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Neurovirulence of herpes 2

Lin Cheng, Hua Jiang, Jingjing Fan, Jiani Wang, Pan Hu, Ying Ruan, Renbin Liu
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV-1) vectors are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. The deletion of the γ34.5 gene eliminates the neurovirulence but attenuates virus replication at the same time. The carboxyl-terminus of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A (also known as MyD116/GADD34) is homologous to that of γ34.5; hence, it may substitute for γ34.5 to enhance the replication and cytotoxicity of the virus. To investigate whether the C-terminus of MyD116 can enhance the anti-tumour efficacy of G47Δ on human breast cancer cells, a GD116 mutant was constructed by inserting a γ34...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Y Furukawa, A Takasu, Y Yura
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widely studied viruses for oncolytic virotherapy. In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, the role of autophagy induced by neurovirulence gene-deficient HSV-1s in programmed cell death has not yet been elucidated. The oncolytic HSV-1 strain RH2, which lacks the γ34.5 gene and induces the fusion of human SCC cells, was used. RH2 replicated and induced cell death in SCC cells. RH2 infection was accompanied by the aggregation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cytoplasm, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the formation of double-membrane vacuoles containing cell contents...
September 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
Richard Manivanh, Jesse Mehrbach, David M Knipe, David A Leib
During viral infection, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their associated adaptors recruit TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), resulting in production of type I interferons (IFNs). ICP0 and ICP34.5 are among the proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) that modulate type I IFN signaling. We constructed a recombinant virus (ΔXX) that lacks amino acids 87 to 106, a portion of the previously described TBK1-binding domain of the γ34.5 gene (D. Verpooten, Y...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Valerio Leoni, Valentina Gatta, Costanza Casiraghi, Alfredo Nicosia, Biljana Petrovic, Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume
The oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) that has been approved for clinical practice and those HSVs in clinical trials are attenuated viruses, often with the neurovirulence gene γ1 34.5 and additional genes deleted. One strategy to engineer nonattenuated oncolytic HSVs consists of retargeting the viral tropism to a cancer-specific receptor of choice, exemplified by HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), which is present in breast, ovary, and other cancers, and in detargeting from the natural receptors...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Outi Heikkilä, Elina Ryödi, Veijo Hukkanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xingli Xu, Shengtao Fan, Jienan Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yanchun Che, Hongzhi Cai, Lichun Wang, Lei Guo, Longding Liu, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: UL7, a tegument protein of Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1), is highly conserved in viral infection and proliferation and has an unknown mechanism of action. METHODS: A HSV-1 UL7 mutant (UL7-MU) was constructed using the CRISPR-cas9 system. The replication rate and plaque morphology were used to analyze the biological characteristics of the wild-type (WT), UL7-MU and MU-complemented P1 viruses. The virulence of the viruses was evaluated in mice. Real-time RT-qPCR and ChIP assays were used to determine the expression levels of relevant genes...
September 13, 2016: Virology Journal
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Gregory A Smith
BACKGROUND: Infectious clones are fundamental tools for the study of many viruses, allowing for efficient mutagenesis and reproducible production of genetically-defined strains. For the large dsDNA genomes of the herpesviridae, bacterial artificial chromosomes have become the cloning vector of choice due to their capacity to house full-length herpesvirus genomes as single contiguous inserts. Furthermore, while maintained as plasmids in Escherichia coli, the clones can be mutated using robust prokaryotic recombination systems...
August 31, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
Derek J Royer, Hem R Gurung, Jeremy K Jinkins, Joshua J Geltz, Jennifer L Wu, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
UNLABELLED: Correlates of immunologic protection requisite for an efficacious herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) vaccine remain unclear with respect to viral pathogenesis and clinical disease. In the present study, mice were vaccinated with a novel avirulent, live attenuated virus (0ΔNLS) or an adjuvanted glycoprotein D subunit (gD-2) similar to that used in several human clinical trials. Mice vaccinated with 0ΔNLS showed superior protection against early viral replication, neuroinvasion, latency, and mortality compared to that of gD-2-vaccinated or naive mice following ocular challenge with a neurovirulent clinical isolate of HSV-1...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Charles Grose, Erin M Buckingham, Wallen Jackson, John E Carpenter
Autophagy has been intensively studied in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a human alphaherpesvirus. The HSV-1 genome encodes a well-known neurovirulence protein called ICP34.5. When the gene encoding this protein is deleted from the genome, the virus is markedly less virulent when injected into the brains of animal models. Subsequent characterization of ICP34.5 established that the neurovirulence protein interacts with BECN1, thereby inhibiting autophagy and facilitating viral replication in the brain...
April 3, 2015: Autophagy
Shuang Tang, Marta Bosch-Marce, Amita Patel, Todd P Margolis, Philip R Krause
UNLABELLED: In order to understand factors that may influence latency-associated transcription and latency-associated transcript (LAT) phenotypes, we studied the expression of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) LAT-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). We mapped the transcription initiation sites of all three primary miRNA transcripts and identified the ICP4-binding sequences at the transcription initiation sites of both HSV-2 LAT (pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II, which target ICP34.5, and miR-III, which targets ICP0) and L/ST (a pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II) but not at that of the primary miR-H6 (for which the target is unknown)...
May 2015: Journal of Virology
Katie L Davis, Maria Korom, Lynda A Morrison
The γ34.5 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 encodes ICP34.5, which enhances HSV-2 neurovirulence by an unknown mechanism. We found that an HSV-2 γ34.5-null mutant (γ34.5(-/-)) replicated less robustly than its rescue virus (γ34.5R) in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), and in cells primed with IFNβ. Increased eIF2α phosphorylation correlated with γ34.5(-/-) attenuation. However, γ34.5(-/-) achieved titers equivalent to γ34.5R in MEFs lacking the type I IFN receptor (IFNα/βR(-/-)) or lacking protein kinase R...
November 2014: Virology
Maria Korom, Katie L Davis, Lynda A Morrison
UNLABELLED: The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP34.5 protein strongly influences neurovirulence and regulates several cellular antiviral responses. Despite the clinical importance of HSV-2, relatively little is known about its ICP34.5 ortholog. We found that HSV-2 produces up to four distinct forms of ICP34.5 in infected cells: a full-length protein, one shorter form sharing the N terminus, and two shorter forms sharing the C terminus. These forms appeared with similar kinetics and accumulated in cells over much of the replication cycle...
October 2014: Journal of Virology
Darla Black, Kazutaka Ohsawa, Shaun Tyler, Lara Maxwell, R Eberle
Alpha-herpesviruses can produce more severe infections in non-natural host species than in their natural host. Isolates of the baboon alpha-herpesvirus Papiine herpesvirus 2 (HVP2) are either very neurovirulent in mice (subtype nv) or non-virulent (subtype ap), but no such difference is evident in the natural baboon host. Comparative genome sequencing was used to identify subtype-specific sequence differences (SSDs) between HVP2nv and HVP2ap isolates. Some genes were identified that despite exhibiting sequence variation among isolates did not have any SSDs, while other genes had comparatively high levels of SSDs...
March 2014: Virology
Li-Xin Wang, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Hitomi Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Tatsuo Suzutani, Kazuo Nakamichi, Chang-Kweng Lim, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) mutants were generated from plaque-purified ACV-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by culturing the virus in Vero cells in the presence of 2-amino-7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) purine (S2242). Three DNA polymerase (DNApol)-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 generated under ACV selection in a previous study (Suzutani, T., Ishioka, K., De Clercq, E., et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47, 1707-1713, 2003) were also included. The sensitivity of the mutants to other antivirals and their neurovirulence were determined...
2013: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shuang Tang, Nini Guo, Amita Patel, Philip R Krause
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, two closely related neurotropic human herpesviruses, achieve neurotropism through ICP34.5, a major viral neurovirulence factor. In this report, in addition to the full-length 38-kDa protein (ICP34.5α), we identified a 28-kDa novel form of ICP34.5 (ICP34.5β) in HSV-2-infected cells. ICP34.5β is translated from unspliced ICP34.5 mRNA, with the retained intron introducing a premature stop codon. Thus, ICP34.5β lacks the C-terminal conserved GADD34 domain but includes 19 additional amino acids encoded by the intron...
May 2013: Journal of Virology
Sona Chowdhury, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Misagh Naderi, Konstantin G Kousoulas
The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K (gK)/UL20 protein complex is incorporated into virion envelopes and cellular membranes and functions during virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. To investigate the role of gK/UL20 in the context of a highly neurovirulent virus strain, the HSV-1(McKrae) genome was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome plasmid (McKbac) and utilized to construct the mutant virus McK(gKΔ31-68), carrying a 37-amino-acid deletion within the gK amino terminus. The McKbac virus entered efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells constitutively expressing HSV-1 human receptors, nectin-1, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), or paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor alpha (PILRα)...
March 2013: Journal of Virology
Danielle Albuquerque Pires Rocha, Josiane Montanho Mariño, Cristina Maria Borborema do Santos
PURPOSE: To detect the presence of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA in cervical samples from women assisted in a primary health care clinic in the city of Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Participated in this study 361 sexually active women between 18 and 78 years. They were been assisted in a Basic Health Care Clinic for routine gynecological exam. The cervical samples were collected using endocervical brush. The viruses were detected using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique...
November 2012: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Gen Takahashi, Noritoshi Meshii, Masakazu Hamada, Soichi Iwai, Yoshiaki Yura
RH2 is a novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produced by simultaneous infection with neurovirulent γ134.5 gene-deficient HSV-1 R849 derived from strain F and the spontaneously occurring, fusogenic HSV-1 HF in cell culture. The genome of RH2 was studied using Genome Sequencer FLX. RH2 comprised 149 64 bp and it was shown that the lacZ gene was inserted into the γ134.5 gene of R849. Comparison of ORFs revealed that RH2 had 100 % identity with strain F in 21/58 unique long (UL) genes (36...
April 2013: Journal of General Virology
Sona Chowdhury, Misagh Naderi, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Jason D Walker, Konstantin G Kousoulas
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) enters into cells via membrane fusion of the viral envelope with plasma or endosomal membranes mediated by viral glycoproteins. HSV-1 virions attach to cell surfaces by binding of viral glycoproteins gC, gD and gB to specific cellular receptors. Here we show that the human ocular and highly neurovirulent HSV-1 strain McKrae enters substantially more efficiently into cells via the gB-specific human paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor-α (hPILR-α)...
2012: Virology Journal
Ryuichi Kanai, Cecile Zaupa, Donatella Sgubin, Slawomir J Antoszczyk, Robert L Martuza, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Samuel D Rabkin
The ICP34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is involved in many aspects of viral pathogenesis; promoting neurovirulence, inhibiting interferon-induced shutoff of protein synthesis, interacting with PCNA and TBK1, inhibiting dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and binding to Beclin 1 to interfere with autophagy. Because of its key role in neuropathogenicity, the γ34.5 gene is deleted in all oncolytic HSVs (oHSVs) currently in clinical trial for treating malignant gliomas. Unfortunately, deletion of γ34.5 attenuates virus replication in cancer cells, especially human glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs)...
April 2012: Journal of Virology
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