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Neurovirulence of herpes 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630235/the-%C3%AE-134-5-neurovirulence-gene-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-modifies-the-exosome-secretion-profile-in-epithelial-cells
#1
LETTER
Outi Heikkilä, Elina Ryödi, Veijo Hukkanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618986/the-mutated-tegument-protein-ul7-attenuates-the-virulence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-by-reducing-the-modulation-of-%C3%AE-4-gene-transcription
#2
Xingli Xu, Shengtao Fan, Jienan Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yanchun Che, Hongzhi Cai, Lichun Wang, Lei Guo, Longding Liu, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: UL7, a tegument protein of Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1), is highly conserved in viral infection and proliferation and has an unknown mechanism of action. METHODS: A HSV-1 UL7 mutant (UL7-MU) was constructed using the CRISPR-cas9 system. The replication rate and plaque morphology were used to analyze the biological characteristics of the wild-type (WT), UL7-MU and MU-complemented P1 viruses. The virulence of the viruses was evaluated in mice. Real-time RT-qPCR and ChIP assays were used to determine the expression levels of relevant genes...
2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580861/new-tools-to-convert-bacterial-artificial-chromosomes-to-a-self-excising-design-and-their-application-to-a-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infectious-clone
#3
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Gregory A Smith
BACKGROUND: Infectious clones are fundamental tools for the study of many viruses, allowing for efficient mutagenesis and reproducible production of genetically-defined strains. For the large dsDNA genomes of the herpesviridae, bacterial artificial chromosomes have become the cloning vector of choice due to their capacity to house full-length herpesvirus genomes as single contiguous inserts. Furthermore, while maintained as plasmids in Escherichia coli, the clones can be mutated using robust prokaryotic recombination systems...
2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030264/a-highly-efficacious-herpes-simplex-virus-1-vaccine-blocks-viral-pathogenesis-and-prevents-corneal-immunopathology-via-humoral-immunity
#4
Derek J Royer, Hem R Gurung, Jeremy K Jinkins, Joshua J Geltz, Jennifer L Wu, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
UNLABELLED: Correlates of immunologic protection requisite for an efficacious herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) vaccine remain unclear with respect to viral pathogenesis and clinical disease. In the present study, mice were vaccinated with a novel avirulent, live attenuated virus (0ΔNLS) or an adjuvanted glycoprotein D subunit (gD-2) similar to that used in several human clinical trials. Mice vaccinated with 0ΔNLS showed superior protection against early viral replication, neuroinvasion, latency, and mortality compared to that of gD-2-vaccinated or naive mice following ocular challenge with a neurovirulent clinical isolate of HSV-1...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25905782/the-pros-and-cons-of-autophagic-flux-among-herpesviruses
#5
Charles Grose, Erin M Buckingham, Wallen Jackson, John E Carpenter
Autophagy has been intensively studied in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a human alphaherpesvirus. The HSV-1 genome encodes a well-known neurovirulence protein called ICP34.5. When the gene encoding this protein is deleted from the genome, the virus is markedly less virulent when injected into the brains of animal models. Subsequent characterization of ICP34.5 established that the neurovirulence protein interacts with BECN1, thereby inhibiting autophagy and facilitating viral replication in the brain...
April 3, 2015: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25673716/characterization-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-primary-microrna-transcript-regulation
#6
Shuang Tang, Marta Bosch-Marce, Amita Patel, Todd P Margolis, Philip R Krause
UNLABELLED: In order to understand factors that may influence latency-associated transcription and latency-associated transcript (LAT) phenotypes, we studied the expression of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) LAT-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). We mapped the transcription initiation sites of all three primary miRNA transcripts and identified the ICP4-binding sequences at the transcription initiation sites of both HSV-2 LAT (pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II, which target ICP34.5, and miR-III, which targets ICP0) and L/ST (a pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II) but not at that of the primary miR-H6 (for which the target is unknown)...
May 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25238641/herpes-simplex-virus-2-icp34-5-confers-neurovirulence-by-regulating-the-type-i-interferon-response
#7
Katie L Davis, Maria Korom, Lynda A Morrison
The γ34.5 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 encodes ICP34.5, which enhances HSV-2 neurovirulence by an unknown mechanism. We found that an HSV-2 γ34.5-null mutant (γ34.5(-/-)) replicated less robustly than its rescue virus (γ34.5R) in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), and in cells primed with IFNβ. Increased eIF2α phosphorylation correlated with γ34.5(-/-) attenuation. However, γ34.5(-/-) achieved titers equivalent to γ34.5R in MEFs lacking the type I IFN receptor (IFNα/βR(-/-)) or lacking protein kinase R...
November 2014: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25031346/up-to-four-distinct-polypeptides-are-produced-from-the-%C3%AE-34-5-open-reading-frame-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2
#8
Maria Korom, Katie L Davis, Lynda A Morrison
UNLABELLED: The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP34.5 protein strongly influences neurovirulence and regulates several cellular antiviral responses. Despite the clinical importance of HSV-2, relatively little is known about its ICP34.5 ortholog. We found that HSV-2 produces up to four distinct forms of ICP34.5 in infected cells: a full-length protein, one shorter form sharing the N terminus, and two shorter forms sharing the C terminus. These forms appeared with similar kinetics and accumulated in cells over much of the replication cycle...
October 2014: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24606686/a-single-viral-gene-determines-lethal-cross-species-neurovirulence-of-baboon-herpesvirus-hvp2
#9
Darla Black, Kazutaka Ohsawa, Shaun Tyler, Lara Maxwell, R Eberle
Alpha-herpesviruses can produce more severe infections in non-natural host species than in their natural host. Isolates of the baboon alpha-herpesvirus Papiine herpesvirus 2 (HVP2) are either very neurovirulent in mice (subtype nv) or non-virulent (subtype ap), but no such difference is evident in the natural baboon host. Comparative genome sequencing was used to identify subtype-specific sequence differences (SSDs) between HVP2nv and HVP2ap isolates. Some genes were identified that despite exhibiting sequence variation among isolates did not have any SSDs, while other genes had comparatively high levels of SSDs...
March 2014: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24047739/characterization-of-dna-polymerase-associated-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-mutations-sensitivity-to-antiviral-compounds-neurovirulence-and-in-vivo-sensitivity-to-treatment
#10
Li-Xin Wang, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Hitomi Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Tatsuo Suzutani, Kazuo Nakamichi, Chang-Kweng Lim, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) mutants were generated from plaque-purified ACV-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by culturing the virus in Vero cells in the presence of 2-amino-7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) purine (S2242). Three DNA polymerase (DNApol)-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 generated under ACV selection in a previous study (Suzutani, T., Ishioka, K., De Clercq, E., et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47, 1707-1713, 2003) were also included. The sensitivity of the mutants to other antivirals and their neurovirulence were determined...
2013: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23487469/herpes-simplex-virus-2-expresses-a-novel-form-of-icp34-5-a-major-viral-neurovirulence-factor-through-regulated-alternative-splicing
#11
Shuang Tang, Nini Guo, Amita Patel, Philip R Krause
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, two closely related neurotropic human herpesviruses, achieve neurotropism through ICP34.5, a major viral neurovirulence factor. In this report, in addition to the full-length 38-kDa protein (ICP34.5α), we identified a 28-kDa novel form of ICP34.5 (ICP34.5β) in HSV-2-infected cells. ICP34.5β is translated from unspliced ICP34.5 mRNA, with the retained intron introducing a premature stop codon. Thus, ICP34.5β lacks the C-terminal conserved GADD34 domain but includes 19 additional amino acids encoded by the intron...
May 2013: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23302878/the-amino-terminus-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-glycoprotein-k-is-required-for-virion-entry-via-the-paired-immunoglobulin-like-type-2-receptor-alpha
#12
Sona Chowdhury, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Misagh Naderi, Konstantin G Kousoulas
The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K (gK)/UL20 protein complex is incorporated into virion envelopes and cellular membranes and functions during virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. To investigate the role of gK/UL20 in the context of a highly neurovirulent virus strain, the HSV-1(McKrae) genome was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome plasmid (McKbac) and utilized to construct the mutant virus McK(gKΔ31-68), carrying a 37-amino-acid deletion within the gK amino terminus. The McKbac virus entered efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells constitutively expressing HSV-1 human receptors, nectin-1, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), or paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor alpha (PILRα)...
March 2013: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23288260/-detection-of-human-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-cervical-sample
#13
Danielle Albuquerque Pires Rocha, Josiane Montanho Mariño, Cristina Maria Borborema do Santos
PURPOSE: To detect the presence of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA in cervical samples from women assisted in a primary health care clinic in the city of Coari, Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Participated in this study 361 sexually active women between 18 and 78 years. They were been assisted in a Basic Health Care Clinic for routine gynecological exam. The cervical samples were collected using endocervical brush. The viruses were detected using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique...
November 2012: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23239570/sequence-of-a-fusogenic-herpes-simplex-virus-rh2-for-oncolytic-virotherapy
#14
Gen Takahashi, Noritoshi Meshii, Masakazu Hamada, Soichi Iwai, Yoshiaki Yura
RH2 is a novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produced by simultaneous infection with neurovirulent γ134.5 gene-deficient HSV-1 R849 derived from strain F and the spontaneously occurring, fusogenic HSV-1 HF in cell culture. The genome of RH2 was studied using Genome Sequencer FLX. RH2 comprised 149 64 bp and it was shown that the lacZ gene was inserted into the γ134.5 gene of R849. Comparison of ORFs revealed that RH2 had 100 % identity with strain F in 21/58 unique long (UL) genes (36...
April 2013: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22695228/amino-acid-differences-in-glycoproteins-b-gb-c-gc-h-gh-and-l-gl-are-associated-with-enhanced-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-mckrae-entry-via-the-paired-immunoglobulin-like-type-2-receptor-%C3%AE
#15
Sona Chowdhury, Misagh Naderi, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Jason D Walker, Konstantin G Kousoulas
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) enters into cells via membrane fusion of the viral envelope with plasma or endosomal membranes mediated by viral glycoproteins. HSV-1 virions attach to cell surfaces by binding of viral glycoproteins gC, gD and gB to specific cellular receptors. Here we show that the human ocular and highly neurovirulent HSV-1 strain McKrae enters substantially more efficiently into cells via the gB-specific human paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor-α (hPILR-α)...
2012: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22345479/effect-of-%C3%AE-34-5-deletions-on-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-activity-in-brain-tumors
#16
Ryuichi Kanai, Cecile Zaupa, Donatella Sgubin, Slawomir J Antoszczyk, Robert L Martuza, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Samuel D Rabkin
The ICP34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is involved in many aspects of viral pathogenesis; promoting neurovirulence, inhibiting interferon-induced shutoff of protein synthesis, interacting with PCNA and TBK1, inhibiting dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and binding to Beclin 1 to interfere with autophagy. Because of its key role in neuropathogenicity, the γ34.5 gene is deleted in all oncolytic HSVs (oHSVs) currently in clinical trial for treating malignant gliomas. Unfortunately, deletion of γ34.5 attenuates virus replication in cancer cells, especially human glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs)...
April 2012: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21622569/icp34-5-protein-of-herpes-simplex-virus-facilitates-the-initiation-of-protein-translation-by-bridging-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2alpha-eif2alpha-and-protein-phosphatase-1
#17
Yapeng Li, Cuizhu Zhang, Xiangdong Chen, Jia Yu, Yu Wang, Yin Yang, Mingjuan Du, Huali Jin, Yijie Ma, Bin He, Youjia Cao
The ICP34.5 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurovirulence factor that plays critical roles in viral replication and anti-host responses. One of its functions is to recruit protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that leads to the dephosphorylation of the α subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α), which is inactivated by infection-induced phosphorylation. As PP1 is a protein phosphatase with a wide range of substrates, the question remains to be answered how ICP34.5 directs PP1 to specifically dephosphorylate eIF2α...
July 15, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21139679/ocular-infection-of-mice-with-an-avirulent-recombinant-hsv-1-expressing-il-4-and-an-attenuated-hsv-1-strain-generates-virulent-recombinants-in-vivo
#18
Kevin R Mott, Steven L Wechsler, Homayon Ghiasi
PURPOSE: To assess the relative impact of overexpression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expressing recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on altering immune responses in ocularly infected mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were co-infected ocularly with avirulent HSV-1 strain KOS and avirulent recombinant HSV-1 expressing murine IL-4 (HSV-IL-4). Controls mice were co-infected with KOS+HSV-IL-2 or KOS+HSV-IFNγ. Following ocular infection, virus replication in the eye, corneal scarring (CS), and survival were determined...
2010: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21078929/resistance-of-herpes-simplex-viruses-to-nucleoside-analogues-mechanisms-prevalence-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2 are responsible for recurrent orolabial and genital infections. The standard therapy for the management of HSV infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valacyclovir and famciclovir. These compounds are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and then by cellular kinases. The triphosphate forms selectively inhibit the viral DNA polymerase (DNA pol) activity. Drug-resistant HSV isolates are frequently recovered from immunocompromised patients but rarely found in immunocompetent subjects...
February 2011: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20419814/neurovirulence-and-latency-of-drug-resistant-clinical-herpes-simplex-viruses-in-animal-models
#20
Sarah Dambrosi, Mélanie Martin, Kevin Yim, Brian Miles, Julio Canas, Yan Sergerie, Guy Boivin
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) resistance to acyclovir or foscarnet results from mutations in viral thymidine kinase (TK) and/or DNA polymerase (pol) genes. Replication kinetics and virulence of TK and/or DNA pol clinical mutants were assessed using models of mouse encephalitis and cotton rat genital infection. Replication capacities in Vero cells of a DNA pol altered strain (L850I) and a TK/DNA pol mutant (C467deletion/A912V) were significantly lower than those of unrelated wild-type (WT) strains, while a double DNA pol mutant (S724N/P920S) demonstrated replication kinetics similar to the WT...
May 2010: Journal of Medical Virology
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