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Applied Behavioral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#1
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324199/high-hiv-prevalence-and-risk-among-male-clients-of-female-sex-workers-in-hanoi-and-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#2
Patrick Nadol, Tran Vu Hoang, Linh-Vi Le, Tuan Anh Nguyen, John Kaldor, Matthew Law
In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014...
March 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323849/bis-sulfosuccinimidyl-suberate-bs3-crosslinking-analysis-of-the-behavior-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-solution-and-in-phospholipid-membranes
#3
Jing-Ming Shi, Jie Pei, En-Qi Liu, Lin Zhang
The structure and state of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers often need to be checked by reliable experimental methods. Electrophoresis is a commonly applied measurement method. However, due to the presence of detergents, oligomers are easily broken during electrophoresis, which makes it very hard to accurately assess Aβ aggregate states. In the current study, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) was used to cross-link Aβ1-42 oligomers prior to electrophoresis. When compared to a previously reported Aβ cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde, it was quite apparent that BS3 is more suitable for detecting intra-membrane Aβ oligomers and extra-membrane Aβ oligomers states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323473/video-based-grocery-shopping-intervention-effect-on-purchasing-behaviors-among-latina-shoppers
#4
Hortensia Amaro, Dharma E Cortés, Samantha Garcia, Lei Duan, David S Black
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. METHODS: From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322524/-nudging-o-educazione-a-scelte-civiche-responsabili-l-esempio-dello-screening-della-mammella
#5
Mariachiara Tallacchini
"Nudge, or nudging, refers to a policy approach inspired by behavioral sciences: it promotes the conducts identified as desirable by regulators without applying prohibition and coercion. This approach has gained a lot of momentum in the domain of health policies. Policy strategies based on behavioral insights appear ideal as to implementing healthier life styles and public health programs while minimizing compliance costs: from organ donation to food choices, from fighting obesity and chronic diseases to screening policies...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319451/a-best-example-of-channel-structure-annotation-by-molecular-simulation
#6
Shanlin Rao, Gianni Klesse, Phillip J Stansfeld, Stephen J Tucker, Mark S P Sansom
An increasing number of ion channel structures are being determined. This generates a need for computational tools to enable functional annotation of channel structures. However, a number of studies of ion channel and model pores have indicated that the physical dimensions of a pore are not always a reliable indicator of its conductive status. This is due to the unusual behavior of water within nano-confined spaces, resulting in a phenomenon referred to as 'hydrophobic gating'. We have recently demonstrated how simulating the behavior of water within an ion channel pore can be used to predict its conductive status...
March 20, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319367/structural-stability-from-crystallographic-shear-in-tio2-nb2o5-phases-cation-ordering-and-lithiation-behavior-of-tinb24o62
#7
Kent J Griffith, Anatoliy Senyshyn, Clare P Grey
The host structure and reversible lithium insertion and extraction of an intercalation compound, TiNb24O62, are described. Neutron diffraction, applied for the first time to TiNb24O62, allowed an accurate refinement of the complex block superstructure, particularly with respect to the oxygen sublattice. Analysis of the transition-metal sites revealed significant cation ordering in the mixed-metal oxide. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated highly reversible lithium intercalation with ca. 190 mA·h·g(-1) after 100 cycles (C/10 rate, 3 months)...
March 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319239/mobile-health-interventions-for-improving-health-outcomes-in-youth-a-meta-analysis
#8
David A Fedele, Christopher C Cushing, Alyssa Fritz, Christina M Amaro, Adrian Ortega
Importance: Mobile health interventions are increasingly popular in pediatrics; however, it is unclear how effective these interventions are in changing health outcomes. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of mobile health interventions for improving health outcomes in youth 18 years or younger. Data Sources: Studies published through November 30, 2016, were collected through PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and PsychINFO...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317384/exploring-possible-predictors-and-moderators-of-an-executive-function-training-for-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Marieke de Vries, Mathilde Ge Verdam, Pier Jm Prins, Ben A Schmand, Hilde M Geurts
Previously, a total of 121 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed an adaptive working memory (WM)-training, an adaptive flexibility-training, or a non-adaptive control (mock)-training. Despite overall improvement, there were minor differences between the adaptive and mock-training conditions. Moreover, dropout was relatively high (26%). In the current study we explored potential predicting and moderating factors to clarify these findings. The effects of intelligence, autism traits, WM, flexibility, reward sensitivity and Theory of Mind on dropout, improvement during training, and improvement in everyday executive functioning (EF), ASD-like behavior, and Quality of Life (QoL) were studied...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317122/an-anthropomorphic-abdominal-phantom-for-deformable-image-registration-accuracy-validation-in-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#10
Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhen, Linghong Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316216/-correlation-between-the-ct-features-and-malignancy-risk-of-small-%C3%A2-5-cm-gastric-stromal-tumors
#11
J Wang, J L Xu, H J Hu
Objective: To evaluate the correlation between computed tomography (CT) features and malignancy risk category of small (≤5 cm) gastric stromal tumors (GST), in order to provide an image reference for preoperative assessment and intraoperative pathological diagnosis. Methods: Eighty-three patients with surgically and pathologically proven GST (≤5 cm) between January 2011 and November 2015 were recruited, and their clinical, pathological and CT data were retrospectively analyzed. According to the pathological results and malignancy risk category, the patients were divided into 2 groups, the benign biological behavior group (very low and low risk) and malignant biological behavior group (intermediate and high risk)...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316047/exogenous-application-of-plant-growth-regulators-pgrs-induces-chilling-tolerance-in-short-duration-hybrid-maize
#12
Muhammad Ahmed Waqas, Imran Khan, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Mehmood Ali Noor, Umair Ashraf
Chilling stress hampers the optimal performance of maize under field conditions precipitously by inducing oxidative stress. To confer the damaging effects of chilling stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of some natural and synthetic plant growth regulators, i.e., salicylic acid (SA), thiourea (TU), sorghum water extract (SWE), and moringa leaf extract (MLE) on chilling stress tolerance in autumn maize hybrid. Foliar application of growth regulators at low concentrations was carried out at six leaf (V6) and tasseling stages...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315760/medication-adherence-outcomes-of-771-intervention-trials-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Vicki S Conn, Todd M Ruppar
Excellent medication adherence contributes to decreases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Although researchers have tested many interventions to increase adherence, results are sometimes conflicting and often unclear. This systematic review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate primary research that tested medication adherence interventions. Comprehensive searching completed in 2015 located 771 published and unpublished intervention studies with adherence behavior outcomes. Random-effects model analysis calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315616/counterfactual-simulations-applied-to-shrp2-crashes-the-effect-of-driver-behavior-models-on-safety-benefit-estimations-of-intelligent-safety-systems
#14
Jonas Bärgman, Christian-Nils Boda, Marco Dozza
As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature...
March 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315583/adsorption-of-reactive-yellow-x-rg-and-reactive-brilliant-red-x-3b-onto-cucurbit-8-uril-and-cucurbit-6-uril-effect-factors-adsorption-behavior-and-mechanism-study
#15
Xiaolei Li, Xiaomei Xie, Hanhan Luo, Lan Li, Zhuang Li, Zhiyong Xue, Wei Li
Cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) and cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) were applied as a high efficiency absorbent to remove reactive yellow X-RG and reactive brilliant red X-3B dyes in aqueous solution. Factors affecting adsorption such as dosage, contact time, temperature, pH value and metal cation were investigated. The adsorption isotherms for X-RG followed the Langmuir and Sips model while for X-3B followed the Freundlich model. Adsorption thermodynamic showed that X-RG and X-3B adsorption onto CB[8] and CB[6] was a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315312/eeg-oscillatory-power-dissociates-between-distress-and-depression-related-psychopathology-in-subjective-tinnitus
#16
Martin Meyer, Patrick Neff, Angelina Grest, Colette Hemsley, Steffi Weidt, Tobias Kleinjung
Recent research has used source estimation approaches to identify spatially distinct neural configurations in individuals with chronic, subjective tinnitus (TI). The results of these studies are often heterogeneous, a fact which may be partly explained by an inherent heterogeneity of/in the TI population and partly by the applied EEG data analysis procedure and EEG hardware. Hence this study was performed to re-enact a formerly published study (Joos et al., 2012) to better understand the reason for differences and overlap between studies from different labs...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315238/comprehensive-gas-phase-peptide-ion-structure-studies-using-ion-mobility-techniques-part-2-gas-phase-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-for-ion-population-estimation
#17
Mahdiar Khakinejad, Samaneh Ghassabi Kondalaji, Amirmahdi Tafreshian, Stephen J Valentine
Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) using D2O reagent and collision cross-section (CCS) measurements are utilized to monitor the ion conformers of the model peptide acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK. The measurements are carried out on a home-built ion mobility instrument coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer containing electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. ETD is utilized to obtain per-residue deuterium uptake data for select ion conformers, and a new algorithm is presented for interpreting the HDX data...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314813/tdcs-induced-modulation-of-gaba-levels-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#18
Daria Antonenko, Florian Schubert, Florian Bohm, Bernd Ittermann, Semiha Aydin, Dayana Hayek, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates human behavior, neuronal patterns and metabolite concentrations, with exciting potential for neurorehabilitation. However, the understanding of tDCS-induced alterations on the neuronal level is incomplete and conclusions from young adults, in whom the majority of studies have been conducted, cannot be easily transferred to older populations. Here, we investigated tDCS-induced effects in older adults (N=48, age range 50-79 years) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess sensorimotor network strength and inter-hemispheric connectivity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314439/reversing-the-atypical-valuation-of-drug-and-nondrug-rewards-in-smokers-using-multimodal-neuroimaging
#19
Travis E Baker, Paul Lesperance, Alan Tucholka, Stephane Potvin, Kevin Larcher, Yu Zhang, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Patricia Conrod
BACKGROUND: Chronic substance use can disrupt the reward function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), biasing the ACC to favor goal-directed behaviors that converge on drug use. Here we used multimodal neuroimaging methods to ask whether modulating reward-related signaling in the ACC can reverse the atypical valuation of nondrug and drug rewards in abstinent smokers. METHODS: We first recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 moderately dependent cigarette smokers (mean age = 25 years; no history of neuropsychiatric disorders), following an overnight period of abstinence, to identify regions of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the anticipation of drug-related rewards (cigarette puff)...
January 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314062/a-community-perspective-on-resilience-analytics-a-visual-analysis-of-community-mood
#20
Armando López-Cuevas, José Ramírez-Márquez, Gildardo Sanchez-Ante, Kash Barker
Social networks are ubiquitous in everyday life. Although commonly analyzed from a perspective of individual interactions, social networks can provide insights about the collective behavior of a community. It has been shown that changes in the mood of social networks can be correlated to economic trends, public demonstrations, and political reactions, among others. In this work, we study community resilience in terms of the mood variations of the community. We have developed a method to characterize the mood steady-state of online social networks and to analyze how this steady-state is affected under certain perturbations or events that affect a community...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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