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Applied Behavioral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166045/controlling-relative-polymorph-stability-in-soft-porous-crystals-with-a-barostat
#1
Nathan A Mahynski, Vincent K Shen
We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the thermodynamic behavior of soft porous crystal (SPC) adsorbents under the influence of an external barostat. We consider SPCs that naturally exhibit polymorphism between crystal forms of two distinct pore sizes. In the absence of barostatting, these crystals may be naturally divided into two categories depending on their response to stress applied by the adsorbate fluid: those which macroscopically deform and change the volume of their unit cell ("breathing") and those which instead undergo internal rearrangements that change the adsorbate-accessible volume without modifying the unit cell volume ("gate-opening")...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166009/formation-of-spherical-aromatic-endohedral-metallic-fullerenes-evaluation-of-magnetic-properties-of-m-c28-m-ti-zr-and-hf-from-dft-calculations
#2
Alvaro Muñoz-Castro, R Bruce King
The small C28 cage has been shown experimentally to encapsulate titanium, zirconium, and hafnium (M), among other elements. Here, we explore computationally its magnetic response properties accounting for both global and local shielding tensors. Our results exhibit a continuous shielding region for M@C28 for an orientation-averaged applied field thereby differing from that observed for the hollow C28 structure. Moreover, under a specific orientation of the applied field a long-ranged shielding cone is obtained supporting the spherical aromatic behavior expected by the 2(N + 1)(2) Hirsch rule for M@C28, standing for its particular abundance...
November 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165868/the-effects-of-intrinsic-enrichment-on-captive-felids
#3
Juliana Damasceno, Gelson Genaro, Thomas Quirke, Shannen McCarthy, Sean McKeown, Ruth O'Riordan
Environmental enrichment is a well-known technique, which has been used to enhance the welfare of captive animals. The aim of this study is to investigate how three different forms of intrinsic enrichment, namely, a hay ball without scent, a hay ball with catnip, and a hay ball with cinnamon, influenced the behavior of six cheetah and two Sumatran tigers at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Enrichment-directed behaviors, as well as pacing, locomotion, inactive, and exploratory behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the three forms of enrichment had similar effects, in terms of enrichment-directed behavior, with cinnamon resulting in the highest levels of enrichment-directed behaviors...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165867/applying-behavior-analytic-methodology-to-the-science-and-practice-of-environmental-enrichment-in-zoos-and-aquariums
#4
Christina A Alligood, Nicole R Dorey, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Katherine A Leighty
Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518)...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165167/the-relation-between-cigarette-taxes-and-older-adult-smoking-in-zhejiang-and-gansu-what-happened-following-the-2009-chinese-tax-adjustments
#5
Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: In May 2009, the Chinese government raised cigarette excise tax rates and adjusted standards for Grade A cigarettes and Grade B cigarettes. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the tax adjustments in 2009 on smoking behaviors and health outcomes among smokers aged above 45. METHODS: Data from the 2008 and 2012 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study of Zhejiang and Gansu provinces were used to estimate the influence of tax increase on the number of cigarettes smoked daily and health capital...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165165/perceived-effectiveness-rating-scales-applied-to-insomnia-help-seeking-messages-for-middle-aged-japanese-people-a-validity-and-reliability-study
#6
Machi Suka, Takashi Yamauchi, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
BACKGROUND: Communicating health messages is an important way to influence people's behaviors towards health issues. Providers need to incorporate audience's perspective to design more persuasive messages. This study aimed to develop rating scales for measuring audience's perception of effectiveness of health messages in Japanese people. METHODS: The comprehensibility scale including five items and the persuasiveness scale including seven items were designed based on literature review...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165081/rheological-characteristics-of-novel-meloxicam-loaded-complex-organogels-based-on-fumed-silica-and-poloxamer
#7
Tomasz Osmalek, Anna Froelich, Barbara Jadach, Katarzyna Ancukiewicz, Piotr Gadzinski
The objective of the presented work was to formulate and investigate the rheological behavior of non-aqueous gels containing 0.5% of meloxicam (MLX) in a non-ionic, dissolved form. Fumed silica and SynperonicTM PE/L 62 were used as structure forming components. Arlasolve®, Transcutol®, ethanol and DMSO were applied as solubilizers and potential skin absorption enhancers. In the first step, the preformulation studies were conducted in order to optimize the composition of the vehicle. The main acceptance criterion was the ability of the medium to dissolve MLX, which was confirmed by the lack of drug crystals and proper clarity of the formulation...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165022/the-behavioral-health-role-in-nursing-facility-social-work
#8
Dennis R Myers, Robin K Rogers, Harold H LeCrone, Katherine Kelley
Types of compromised resident behaviors licensed nursing facility social workers encounter, the behavioral health role they enact, and effective practices they apply have not been the subject of systematic investigation. Analyses of 20 in-depth interviews with Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)/Master of Social Work (MSW) social workers averaging 8.8 years of experience identified frequently occurring resident behaviors: physical and verbal aggression/disruption, passive disruption, socially and sexually inappropriateness...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164857/modeling-insight-into-battery-electrolyte-electrochemical-stability-and-interfacial-structure
#9
Oleg Borodin, Xiaoming Ren, Jenel Vatamanu, Arthur von Wald Cresce, Jaroslaw Knap, Kang Xu
Electroactive interfaces distinguish electrochemistry from chemistry and enable electrochemical energy devices like batteries, fuel cells, and electric double layer capacitors. In batteries, electrolytes should be either thermodynamically stable at the electrode interfaces or kinetically stable by forming an electronically insulating but ionically conducting interphase. In addition to a traditional optimization of electrolytes by adding cosolvents and sacrificial additives to preferentially reduce or oxidize at the electrode surfaces, knowledge of the local electrolyte composition and structure within the double layer as a function of voltage constitutes the basis of manipulating an interphase and expanding the operating windows of electrochemical devices...
November 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164112/details-matter-noise-and-model-structure-set-the-relationship-between-cell-size-and-cell-cycle-timing
#10
Felix Barber, Po-Yi Ho, Andrew W Murray, Ariel Amir
Organisms across all domains of life regulate the size of their cells. However, the means by which this is done is poorly understood. We study two abstracted "molecular" models for size regulation: inhibitor dilution and initiator accumulation. We apply the models to two settings: bacteria like Escherichia coli, that grow fully before they set a division plane and divide into two equally sized cells, and cells that form a bud early in the cell division cycle, confine new growth to that bud, and divide at the connection between that bud and the mother cell, like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163922/bright-and-sensitive-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-enabling-endogenous-fa-imaging-and-mechanistic-exploration-of-indirect-oxidative-damage-due-to-fa-in-various-living-systems
#11
Kun Dou, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Lingxin Chen, Ziping Cao, Tao Chen, Yulin Li, Jinmao You
As a notorious toxin, formaldehyde (FA) poses an immense threat to human health. Aberrantly elevated FA levels lead to serious pathologies, including organ damage, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Unfortunately, current techniques limit FA imaging to general comparative studies, instead of a mechanistic exploration of its biological role, and this is presumably due to the lack of robust molecular tools for reporting FA in living systems. More importantly, despite being reductive, FA, however, can induce oxidative damage to organisms, thus providing a challenge to the mechanistic study of FA using fluorescence imaging...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163307/on-nomological-validity-and-auxiliary-assumptions-the-importance-of-simultaneously-testing-effects-in-social-cognitive-theories-applied-to-health-behavior-and-some-guidelines
#12
Martin S Hagger, Daniel F Gucciardi, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163294/constructing-a-reward-related-quality-of-life-statistic-in-daily-life-a-proof-of-concept-study-using-positive-affect
#13
REVIEW
Simone J W Verhagen, Claudia J P Simons, Catherine van Zelst, Philippe A E G Delespaul
Background: Mental healthcare needs person-tailored interventions. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) can provide daily life monitoring of personal experiences. This study aims to operationalize and test a measure of momentary reward-related Quality of Life (rQoL). Intuitively, quality of life improves by spending more time on rewarding experiences. ESM clinical interventions can use this information to coach patients to find a realistic, optimal balance of positive experiences (maximize reward) in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163287/corporate-social-responsibility-and-employee-outcomes-a-moderated-mediation-model-of-organizational-identification-and-moral-identity
#14
Wei Wang, Ying Fu, Huiqing Qiu, James H Moore, Zhongming Wang
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) research is not new, but its importance to today's socially conscious market environment is even more evident in recent years. This study moves beyond CSR as simply the socially responsible actions and policies of organizations and focuses on the complex psychology of CSR as it relates to individuals within the organization. Given CSR can positively affect both the individuals within the organization and the organization itself, better understanding and leveraging the mechanisms and conditions of CSR that facilitate desired employee outcomes is crucial for organizational performance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163272/perceived-emotional-intelligence-and-learning-strategies-in-spanish-university-students-a-new-perspective-from-a-canonical-non-symmetrical-correspondence-analysis
#15
María C Vega-Hernández, María C Patino-Alonso, Rosario Cabello, María P Galindo-Villardón, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Recent studies have revealed that emotional competences are relevant to the student's learning process and, more specifically, in the use of learning strategies (LSs). The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and LSs applying the scales TMMS-24 and Abridged ACRA to a sample of 2334 Spanish university students, whilst also exploring possible gender differences. Second, we aim to propose a methodological alternative based on the Canonical non-symmetrical correspondence analysis (CNCA), as an alternative to the methods traditionally used in Psychology and Education...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163104/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-does-not-improve-behavioral-and-neurophysiological-measures-in-patients-with-subacute-vegetative-unresponsive-wakefulness-state-vs-uws
#16
Mauro Mancuso, Laura Abbruzzese, Stefania Canova, Giulia Landi, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but not in those with VS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163058/adaptive-changes-in-the-vestibular-system-of-land-snail-to-a-30-day-spaceflight-and-readaptation-on-return-to-earth
#17
Nikolay Aseyev, Alia Kh Vinarskaya, Matvey Roshchin, Tatiana A Korshunova, Aleksey Yu Malyshev, Alena B Zuzina, Victor N Ierusalimsky, Maria S Lemak, Igor S Zakharov, Ivan A Novikov, Peter Kolosov, Ekaterina Chesnokova, Svetlana Volkova, Artem Kasianov, Leonid Uroshlev, Yekaterina Popova, Richard D Boyle, Pavel M Balaban
The vestibular system receives a permanent influence from gravity and reflexively controls equilibrium. If we assume gravity has remained constant during the species' evolution, will its sensory system adapt to abrupt loss of that force? We address this question in the land snail Helix lucorum exposed to 30 days of near weightlessness aboard the Bion-M1 satellite, and studied geotactic behavior of postflight snails, differential gene expressions in statocyst transcriptome, and electrophysiological responses of mechanoreceptors to applied tilts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162585/diet-behavior-change-techniques-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Kevin A Cradock, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Francis M Finucane, Rhyann McKay, Leo R Quinlan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Heather L Gainforth
OBJECTIVE: Dietary behavior is closely connected to type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) and specific components of dietary interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes associated with changes in HbA1c and body weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched. Reports of randomized controlled trials published during 1975-2017 that focused on changing dietary behavior were selected, and methodological rigor, use of BCTs, and fidelity and intervention features were evaluated...
December 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162518/ripe-for-solution-delayed-development-of-multisensory-processing-in-autism-and-its-remediation
#19
REVIEW
Shlomit Beker, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Difficulty integrating inputs from different sensory sources is commonly reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Accumulating evidence consistently points to altered patterns of behavioral reactions and neural activity when individuals with ASD observe or act upon information arriving through multiple sensory systems. For example, impairments in the integration of seen and heard speech appear to be particularly acute, with obvious implications for interpersonal communication. Here, we explore the literature on multisensory processing in autism with a focus on developmental trajectories...
November 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161970/the-mediating-effect-of-ethical-climate-on-religious-orientation-and-ethical-behavior
#20
Zahra Marzieh Hassanian, Arezoo Shayan
BACKGROUND: Nurses' behavior in Educational-Medical centers is very important for improving the condition of patients. Ethical climate represents the ethical values and behavioral expectations. Attitude of people toward religion is both intrinsic and extrinsic. Different ethical climates and attitude toward religion could be associated with nurses' behavior. AIM: To study the mediating effect of ethical climate on religious orientation and ethical behaviors of nurses...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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