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Applied Behavioral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934161/improving-the-process-of-adjusting-the-parameters-of-finite-element-models-of-healthy-human-intervertebral-discs-by-the-multi-response-surface-method
#1
Fátima Somovilla Gómez, Rubén Lostado Lorza, Marina Corral Bobadilla, Rubén Escribano García
The kinematic behavior of models that are based on the finite element method (FEM) for modeling the human body depends greatly on an accurate estimate of the parameters that define such models. This task is complex, and any small difference between the actual biomaterial model and the simulation model based on FEM can be amplified enormously in the presence of nonlinearities. The current paper attempts to demonstrate how a combination of the FEM and the MRS methods with desirability functions can be used to obtain the material parameters that are most appropriate for use in defining the behavior of Finite Element (FE) models of the healthy human lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD)...
September 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934053/the-peace-and-power-conceptual-model-an-assessment-guide-for-school-nurses-regarding-commercial-sexual-exploitation-of-children
#2
Hannah E Fraley, Teri Aronowitz
Human trafficking is a global problem; more than half of all victims are children. In the United States (US), at-risk youth continue to attend school. School nurses are on the frontlines, presenting a window of opportunity to identify and prevent exploitation. Available papers targeting school nurses report that school nurses may lack awareness of commercial sexual exploitation and may have attitudes and misperceptions about behaviors of school children at risk. This is a theoretical paper applying the Peace and Power Conceptual Model to understand the role of school nurses in commercial sexual exploitation of children...
October 2017: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933829/synthesis-crystal-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-the-highly-frustrated-orthorhombic-li4mgreo6
#3
JoAnna Milam-Guerrero, Charles J Bloed, Phuong-Hieu T Nguyen, Gia T Tran, William P Martin, Demetrios V Papakostas, Jefferson Toro, Murray N Wilson, Jeremy P Carlo, Graeme M Luke, Brent C Melot, Jiyeong Gu, Shahab Derakhshan
In an effort to understand the structure-property relationship in magnetically frustrated systems, an orthorhombic analog of the S = 1/2 Re-based oxide Li4MgReO6 has been successfully synthesized and its physical properties were investigated. Li4MgReO6 had been previously synthesized in a monoclinic system in an ordered NaCl structure type. That system was shown to exhibit spin glass behavior below ∼12 K. The crystal structure of the latter phase was determined using powder X-ray diffraction data. A structural model was refined in the orthorhombic Fddd space group that resulted in cell dimensions of a = 5...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933812/superior-b-doped-sic-nanowire-flexible-field-emitters-ultra-low-turn-on-fields-and-robust-stabilities-against-harsh-environments
#4
Shanliang Chen, Minghui Shang, Lin Wang, Zuobao Yang, Fengmei Gao, Jinju Zheng, Weiyou Yang
Low turn-on fields together with boosted stabilities are recognized as two key factors for pushing forward the implementations of the field emitters in electronic units. In current work, we explored superior flexible field emitters based on single-crystalline 3C-SiC nanowires, which had numbers of sharp edges as well as corners surrounding the wire body and B dopants. The as-constructed field emitters behaved exceptional field emission (FE) behaviors with ultra-low turn-on fields (Eto) of 0.94-0.68 V/μm and current emission fluctuations of ±1...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933535/development-of-visible-light-induced-photoelectrochemical-platform-based-on-cyclometalated-iridium-iii-complex-for-bioanalysis
#5
Chunxiang Li, Weisen Lu, Ming Zhu, Bo Tang
The performance of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis relies closely on the properties of the usedphotoactive species. In this study, a visible-light induced PEC active species, [(C6)2Ir(dcbpy)]+PF6- (C6 = coumarin 6, dcbpy = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) was prepared based on C6 with the stronger absorbance in the visible region. The as-prepared complex was characterized by 1H NMR,UV-visible absorption and cyclic voltammetry. It exhibits intense absorption in visible region at 480 nm with a molar extinction coefficient (ε) of more 40000 M-1cm-1, which is approximately twice that of Ru(bpy)32+...
September 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932886/immediate-responses-of-the-cockroach-blaptica-dubia-after-the-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard
#6
Tanja Popp, Robin Lüling, Ingrid Boekhoff, Thomas Seeger, Francisco Branoner, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz
The chemical agent sulfur mustard (SM) causes erythema, skin blisters, ulcerations, and delayed wound healing. It is accepted that the underlying molecular toxicology is based on DNA alkylation. With an expected delay, DNA damage causes impairment of protein biosynthesis and disturbance of cell division. However, using the cockroach model Blaptica dubia, the presented results show that alkylating compounds provoke immediate behavior responses along with fast changes in the electrical field potential (EFP) of neurons, suggesting that lesions of DNA are probably not the only effect of alkylating compounds...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932103/a-modified-mean-gray-wolf-optimization-approach-for-benchmark-and-biomedical-problems
#7
Narinder Singh, S B Singh
A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior) equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal), and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant...
2017: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931937/high-accuracy-label-free-classification-of-single-cell-kinetic-states-from-holographic-cytometry-of-human-melanoma-cells
#8
Miroslav Hejna, Aparna Jorapur, Jun S Song, Robert L Judson
Digital holographic cytometry (DHC) permits label-free visualization of adherent cells. Dozens of cellular features can be derived from segmentation of hologram-derived images. However, the accuracy of single cell classification by these features remains limited for most applications, and lack of standardization metrics has hindered independent experimental comparison and validation. Here we identify twenty-six DHC-derived features that provide biologically independent information across a variety of mammalian cell state transitions...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#9
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931161/probing-behavior-of-dichelops-furcatus-f-heteroptera-pentatomidae-on-wheat-plants-characterized-by-electropenetrography-epg-and-histological-studies
#10
Tiago Lucini, Antônio Ricardo Panizzi
The stink bug Dichelops furcatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) has increased in abundance in recent years on the wheat, Triticum aestivum L., crop cultivated in the southern region of Brazil. To investigate the probing (stylet penetration) behaviors and nonprobing behaviors of D. furcatus on wheat plants, the electrical penetration graph or electropenetrography (EPG) technique was applied. Nine EPG waveforms (types/subtypes) were identified and described on stem and on ear head of wheat plants, as follows: Z, Np, Df1a, Df1b, Df2, Df3a, Df3b, Df4a, and Df4b...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931023/parsimonious-data-how-a-single-facebook-like-predicts-voting-behavior-in-multiparty-systems
#11
Jakob Bæk Kristensen, Thomas Albrechtsen, Emil Dahl-Nielsen, Michael Jensen, Magnus Skovrind, Tobias Bornakke
This study shows how liking politicians' public Facebook posts can be used as an accurate measure for predicting present-day voter intention in a multiparty system. We highlight that a few, but selective digital traces produce prediction accuracies that are on par or even greater than most current approaches based upon bigger and broader datasets. Combining the online and offline, we connect a subsample of surveyed respondents to their public Facebook activity and apply machine learning classifiers to explore the link between their political liking behaviour and actual voting intention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#12
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929950/high-versus-low-theoretical-fidelity-pedometer-intervention-using-social-cognitive-theory-on-steps-and-self-efficacy
#13
Thomas D Raedeke, Deirdre Dlugonski
PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. METHOD: Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition wore a pedometer and participated in a weekly group walk followed by a meeting to discuss cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy...
September 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929943/formal-alternative-transportation-options-for-older-adults-an-assessment-of-need
#14
Joshua J Turner, Carolyn E Adams-Price, Lesley Strawderman
Although older adults are typically able to drive well into older adulthood, health and cognitive deficits can eventually make older motorists a danger to themselves and others. There is a need for increased senior-focused transportation options, yet implementation of such programs is problematic due to an uncertainty about which groups are in most need of services. This study measured the perceived need for formal alternative modes of transportation among older adults. Using data from a nationwide survey, this study applies the traditional factors of the Behavioral Model to measure the perceived need for formal transportation services among survey participants, while also examining the relationship between service awareness and perceived need for formal transportation services...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929839/capturing-ecology-in-modeling-approaches-applied-to-environmental-risk-assessment-of-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-fish
#15
Kate S Mintram, A Ross Brown, Samuel K Maynard, Pernille Thorbek, Charles R Tyler
Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species...
September 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#16
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928445/phase-retrieved-tomography-enables-mesoscopic-imaging-of-opaque-tumor-spheroids
#17
Daniele Ancora, Diego Di Battista, Georgia Giasafaki, Stylianos E Psycharakis, Evangelos Liapis, Jorge Ripoll, Giannis Zacharakis
We present a new Phase-Retrieved Tomography (PRT) method to radically improve mesoscopic imaging at regimes beyond one transport mean-free-path and achieve high resolution, uniformly throughout the volume of opaque samples. The method exploits multi-view acquisition in a hybrid Selective Plane Illumination Microscope (SPIM) and Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) setup and a three-dimensional Gerchberg-Saxton phase-retrieval algorithm applied in 3D through the autocorrelation sinogram. We have successfully applied this innovative protocol to image optically dense 3D cell cultures in the form of tumor spheroids, highly versatile models to study cancer behavior and response to chemotherapy...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928066/rheological-properties-of-tamarind-tamarindus-indica-l-seed-mucilage-obtained-by-spray-drying-as-a-novel-source-of-hydrocolloid
#18
Erik Alpizar-Reyes, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Raquel Gallardo-Rivera, Victor Varela-Guerrero, Julian Cruz-Olivares, César Pérez-Alonso
Tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) was extracted and obtained by spray drying. The power law model well described the rheological behavior of the TSM dispersions with determination coefficients R(2) higher than 0.99. According to power law model, non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and temperatures (25, 30, 40, and 60°C) studied. Increasing temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior index, opposite effect was observed when increasing the concentration...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928027/development-of-a-sexual-needs-rehabilitation-framework-in-women-post-spinal-cord-injury-a-study-from-iran
#19
Raziyeh Maasoumi, Fatemeh Zarei, Effat Merghati-Khoei, Taylor Lawson, Seyyed Hasan Emami-Razavi
OBJECTIVE: To develop a sexual needs rehabilitation framework in women post spinal cord injury (SCI) DESIGN: Mixed-methods study SETTING: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PARTICIPANTS: Married women with at least one year passed injury INTERVENTION: Not applicable METHODS: This study was designed in three steps; primary needs assessment with quantitative and qualitative methods, prioritizing identified needs by expert panels, and developing framework...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927830/transport-velocity-of-droplets-on-ratchet-conveyors
#20
REVIEW
Hal R Holmes, Karl F Böhringer
Anisotropic ratchet conveyors (ARC) are a type of digital microfluidic system. Unlike electrowetting based systems, ARCs transport droplets through a passive, micro-patterned surface and applied orthogonal vibrations. The mechanics of droplet transport on ARC devices has yet to be as well characterized and understood as on electrowetting systems. In this work, we investigate how the design of the ARC substrate affects the droplet response to vibrations and perform the first characterization of transport velocity on ARC devices...
September 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
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