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Phosphatidic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807933/mice-deficient-in-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-%C3%AE-lpaat%C3%AE-acylglycerophosphate-acyltransferase-4-agpat4-have-impairments-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-associated-with-reductions-in-nmda-and-ampa-receptors
#1
Ryan M Bradley, Emily B Mardian, Darin Bloemberg, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Andrew S Mitchell, Phillip M Marvyn, Katherine A Moes, Ken D Stark, Joe Quadrilatero, Robin E Duncan
We previously characterized LPAATδ/AGPAT4 as a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates brain levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Here we report that Lpaatδ (-/-) mice display impaired spatial learning and memory compared to wildtype littermates in the Morris Water Maze, and investigated potential mechanisms associated with brain phospholipid changes. Marker protein immunoblotting suggested that the relative brain content of neurons, glia, and oligodendrocytes was unchanged...
August 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804800/interfacial-rheological-properties-of-self-assembling-biopolymer-microcapsules
#2
Kaili Xie, Clément de Loubens, Frédéric Dubreuil, Deniz Z Gunes, Marc Jaeger, Marc Léonetti
Tuning the mechanical properties of microcapsules through a cost-efficient route of fabrication is still a challenge. The traditional method of layer-by-layer assembly of microcapsules allows building a tailored composite multi-layer membrane but is technically complex as it requires numerous steps. The objective of this article is to characterize the interfacial rheological properties of self-assembling biopolymer microcapsules that were obtained in one single facile step. This thorough study provides new insights into the mechanics of these weakly cohesive membranes...
August 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793254/a-soluble-fluorescent-binding-assay-reveals-pip2-antagonism-of-trek-1-channels
#3
Cerrone Cabanos, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han, Scott B Hansen
Lipid regulation of ion channels by low-abundance signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a central cellular mechanism for controlling ion channels and the excitability of nerves. A lack of robust assays suitable for facile detection of a lipid bound to a channel has hampered the probing of the lipid binding sites and measuring the pharmacology of putative lipid agonists for ion channels. Here, we show a fluorescent PIP2 competition assay for detergent-purified potassium channels, including TWIK-1-related K(+)-channel (TREK-1)...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780751/role-of-curcumin-in-pld-activation-by-arf6-cytohesin1-signaling-axis-in-u46619-stimulated-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Sajal Chakraborti, Jaganmay Sarkar, Rajabrata Bhuyan, Tapati Chakraborti
Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid (PA) which in some cell types play a pivotal role in agonist-induced increase in NADPH oxidase-derived [Formula: see text]production. Involvement of ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) in agonist-induced activation of PLD is known for smooth muscle cells of systemic arteries, but not in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Additionally, role of cytohesin in this scenario is unknown in PASMCs. We, therefore, determined the involvement of Arf and cytohesin in U46619-induced stimulation of PLD in PASMCs, and the probable mechanism by which curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, inhibits the U46619 response...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768579/untargeted-metabolomics-of-fresh-and-heat-treatment-tiger-nut-cyperus-esculentus-l-milks-reveals-further-insight-into-food-quality-and-nutrition
#5
Josep Rubert, Andoni Monforte, Kamila Hurkova, Gaspar Pérez-Martínez, Jesús Blesa, José L Navarro, Milena Stranka, José Miguel Soriano, Jana Hajslova
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a crop traditionally grown in Valencia Region (Spain) and other temperate and tropical regions in the world, where its tubers are commonly consumed as tiger nut milk (horchata). Because of their nutritive potential and original taste, these products are beginning to spread internationally and, as consequence, analytical procedures to assess nutritional profiles, quality control issues are acquiring increasing relevance. The main objective of this study was to use an advance analytical method and chemometrics tools to determine if the ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment necessary to extend the shelf life of tiger nut milk would affect the profile of nutrients when compared to fresh product...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763231/in-situ-stm-and-vibrational-study-of-nanometer-scale-reorganization-of-phospholipid-monolayer-accompanied-by-potential-driven-head-group-digestion
#6
Soichiro Matsunaga, Hiroaki Shimizu, Taro Yamada, Toshihide Kobayashi, Maki Kawai
In situ dynamic observation of model biological cell membranes, formed on water/gold substrate interface, has been performed by combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection infrared absorption vibrational spectroscopy. Monolayers of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) were formed on alkanethiol-modified gold surfaces in a buffer solution, and the microscopic phase transitions driven by electrochemical potential control were observed more in detail than our previous study on the same system [Electrochem...
August 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755507/identification-and-characterization-of-the-phosphatidic-acid-binding-a-thaliana-phosphoprotein-pldrp1-which-is-regulated-by-pld%C3%AE-1-in-a-stress-dependent-manner
#7
Guido Ufer, Anke Gertzmann, Francisco Gasulla, Horst Röhrig, Dorothea Bartels
Phospholipase D (PLD) and its cleavage product phosphatidic acid (PA) are crucial in plant stress-signalling. Although some targets of PLD and PA have been identified, the signalling pathway is still enigmatic. This study demonstrates that the phosphoprotein At5g39570, now called PLD regulated protein1 (PLDrp1) from Arabidopsis thaliana is directly regulated by PLDα1. The protein PLDrp1 can be divided into two regions with distinct properties. The conserved N-terminal region specifically binds PA, while the repeat-rich C-terminal domain suggests interactions with RNAs...
July 29, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742439/damab-2-anti-human-dgk%C3%AE-monoclonal-antibody-for-immunocytochemistry
#8
Tomoyuki Nakano, Satoshi Ogasawara, Toshiaki Tanaka, Yasukazu Hozumi, Satoru Mizuno, Eri Satoh, Fumio Sakane, Naoki Okada, Akinobu Taketomi, Ryusuke Honma, Takuro Nakamura, Noriko Saidoh, Miyuki Yanaka, Shunsuke Itai, Saori Handa, Yao-Wen Chang, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato, Kaoru Goto
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is responsible for the enzymatic conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Since both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid serve as signaling molecules, DGK is regarded as a hub between diacylglycerol-mediated and phosphatidic acid-mediated signaling. One of the 10 DGK isozymes, DGKα, is shown to be involved in T cell function. Transfection studies using tagged expression vectors revealed that DGKα localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to T cell receptor stimulation...
August 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732510/protective-and-therapeutic-role-of-2-carba-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-in-demyelinating-disease
#9
Shinji Yamamoto, Kota Yamashina, Masaki Ishikawa, Mari Gotoh, Sosuke Yagishita, Kensuke Iwasa, Kei Maruyama, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi, Keisuke Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a natural phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We reported earlier that cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718792/recombinant-lipase-from-gibberella-zeae-exhibits-broad-substrate-specificity-a-comparative-study-on-emulsified-and-monomolecular-substrate
#10
Fanghua Wang, Hui Zhang, Zexin Zhao, Ruixia Wei, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, the substrate specificity of recombinant Gibberella zeae lipase (rGZEL) that originates from Gibberella zeae was characterized in detail. Under the emulsified reaction system, both phospholipase and glycolipid hydrolytic activities were observed, except for the predominant lipase activity. The optimum conditions for different activity exhibition were also determined. Compared with its lipase activity, a little higher ratio of glycolipid hydrolytic activity (0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714993/a-two-helix-motif-positions-the-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-active-site-for-catalysis-within-the-membrane-bilayer
#11
Rosanna M Robertson, Jiangwei Yao, Stefan Gajewski, Gyanendra Kumar, Erik W Martin, Charles O Rock, Stephen W White
Phosphatidic acid (PA), the central intermediate in membrane phospholipid synthesis, is generated by two acyltransferases in a pathway conserved in all life forms. The second step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, called PlsC in bacteria. Here we present the crystal structure of PlsC from Thermotoga maritima, revealing an unusual hydrophobic/aromatic N-terminal two-helix motif linked to an acyltransferase αβ-domain that contains the catalytic HX4D motif. PlsC dictates the acyl chain composition of the 2-position of phospholipids, and the acyl chain selectivity 'ruler' is an appropriately placed and closed hydrophobic tunnel...
August 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713368/the-sptransformer-gene-family-formerly-sp185-333-in-the-purple-sea-urchin-and-the-functional-diversity-of-the-anti-pathogen-rsptransformer-e1-protein
#12
REVIEW
L Courtney Smith, Cheng Man Lun
The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family (SpTrf; formerly Sp185/333) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712726/sengers-syndrome-associated-mitochondrial-acylglycerol-kinase-is-a-subunit-of-the-human-tim22-protein-import-complex
#13
Yilin Kang, David A Stroud, Michael J Baker, David P De Souza, Ann E Frazier, Michael Liem, Dedreia Tull, Suresh Mathivanan, Malcolm J McConville, David R Thorburn, Michael T Ryan, Diana Stojanovski
Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is a mitochondrial lipid kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, respectively. Mutations in AGK cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Here we identified AGK as a subunit of the mitochondrial TIM22 protein import complex. We show that AGK functions in a kinase-independent manner to maintain the integrity of the TIM22 complex, where it facilitates the import and assembly of mitochondrial carrier proteins...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712724/acylglycerol-kinase-mutated-in-sengers-syndrome-is-a-subunit-of-the-tim22-protein-translocase-in-mitochondria
#14
Milena Vukotic, Hendrik Nolte, Tim König, Shotaro Saita, Maria Ananjew, Marcus Krüger, Takashi Tatsuta, Thomas Langer
Mutations in mitochondrial acylglycerol kinase (AGK) cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and skeletal myopathy. AGK generates phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid, bioactive phospholipids involved in lipid signaling and the regulation of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of the mitochondrial pathology remain enigmatic. Determining its mitochondrial interactome, we have identified AGK as a constituent of the TIM22 complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689763/remodeling-of-brain-lipidome-in-methamphetamine-sensitized-mice
#15
Linhong Jiang, Hui Gu, Yiyun Lin, Wei Xu, Ruiming Zhu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Bing Liu, Bo Chen, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Lipids are predominant components of the brain and key regulators for neural structure and function. The effect of methamphetamine (METH) on behavior, cognition as well as memory has been intensively investigated; however, the impact of METH on brain lipid profiles is largely unknown. Here, we used a global lipidomic approach to investigate brain lipidome of METH-sensitized mice. We found that repeated METH significantly modified the lipidome in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. Interestingly, nucleus accumbens showed no obvious alteration in lipidomic profiling...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672041/comprehensive-identification-of-age-related-lipidome-changes-in-rat-amygdala-during-normal-aging
#16
Roman Šmidák, Harald C Köfeler, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec
Brain lipids are integral components of brain structure and function. However, only recent advancements of chromatographic techniques together with mass spectrometry allow comprehensive identification of lipid species in complex brain tissue. Lipid composition varies between the individual areas and the majority of previous reports was focusing on individual lipids rather than a lipidome. Herein, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to evaluate age-related changes in the lipidome of the rat amygdala obtained from young (3 months) and old (20 months) males of the Sprague-Dawley rat strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652611/common-lipid-features-of-lethal-ventricular-tarchyarrhythmias-lvtas-induced-by-myocardial-infarction-and-myocardial-ion-channel-diseases
#17
Jiayan Wu, Qian Wu, Dian Wang, Jing Kong, Wentao Dai, Xingxing Wang, Xiaojun Yu
Lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia (LVTA) is the most prevalent electrophysiological underpinning of sudden cardiac death (SCD), a condition that occurs in response to multiple pathophysiological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to identify common lipid features of LVTA that were induced by distinct pathophysiological conditions, thereby facilitating the discovery of novel SCD therapeutic targets. Two rat LVTA-SCD models were established to mimic myocardial infarction (MI) and myocardial ion channel diseases...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649994/membrane-binding-and-activation-of-lkb1-by-phosphatidic-acid-is-essential-for-development-and-tumour-suppression
#18
Giada Dogliotti, Lars Kullmann, Pratibha Dhumale, Christian Thiele, Olga Panichkina, Gudrun Mendl, Roland Houben, Sebastian Haferkamp, Andreas W Püschel, Michael P Krahn
The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, energy homeostasis and cell polarity and is frequently downregulated in various tumours. Many downstream pathways controlled by LKB1 have been described but little is known about the upstream regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that targeting of the kinase to the membrane by a direct binding of LKB1 to phosphatidic acid is essential to fully activate its kinase activity. Consequently, LKB1 mutants that are deficient for membrane binding fail to activate the downstream target AMPK to control mTOR signalling...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644713/an-unstructured-loop-that-is-critical-for-interactions-of-the-stalk-domain-of-drp1-with-saturated-phosphatidic-acid
#19
Yoshihiro Adachi, Miho Iijima, Hiromi Sesaki
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a dynamin superfamily GTPase, which drives membrane constriction during mitochondrial division. To mediate mitochondrial division, Drp1 is recruited to the mitochondrial outer membrane and is assembled into the division machinery. We previously showed that Drp1 interacts with phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated phospholipids in the mitochondrial membrane, and this interaction restrains Drp1 in initiating the constriction of mitochondria. Here, we show that the role of saturated acyl chains of phospholipids is independent of their contribution to the membrane curvature or lipid packing suggesting their direct interaction with Drp1...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642776/regulation-involved-in-colonization-of-intercellular-spaces-of-host-plants-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#20
REVIEW
Yasufumi Hikichi, Yuka Mori, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai
A soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invading plant roots first colonizes the intercellular spaces of the root, and eventually enters xylem vessels, where it replicates at high levels leading to wilting symptoms. After invasion into intercellular spaces, R. solanacearum strain OE1-1 attaches to host cells and expression of the hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system (T3SS). OE1-1 then constructs T3SS and secrets effectors into host cells, inducing expression of the host gene encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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