated. C57BL/6 Gadd45a-null and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) for eight weeks and phenotypic changes examined. Gadd45a-null mice had more severe hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, higher levels of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic, and pro-apoptotic proteins, and greater oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress compared with WT mice...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835909/assay-to-measure-interactions-between-purified-drp1-and-synthetic-liposomes
#13
Yoshihiro Adachi, Kie Itoh, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
A mitochondrion is a dynamic intracellular organelle that actively divides and fuses to control its size, number and shape in cells. A regulated balance between mitochondrial division and fusion is fundamental to the function, distribution and turnover of mitochondria (Roy et al., 2015). Mitochondrial division is mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mechano-chemical GTPase that constricts mitochondrial membranes (Tamura et al., 2011). Mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin bind Drp1, and Drp1-phospholipid interactions provide key regulatory mechanisms for mitochondrial division (Montessuit et al...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834646/phospholipases-atpld%C3%AE-1-and-atpld%C3%AE-2-function-differently-in-hypoxia
#14
Sylvia Lindberg, Albert Premkumar, Ulla Rasmussen, Alexander Schulz, Ida Lager
Besides hydrolysing different membrane phospholipids, plant phospholipases D and molecular species of their byproducts phosphatidic acids (PLDs/PAs) are involved in diverse cellular events such as membrane-cytoskeleton dynamics, hormone regulation and biotic and/or abiotic stress responses at cellular or subcellular levels. Among the twelve Arabidopsis PLD genes, PLDζ1 and PLDζ2 uniquely possess Ca(2+) -independent phox (PX) and pleckstrin (PH) homology domains. Here, we report that mutants deficient in these PLDs, pldζ1 and pldζ2, show differential sensitivities to hypoxia stimulus...
August 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829789/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-diacylglycerol-kinase-family-of-proteins-and-identification-of-multiple-highly-specific-conserved-inserts-and-deletions-within-the-catalytic-domain-that-are-distinctive-characteristics-of-different-classes-of-dgk-homologs
#15
Radhey S Gupta, Richard M Epand
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) family of proteins, which phosphorylates diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, play important role in controlling diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Most vertebrate species contain 10 different DGK isozymes, which are grouped into 5 different classes based on the presence or absence of specific functional domains. However, the relationships among different DGK isozymes or how they have evolved from a common ancestor is unclear. The catalytic domain constitutes the single largest sequence element within the DGK proteins that is commonly and uniquely shared by all family members, but there is limited understanding of the overall function of this domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827765/opposite-feedback-from-mtorc1-to-h-ras-and-k-ras4b-downstream-of-srebp1
#16
Itziar M D Posada, Benoit Lectez, Farid A Siddiqui, Christina Oetken-Lindholm, Mukund Sharma, Daniel Abankwa
As a major growth factor transducer, Ras is an upstream activator of mTORC1, which further integrates nutrient and energy inputs. To ensure a contextual coupling of cell division via Ras/MAPK-signalling and growth via mTORC1-signalling, feedback loops from one pathway back to the other are required. Here we describe a novel feedback from mTORC1, which oppositely affects oncogenic H-ras- and K-ras-signalling output, and as a consequence stemness properties of tumourigenic cells. Amino acid stimulation of mTORC1 increases the processed form of SREBP1, a major lipidome regulator...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814640/agpat4-lpaat%C3%AE-deficiency-highlights-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-epididymal-and-perirenal-white-adipose-depots
#17
Emily B Mardian, Ryan M Bradley, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Phillip M Marvyn, Katherine A Moes, Eric Bombardier, A Russell Tupling, Ken D Stark, Robin E Duncan
Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4)/lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (LPAATδ) catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor of triacylglycerol (TAG). We investigated the effect of Agpat4 gene ablation on white adipose tissue (WAT), after finding consistent expression across depots. Epididymal WAT mass was 40% larger in male Agpat4-/- mice than wildtype littermates, but unchanged in perirenal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal WAT and subscapular brown adipose tissue. Metabolic changes were identified in epididymal WAT that were not evident in perirenal WAT, which was analyzed for comparison...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814238/structural-insights-for-drugs-developed-for-phospholipase-d-enzymes
#18
Kimberly Stieglitz
BACKGROUND: In recent years human phospholipase D enzymes (PLD1 and PLD2 isozymes) have emerged as drug targets for various diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, infectious diseases and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The interest in PLD as a drug target is due to the fact that PLD enzymes belong to a superfamily of phospholipases that are essential to intracellular and extracellular signaling. Many bioactive lipid signaling molecules are generated by these enzymes including phosphatidic and lysophosphatidic acid, arachidonic acid, and diacylglycerol (DAG)...
August 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807933/mice-deficient-in-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-%C3%AE-lpaat%C3%AE-acylglycerophosphate-acyltransferase-4-agpat4-have-impairments-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-associated-with-reductions-in-nmda-and-ampa-receptors
#19
Ryan M Bradley, Emily B Mardian, Darin Bloemberg, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Andrew S Mitchell, Phillip M Marvyn, Katherine A Moes, Ken D Stark, Joe Quadrilatero, Robin E Duncan
We previously characterized LPAATδ/AGPAT4 as a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates brain levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Here we report that Lpaatδ (-/-) mice display impaired spatial learning and memory compared to wildtype littermates in the Morris Water Maze, and investigated potential mechanisms associated with brain phospholipid changes. Marker protein immunoblotting suggested that the relative brain content of neurons, glia, and oligodendrocytes was unchanged...
August 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804800/interfacial-rheological-properties-of-self-assembling-biopolymer-microcapsules
#20
Kaili Xie, Clément de Loubens, Frédéric Dubreuil, Deniz Z Gunes, Marc Jaeger, Marc Léonetti
Tuning the mechanical properties of microcapsules through a cost-efficient route of fabrication is still a challenge. The traditional method of layer-by-layer assembly of microcapsules allows building a tailored composite multi-layer membrane but is technically complex as it requires numerous steps. The objective of this article is to characterize the interfacial rheological properties of self-assembling biopolymer microcapsules that were obtained in one single facile step. This thorough study provides new insights into the mechanics of these weakly cohesive membranes...
August 14, 2017: Soft Matter
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