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Phosphatidic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163603/novel-ribonuclease-activity-differs-between-fibrillarins-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Margarita Sobol, Luis C Rodriguez-Zapata, Pavel Hozak, Enrique Castano
Fibrillarin is one of the most important nucleolar proteins that have been shown as essential for life. Fibrillarin localizes primarily at the periphery between fibrillar center and dense fibrillar component as well as in Cajal bodies. In most plants there are at least two different genes for fibrillarin. In Arabidopsis thaliana both genes show high level of expression in transcriptionally active cells. Here, we focus on two important differences between A. thaliana fibrillarins. First and most relevant is the enzymatic activity by AtFib2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163579/arabidopsis-phosphatidic-acid-phosphohydrolases-are-essential-for-growth-under-nitrogen-depleted-conditions
#2
Yushi Yoshitake, Ryoichi Sato, Yuka Madoka, Keiko Ikeda, Masato Murakawa, Ko Suruga, Daisuke Sugiura, Ko Noguchi, Hiroyuki Ohta, Mie Shimojima
The Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian lipin, PAH1 and PAH2, are cytosolic phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolases that are involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and are essential for growth under phosphate starvation. Here, pah1 pah2 double-knockout mutants were found to be hypersensitive to nitrogen (N) starvation, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing PAH1 or PAH2 in the pah1 pah2 mutant background showed a similar growth phenotype as compared with wild type (WT) under N starvation. The chlorophyll content of pah1 pah2 was significantly lower than that of WT, whereas the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the transgenic plants were significantly higher than those of WT under N-depleted conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155586/deconstructing-lipid-kinase-inhibitors-by-chemical-proteomics
#3
Rebecca L McCloud, Caroline E Franks, Sean T Campbell, Benjamin W Purow, Thurl E Harris, Ku-Lung Hsu
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) regulate lipid metabolism and cell signaling through ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to biosynthesize phosphatidic acid. Selective chemical probes for studying DGKs are currently lacking and are needed to annotate isoform-specific functions of these elusive lipid kinases. Previously, we explored fragment-based approaches to discover a core fragment of DGK-α (DGKα) inhibitors responsible for selective binding to the DGKα active site. Here, we utilize quantitative chemical proteomics to deconstruct widely used DGKα inhibitors to identify structural regions mediating off-target activity...
November 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155181/the-role-of-n-terminal-segment-and-membrane-association-in-myd88-mediated-signaling
#4
Monika Avbelj, Gabriela Panter, Roman Jerala
MyD88 is a central signaling mediator of innate immunity, composed of the N-terminal death (DD) and C-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain linked by an intermediary (INT) domain. We showed that the N-terminal domain (NTD), composed of apparently unstructured 21 amino-acid residues, is involved in localization and clustering of MyD88 and is required for the efficient signaling, since the deletion mutant is unable to reconstitute MyD88-dependent signaling. Furthermore, we found that the NTD peptide interacts with phosphatidic acid, which potentiates MyD88-mediated signaling through TLRs...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154090/proliferative-and-metastatic-roles-for-phospholipase-d-in-mouse-models-of-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Eric Roth, Michael A Frohman
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been proposed to facilitate multiple steps in cancer progression including growth, metabolism, angiogenesis, and mobility. The canonical enzymes PLD1 and PLD2 enact their diverse effects through hydrolyzing the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine to generate the second messenger and signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA). However, the widespread expression of PLD1 and PLD2 in normal tissues and the additional distinct enzymatic mechanisms through which PA can be generated have produced uncertainty regarding the optimal settings in which PLD inhibition might ameliorate cancer...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150438/a-pip2-derived-amplification-loop-fuels-the-sustained-initiation-of-b-cell-activation
#6
Chenguang Xu, Hengyi Xie, Xingdong Guo, Haipeng Gong, Lei Liu, Hai Qi, Chenqi Xu, Wanli Liu
Lymphocytes have evolved sophisticated signaling amplification mechanisms to efficiently activate downstream signaling after detection of rare ligands in their microenvironment. B cell receptor microscopic clusters (BCR microclusters) are assembled on the plasma membrane and recruit signaling molecules for the initiation of lymphocyte signaling after antigen binding. We identified a signaling amplification loop derived from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) for the sustained B cell activation. Upon antigen recognition, PIP2 was depleted by phospholipase C-γ2 (PLC-γ2) within the BCR microclusters and was regenerated by phosphatidic acid-dependent type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase outside the BCR microclusters...
November 17, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149492/effects-of-tao-hong-si-wu-decoction-on-acute-blood-stasis-in-rats-based-on-a-lc-q-tof-ms-metabolomics-and-network-approach
#7
Qi Ma, Peng-Ling Li, Yong-Li Hua, Peng Ji, Wan-Ling Yao, Xiao-Song Zhang, Li-Jia Zhong, Yan-Ming Wei
A novel approach using metabolomics coupled with a metabolic network was used to investigate the effects of THSWD on the rat model of acute blood stasis syndrome. Acute blood stasis syndrome was induced by placing the rats in ice-cold water following two injections with epinephrine. The hemorheological indicators (WBV and PV), and the blood coagulation indicators (TT, PT, APTT, and FIB) were detected. The nonparametric univariate method and multivariate statistical analysis were performed for determining the potential biomarkers...
November 17, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145606/-prokaryotic-pathway-is-not-prokaryotic-non-cyanobacterial-origin-of-the-chloroplast-lipid-biosynthetic-pathway-revealed-by-comprehensive-phylogenomic-analysis
#8
Naoki Sato, Koichiro Awai
Lipid biosynthesis within the chloroplast, or more generally plastids, was conventionally called "prokaryotic pathway", which produces glycerolipids bearing C18 acids at the sn-1 position and C16 acids at the sn-2 position, as in cyanobacteria such as Anabaena and Synechocystis. This positional specificity is determined during the synthesis of phosphatidate, which is a precursor to diacylglycerol, the acceptor of galactose for the synthesis of galactolipids. The first acylation at sn-1 is catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT or GPT), whereas the second acylation at sn-2 is performed by lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAAT, AGPAT or PlsC)...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142222/human-atg3-binding-to-lipid-bilayers-role-of-lipid-geometry-and-electric-charge
#9
Javier H Hervás, Ane Landajuela, Zuriñe Antón, Anna V Shnyrova, Felix M Goñi, Alicia Alonso
Specific protein-lipid interactions lead to a gradual recruitment of AuTophaGy-related (ATG) proteins to the nascent membrane during autophagosome (AP) formation. ATG3, a key protein in the movement of LC3 towards the isolation membrane, has been proposed to facilitate LC3/GABARAP lipidation in highly curved membranes. In this work we have performed a biophysical study of human ATG3 interaction with membranes containing phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and anionic phospholipids. We have found that ATG3 interacts more strongly with negatively-charged phospholipid vesicles or nanotubes than with electrically neutral model membranes, cone-shaped anionic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid) being particularly active in promoting binding...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136407/phospholipase-d-inhibitors-reduce-human-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-colony-formation
#10
Amanda R Noble, Norman J Maitland, Daniel M Berney, Martin G Rumsby
BACKGROUND: Phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1/2) hydrolyse cell membrane glycerophospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid, a signalling lipid, which regulates cell growth and cancer progression through effects on mTOR and PKB/Akt. PLD expression and/or activity is raised in breast, colorectal, gastric, kidney and thyroid carcinomas but its role in prostate cancer (PCa), the major cancer of men in the western world, is unclear. METHODS: PLD1 protein expression in cultured PNT2C2, PNT1A, P4E6, LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, VCaP, 22RV1 cell lines and patient-derived PCa cells was analysed by western blotting...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127205/orchestrating-phospholipid-biosynthesis-phosphatidic-acid-conducts-and-opi1p-performs
#11
Michael Salsaa, Kendall Case, Miriam L Greenberg
Phosphatidic acid (PA) and the conserved integral ER membrane protein Scs2p regulate localization of the transcriptional repressor Opi1p, which controls expression of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, but the mechanisms conducting Opi1p localization are not fully understood. A new study suggests the existence of a distinct pool of PA in the ER that is required for regulation of Opi1p localization and thus phospholipid metabolism in yeast.
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120810/lasiodiplodia-theobromae-pat-griff-maubl-induced-disease-development-and-pericarp-browning-of-harvested-longan-fruit-in-association-with-membrane-lipids-metabolism
#12
Shen Zhang, Yuzhao Lin, Hetong Lin, Yixiong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi, Yifen Lin
Effects of Lasiodiplodia theobromae inoculation on disease development, pericarp browning and membrane lipids metabolism of harvested "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with control fruit, L. theobromae-inoculated longans showed higher fruit disease index, pericarp browning index and cell membrane permeability, as well as higher activities of phospholipase D, lipase and lipoxygenase. Additionally, there were lower contents of membrane phospholipids but higher content of phosphatidic acid, and lower level of unsaturated fatty acids but higher level of saturated ones with lower ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid and lower index of unsaturated fatty acids in pericarp of L...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104923/clickable-substrate-mimics-enable-imaging-of-phospholipase-d-activity
#13
Timothy W Bumpus, Jeremy M Baskin
Chemical imaging techniques have played instrumental roles in dissecting the spatiotemporal regulation of signal transduction pathways. Phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes affect cell signaling by producing the pleiotropic lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid via hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. It remains a mystery how this one lipid signal can cause such diverse physiological and pathological signaling outcomes, due in large part to a lack of suitable tools for visualizing the spatial and temporal dynamics of its production within cells...
October 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098228/proxyphos-sensors-for-the-detection-of-negatively-charged-membranes
#14
Bronte I Murcar-Evans, Aaron D Cabral, Krimo Toutah, Elvin D de Araujo, Angel Lai, Peter M Macdonald, Angelika Berger-Becvar, Dziyana Kraskouskaya, Patrick T Gunning
Membrane-embedded negatively charged phospholipids (MENCP) can be used as biomarkers for a range of biological processes, including early detection of apoptosis in animal cells, drug-induced phospholipidosis, and selective detection of bacterial over animal cells. Currently, several technologies for the detection of apoptosis and bacterial cells are based on the recognition of MENCPs, including the AnnexinV stain and PSVue™ probes. As probes, these technologies have limitations, the most significant of which is the need for washing the unbound probe away to achieve optimal signal...
November 3, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095606/ex-uno-plura-differential-labeling-of-phospholipid-biosynthetic-pathways-with-a-single-bioorthogonal-alcohol
#15
Timothy W Bumpus, Felice J Liang, Jeremy M Baskin
Imaging approaches that track biological molecules within cells are essential tools in modern biochemistry. Lipids are particularly challenging to visualize, as they are not directly genetically encoded. Phospholipids, the most abundant subgroup of lipids, are structurally diverse and accomplish many cellular functions, acting as major structural components of membranes and as signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, division, apoptosis, cytoskeletal dynamics, and numerous other physiological processes...
November 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095596/1-6-diphenyl-1-3-5-hexatriene-dph-as-a-novel-matrix-for-maldi-ms-imaging-of-fatty-acids-phospholipids-and-sulfatides-in-brain-tissues
#16
Hanadi Ibrahim, Kristina Jurcic, Jasmine S-H Wang, Shawn Narain Whitehead, Ken K-C Yeung
1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is a commonly-used fluorescence probe for studying cell membrane-lipids due to its affinity towards the acyl chains in the phospholipid bilayers. In this work, we investigated its use in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a new matrix for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of mouse and rat brain tissue. DPH exhibits very minimal matrix-induced background signals for the analysis of small molecules (below m/z of 1000). In the negative ion mode, DPH permits the highly sensitive detection of small fatty acids (m/z 200 to 350) as well as a variety of large lipids up to m/z of 1000, including lyso-phospholipid, phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphoethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sulfatides (ST)...
November 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095376/circulating-lipids-and-acute-pain-sensitization-an-exploratory-analysis
#17
Angela Starkweather, Thomas Julian, Divya Ramesh, Amy Heineman, Jamie Sturgill, Susan G Dorsey, Debra E Lyon, Dayanjan Shanaka Wijesinghe
BACKGROUND: In individuals with low back pain, higher lipid levels have been documented and were associated with increased risk for chronic low back pain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to identify plasma lipids that discriminate participants with acute low back pain with or without pain sensitization as measured by quantitative sensory testing. METHODS: This exploratory study was conducted as part of a larger parent randomized controlled trial...
November 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091030/chip-as-a-membrane-shuttling-proteostasis-sensor
#18
Yannick Kopp, Wei-Han Lang, Tobias B Schuster, Adrián Martínez-Limón, Harald F Hofbauer, Robert Ernst, Giulia Calloni, R Martin Vabulas
Cells respond to protein misfolding and aggregation in the cytosol by adjusting gene transcription and a number of post-transcriptional processes. In parallel to functional reactions, cellular structure changes as well; however, the mechanisms underlying the early adaptation of cellular compartments to cytosolic protein misfolding are less clear. Here we show that the mammalian ubiquitin ligase C-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), if freed from chaperones during acute stress, can dock on cellular membranes thus performing a proteostasis sensor function...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079355/dgk%C3%AE-ablation-engenders-upregulation-of-p53-level-in-the-spleen-upon-whole-body-ionizing-radiation
#19
Toshiaki Tanaka, Ken Iseki, Ken Tanaka, Tomoyuki Nakano, Mitsuyoshi Iino, Kaoru Goto
The tumor suppressor gene product p53, which coordinates the cellular response to various stresses, is subject to tight regulation by a complex network of signal transduction. The DGK family metabolizes lipidic second messenger diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. Our earlier studies showed that one isozyme, DGKζ, is involved in the regulatory mechanism of p53. In a cellular model of doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, overexpression of wild-type DGKζ suppresses p53 protein induction and reduces apoptosis, whereas knockdown of DGKζ upregulates p53 protein level and promotes apoptosis...
September 28, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078410/crystal-structures-of-mmm1-and-mdm12-mmm1-reveal-mechanistic-insight-into-phospholipid-trafficking-at-er-mitochondria-contact-sites
#20
Hanbin Jeong, Jumi Park, Youngsoo Jun, Changwook Lee
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) comprises mitochondrial distribution and morphology 12 (Mdm12), maintenance of mitochondrial morphology 1 (Mmm1), Mdm34, and Mdm10 and mediates physical membrane contact sites and nonvesicular lipid trafficking between the ER and mitochondria in yeast. Herein, we report two crystal structures of the synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain of Mmm1 and the Mdm12-Mmm1 complex at 2.8 Å and 3.8 Å resolution, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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