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caffeine hair

Ulf Meier, Thomas Briellmann, Eva Scheurer, Franz Dussy
The distribution of analyte concentrations in hair across the scalp has not been thoroughly investigated. Differences in concentrations depending on sampling location are problematic, especially when measuring a second strand to confirm the result of the first measurement. Aiming at a better understanding of the concentration differences, the distribution of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and caffeine concentrations in hair across the entire head of one test subject was investigated by dividing the scalp completely into regions of ca...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Frank Musshoff, Helena Fels, Alberto Carli, Dario Piombino-Mascali
The Mombello Psychiatric Hospital in Limbiate, near Milan, replaced the old Senavra Hospital as the Psychiatric Hospital for the Province of Milan in the 19th century. During the early 20th century, bodies of several Mombello patients were dissected and preserved by Giuseppe Paravicini, an anatomist who operated within the asylum. The aim of the present study was to examine and memorialize this important assemblage. To this end, we were allowed to sample the head hair of six such preparations for toxicological analysis...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Daniel Stengel, Florian Zindler, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to clarify the suitability of the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for the screening of ototoxic (neurotoxic) effects, existing neuromast assays were adapted, improved and validated with a series of chemicals known or unknown for their ototoxic potential (caffeine copper sulfate, dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, neomycin, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). Present methods were improved by (1) the introduction of a 4-step scoring system, (2) the selection of neuromasts from both the anterior and posterior lateral line systems, (3) a combined DASPEI/DAPI staining applied after both a continuous and pulse exposure scenario, and (4) an additional screening for nuclear fragmentation...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Elisabetta Bertol, Fabio Vaiano, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Alessia Fioravanti, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Francesco Mari, Valentino Patussi, Giovanni Serpelloni
BACKGROUND: Clinical reliability of self-reported data for alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumptions is lacking, particularly in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To compare a self-report questionnaire and hair analysis to assess the reliability and effectiveness of the self-report. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 14-15-year-old Italian students (n = 874, 38% males, 62% females) was performed comparing self-reported data to hair analysis. The latter quantified hair concentrations of caffeine, nicotine, cotinine, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) using mass spectrometry...
May 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Loïc Le Marchand, Kim Yonemori, Kami K White, Adrian A Franke, Lynne R Wilkens, Robert J Turesky
Hair measurement of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a promising biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen formed in cooked meats. However, the dose relationship between normal range intake and hair levels and the modulating effects of CYP1A2 metabolism and hair melanin need to be evaluated. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study among 41 non-smokers using ground beef cooked to two different levels of doneness, 5 days a week for 1 month. PhIP was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in food (mean low dose = 0...
July 2016: Carcinogenesis
Diana Escuder-Vieco, Óscar Garcia-Algar, Xavier Joya, Emilia Marchei, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici, Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso
BACKGROUND: The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it...
August 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
O Niewiadomski, C Studd, J Wilson, J Williams, C Hair, R Knight, E Prewett, P Dabkowski, S Alexander, B Allen, D Dowling, W Connell, P Desmond, S Bell
BACKGROUND: The Barwon area in Australia has one of the highest incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is an ideal location to study the impact of environmental exposures on the disease's development. AIM: To study these exposures prior to the development of IBD in a population-based cohort. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-two incident cases (81 Crohn disease (CD) and 51 ulcerative colitis (UC)) from an IBD registry and 104 controls replied to the International Organization of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases environmental questionnaire...
June 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Eman Abd, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey E Grice
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A range of vesicles is now widely used to carry various solutes into and through the epidermis. These usually have the active solute encapsulated within and may be modified to confer flexibility and skin penetration enhancement. Here, we compared the ability of five different vesicle systems to deliver a model hydrophilic drug, caffeine, into and through excised human skin. METHODS: In addition to lipids, the vesicle excipients included eucalyptol or oleic acid as penetration enhancers, and decyl polyglucoside as a non-ionic surfactant...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Pieter M M De Kesel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Caffeine is the probe drug of choice to assess the phenotype of the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2. Typically, molar concentration ratios of paraxanthine, caffeine's major metabolite, to its precursor are determined in plasma following administration of a caffeine test dose. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of caffeine and paraxanthine in hair. The different steps of a hair extraction procedure were thoroughly optimized. Following a three-step decontamination procedure, caffeine and paraxanthine were extracted from 20 mg of ground hair using a solution of protease type VIII in Tris buffer (pH 7...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
Anna Ferrari, Ilaria Tiraferri, Federica Palazzoli, Patrizia Verri, Daniele Vandelli, Filippo Marchesi, Michela Ciccarese, Manuela Licata
Butalbital, a barbiturate, is present in analgesic combinations used by headache sufferers. Overuse/abuse of these combinations may cause dependence, chronic migraine, and medication-overuse headache (MOH). MOH is difficult to manage: it improves interrupting analgesic overuse, but requires monitoring, because relapses are frequent. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for hair analysis has been developed and validated to document abuse of an analgesic combination containing butalbital and propyphenazone by a patient with MOH...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
L Gautam, A Shanmuganathan, M D Cole
In the past decade there has been a significant increase in the popularity of synthetic cathinones in the illegal drug market. They have been easily available from Internet-based vendors as well as at "head shops" and "smart shops". The recent prominence of synthetic cathinones can be attributed to their stimulatory properties similar to those of amphetamines. This paper provides a review on the current popular cathinone derivatives, their history and prevalence in the illegal drug market, legislation of these drugs in various countries, pharmacology, toxicology, and metabolism studies, analysis of toxicology samples (blood, urine, and hair) and criminalistic samples (seized, purchased via the Internet, and synthesized)...
March 2013: Forensic Science Review
Pieter M M De Kesel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although metabolite-to-parent drug concentration ratios in hair have been suggested as a possible tool to study the metabolism of drugs in a non-invasive way, no studies are available that evaluated this in a systematic way. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 is a drug-metabolizing enzyme characterized by large inter-individual differences in its activity. The standard approach for CYP1A2 phenotyping is to determine the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in plasma at a fixed timepoint after intake of a dose of the CYP1A2 substrate caffeine...
July 2015: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Guillermo Schinella, Elisa Neyret, Gloria Cónsole, Horacio Tournier, José M Prieto, José-Luis Ríos, Rosa María Giner
Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a highly popular herbal beverage in South America due to its high content of caffeine. Its hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties are of increasing interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and for weight control. In the present study, we show for the first time both the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects of an aqueous extract of mate in three classic in vivo models, namely acute and chronic 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced mouse ear edema and acute carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema...
August 2014: Planta Medica
Xuezhen Zhai, Jürgen Lademann, Cornelia M Keck, Rainer H Müller
Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth...
September 2014: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Shannon Famenini, Carolyn Goh
Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.
July 2014: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
T W Fischer, E Herczeg-Lisztes, W Funk, D Zillikens, T Bíró, R Paus
BACKGROUND: Caffeine reportedly counteracts the suppression of hair shaft production by testosterone in organ-cultured male human hair follicles (HFs). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the impact of caffeine (i) on additional key hair growth parameters, (ii) on major hair growth regulatory factors and (iii) on male vs. female HFs in the presence of testosterone. METHODS: Microdissected male and female human scalp HFs were treated in serum-free organ culture for 120 h with testosterone alone (0·5 μg mL(-1)) or in combination with caffeine (0·005-0·0005%)...
November 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
Franz Dussy, Nicholas Carson, Sarah Hangartner, Thomas Briellmann
When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1...
June 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Xuezhen Zhai, Jürgen Lademann, Cornelia M Keck, Rainer H Müller
After use in oral pharmaceutical products, nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to improve the dermal penetration of cosmetic actives (e.g. rutin, hesperidin) and of drugs. By now, nanocrystals are only dermally applied made from poorly soluble actives. The novel concept is to formulate nanocrystals also from medium soluble actives, and to apply a dermal formulation containing additionally nanocrystals. The nanocrystals should act as fast dissolving depot, increase saturation solubility and especially accumulate in the hair follicles, to further increase skin penetration...
August 15, 2014: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
G Prakash, B B Hosetti, B L Dhananjaya
OBJECTIVES: The antimutagenic effect of caffeine is evaluated against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutation rate in Drosophila. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mutation rate is evaluated using wing mosaic assay. In transheterozygous larvae, multiple wing hair (mwh 0.3-3) and flare (flr 3-38.8) genes were used as markers of the extent of mutagenicity. RESULTS: The results at 0.5 and 1.0 mM EMS concentration at both 48 ± 4 and 72 ± 4 h have shown consistent increase in mutation rate, which was being measured as frequency of clone formation per 105 cells...
January 2014: Toxicology International
Mario A Mujica-Mota, Karina Gasbarrino, Jamie M Rappaport, Robert S Shapiro, Sam J Daniel
OBJECTIVE: Caffeine is a widely consumed substance affecting the metabolism of adenosine and cellular metabolism of calcium. Noise also affects these metabolic pathways while inducing hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of daily intake of caffeine on hearing loss after an episode of acoustic trauma in guinea pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pilot study, forty guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control, n=10) received intraperitoneal saline, group II (n=10) received intraperitoneal caffeine (120 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, group III (n=10) was exposed to noise (tone of 6 kHz at 120 dB for one hour) and group IV (n=10) was exposed to noise as group III and received caffeine as group II...
March 2014: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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