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Applied Behavioral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441649/home-based-physical-behavior-in-late-stage-parkinson-disease-dementia-differences-between-cognitive-subtypes
#1
Bernhard Cerff, Walter Maetzler, Patricia Sulzer, Malte Kampmeyer, Jos Prinzen, Markus A Hobert, Dominik Blum, Rob van Lummel, Silvia Del Din, Susanne Gräber, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: For the early diagnosis of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), objective home-based tools are needed to quantify even mild stages of dysfunction of the activities of daily living (ADL). OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, home-based physical behavior was assessed to examine whether it is possible to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) from PDD. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with mild to severe Parkinson disease (PD) participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 26, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441570/neural-indices-of-phonemic-discrimination-and-sentence-level-speech-intelligibility-in-quiet-and-noise-a-p3-study
#2
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang, Peggy B Nelson, Boxiang Wang, Hui Zou
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response...
April 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#3
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440581/the-toxicity-of-silver-to-soil-organisms-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-silver-nitrate-in-biosolids-amended-field-soil
#4
Alexander H Jesmer, Jessica R Velicogna, Dina M Schwertfeger, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag(+) ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using silver-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag(+) in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO3 soil extracts while exposure to dispersible AgNP was verified by single particle-ICP-MS and TEM-EDS analysis...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439385/effects-of-tailored-health-education-program-on-overweight-elementary-school-students-obesity-related-lifestyle-a-school-based-interventional-study
#5
Sharareh Haghani, Hossein Shahnazi, Akbar Hassanzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Overweight and obesity are regarded as one of the most serious health and nutrition issues worldwide. This is immediately recognizable in both children and adolescents. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of tailored education on lifestyle modification in elementary school students in Isfahan. METHODS: In a quasi-experimental study, two elementary schools in Isfahan District 3, Iran, were randomly selected to determine the intervention and comparison groups...
March 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439234/salivary-oxytocin-concentration-associates-with-the-subjective-feeling-of-body-ownership-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#6
Masakazu Ide, Makoto Wada
Oxytocin is a hormone of the posterior pituitary that promotes lactation, maternal bonding, and birth. Recent studies have shown that oxytocin may modulate social recognition in both sexes, and thus it may be related to empathy. Brain regions that are associated with social recognition and empathy (e.g., the insular cortex) are activated in the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which involves illusory ownership of a rubber hand caused by brush strokes applied synchronously to both a rubber hand and one of the participant's hand, which is hidden from view...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439231/informing-the-structure-of-executive-function-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-data
#7
Róisín McKenna, T Rushe, Kate A Woodcock
The structure of executive function (EF) has been the focus of much debate for decades. What is more, the complexity and diversity provided by the developmental period only adds to this contention. The development of executive function plays an integral part in the expression of children's behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional capabilities. Understanding how these processes are constructed during development allows for effective measurement of EF in this population. This meta-analysis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the structure of executive function in children...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439225/magnitude-codes-for-cross-modal-working-memory-in-the-primate-frontal-association-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Andreas Nieder
Quantitative features of stimuli may be ordered along a magnitude continuum, or line. Magnitude refers to parameters of different types of stimulus properties. For instance, the frequency of a sound relates to sensory and continuous stimulus properties, whereas the number of items in a set is an abstract and discrete property. In addition, within a stimulus property, magnitudes need to be processed not only in one modality, but across multiple modalities. In the sensory domain, for example, magnitude applies to both to the frequency of auditory sounds and tactile vibrations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439162/evaluating-the-effect-of-minimizing-screws-on-stabilization-of-symphysis-mandibular-fracture-by-3d-finite-element-analysis
#9
Ghias Kharmanda, Mohamed-Yaser Kharma
PURPOSE: The objective of this work is to integrate structural optimization and reliability concepts into mini-plate fixation strategy used in symphysis mandibular fractures. The structural reliability levels are next estimated when considering a single failure mode and multiple failure modes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed in order to evaluate the ability of reducing the negative effect due to the stabilization of the fracture...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439075/switch-from-ambient-to-focal-processing-mode-explains-the-dynamics-of-free-viewing-eye-movements
#10
Junji Ito, Yukako Yamane, Mika Suzuki, Pedro Maldonado, Ichiro Fujita, Hiroshi Tamura, Sonja Grün
Previous studies have reported that humans employ ambient and focal modes of visual exploration while they freely view natural scenes. These two modes have been characterized based on eye movement parameters such as saccade amplitude and fixation duration, but not by any visual features of the viewed scenes. Here we propose a new characterization of eye movements during free viewing based on how eyes are moved from and to objects in a visual scene. We applied this characterization to data obtained from freely-viewing macaque monkeys...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438661/systematic-review-of-the-potential-adverse-effects-of-caffeine-consumption-in-healthy-adults-pregnant-women-adolescents-and-children
#11
Daniele Wikoff, Brian T Welsh, Rayetta Henderson, Gregory P Brorby, Janice Britt, Esther Myers, Jeffrey Goldberger, Harris R Lieberman, Charles O'Brien, Jennifer Peck, Milton Tenebein, Connie Weaver, Seneca Harvey, Jonathan Urban, Candace Doepker
To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015...
April 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438439/in-ear-medical-devices-for-acoustic-therapies-in-tinnitus-treatments-state-of-the-art
#12
REVIEW
David Ibarra, Francisco Tavira-Sanchez, Manuel Recuero-Lopez, Brian W Anthony
Cochrane reviews indicate there is very limited support for all forms of sound therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy has the strongest support. American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) recently published some guidelines which recommends Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for tinnitus intervention, and only indicates that sound therapy should be considered an "option" for intervention. Nevertheless, acoustic therapy could lead to cause changes in the tinnitus perception and has been appreciated by the affected people for years...
April 21, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438401/a-control-system-for-ultrasound-devices-utilized-for-inactivating-e-coli-in-wastewater
#13
H Ohrdes, I Ille, J Twiefel, J Wallaschek, R Nogueira, K-H Rosenwinkel
Sonochemical processes applied to wastewater treatment have an influence on the behavior of ultrasonic systems. This is especially due to the load characteristic of the sonochemical process itself and the temperature increase caused by internal damping within the converter. Hence, a controlling device is needed to guarantee the operation in resonance and to keep the vibration amplitude constant. This paper presents a digital control system for the operation of weak to strong damped ultrasonic devices and its application for inactivating Escherichia coli in wastewater...
April 16, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438235/deception-detection-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#14
Jaume Masip
BACKGROUND: Deception detection has been a longstanding concern throughout human history. It has also interested scientists, who have explored psychological and behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers, as well as ways to improve detection accuracy. METHOD: In recent years, substantial advances have been made in the field. Some of these advances are briefly reviewed in the current article. RESULTS: A description is provided of (a) research and contemporary theories on how people (try to) detect deception; (b) recent advances on strategic interviewing to detect deception; (c) the integrative findings of recent meta-analyses on systematic verbal lie detection approaches; and (d) several important aspects concerning psychophysiological detection of deception...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438211/social-and-behavioral-interventions-for-improving-quality-of-life-of-hiv-infected-people-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Dharma Nand Bhatta, Tippawan Liabsuetrakul, Edward B McNeil
BACKGROUND: Improvement in quality of life is crucial for HIV infected people. Social and behavioral interventions have been implemented in different contexts to improve the quality of life among HIV infected people. This review appraises the evidence for available interventions that focused on quality of life of HIV infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials of interventions to improve the quality of life of HIV infected people receiving ART...
April 24, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438000/development-of-limited-view-and-three-dimensional-reconstruction-method-for-analysis-of-electrohydrodynamic-jetting-behavior
#16
Yeonghyeon Gim, Dong Ho Shin, Do Yoon Moh, Han Seo Ko
For an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet, variables such as the direction of the meniscus and the ejection stability need to be analyzed. Thus, the EHD jet should be observed three-dimensionally (3D) because the variables can only be obtained in the 3D field, especially in unstable modes. However, if the 3D field is reconstructed from multi-directional binary images, eliminating reconstruction errors caused by invisible areas is almost impossible, even when using a tomographic technique. To solve this problem, a new 3D reconstruction method including an ellipse estimation was developed in this study...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#17
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437652/review-of-take-home-pesticide-exposure-pathway-in-children-living-in-agricultural-areas
#18
REVIEW
Carly Hyland, Ouahiba Laribi
BACKGROUND: Children of farmworkers may be chronically exposed to pesticides via the take-home exposure pathway. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review was to analyze scientific literature evaluating the role of the take-home pesticide exposure pathway in children of agricultural workers. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken and inclusion criteria were applied to identify original articles of interest. Of the 30 articles included in this review, some belonged to the same studies, resulting in a total of 23 studies...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437565/relaxed-ordered-subset-preconditioned-alternating-projection-algorithm-for-pet-reconstruction-with-automated-penalty-weight-selection
#19
C Ross Schmidtlein, Yizun Lin, Si Li, Andrzej Krol, Bradley J Beattie, John L Humm, Yuesheng Xu
PURPOSE: Performance of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) using relaxed ordered subsets (ROS) with a non-smooth penalty function was investigated in positron emission tomography (PET). A higher order total variation (HOTV) regularizer was applied and a method for unsupervised selection of penalty weights based on the measured data is introduced. METHODS: A ROS version of PAPA with HOTV penalty (ROS-HOTV-PAPA) for PET image reconstruction was developed and implemented...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437254/interaction-driven-distinctive-electronic-states-of-artificial-atoms-at-the-zno-interface
#20
Tapash Chakraborty, Aram Manaselyan, Manuk Barseghyan
We have investigated the electronic states of planar quantum dots at the ZnO interface containing a few interacting electrons in an externally applied magnetic field. The electron-electron interaction effects are expected to be much stronger in this case than in traditional semiconductor quantum systems, such as in GaAs or InAs quantum dots. In order to highlight that stronger Coulomb effects in the ZnO quantum dots, we have compared the energy spectra and the magnetization in this system to those of the InAs quantum dots...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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