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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449659/using-immunotherapy-to-boost-the-abscopal-effect
#1
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Omoruyi Credit Irabor, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jürgen Hesser, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti
More than 60 years ago, the effect whereby radiotherapy at one site may lead to regression of metastatic cancer at distant sites that are not irradiated was described and called the abscopal effect (from 'ab scopus', that is, away from the target). The abscopal effect has been connected to mechanisms involving the immune system. However, the effect is rare because at the time of treatment, established immune-tolerance mechanisms may hamper the development of sufficiently robust abscopal responses. Today, the growing consensus is that combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy provides an opportunity to boost abscopal response rates, extending the use of radiotherapy to treatment of both local and metastatic disease...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386105/active-ebola-virus-replication-and-heterogeneous-evolutionary-rates-in-evd-survivors
#2
Shannon L M Whitmer, Jason T Ladner, Michael R Wiley, Ketan Patel, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Foday Sahr, Karla Prieto, Samuel S Shepard, Ellie Carmody, Barbara Knust, Dhamari Naidoo, Gibrilla Deen, Pierre Formenty, Stuart T Nichol, Gustavo Palacios, Ute Ströher
Following cessation of continuous Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission within Western Africa, sporadic EBOV disease (EVD) cases continued to re-emerge beyond the viral incubation period. Epidemiological and genomic evidence strongly suggests that this represented transmission from EVD survivors. To investigate whether persistent infections are characterized by ongoing viral replication, we sequenced EBOV from the semen of nine EVD survivors and a subset of corresponding acute specimens. EBOV evolutionary rates during persistence were either similar to or reduced relative to acute infection rates...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346192/image-quality-overall-evaluability-and-effective-radiation-dose-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-with-prospective-electrocardiographic-triggering-plus-intracycle-motion-correction-algorithm-in-patients-with-a-heart-rate-over-65-beats-per-minute
#3
Gianluca Pontone, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Andrea Baggiano, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Fabio Fazzari, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Elisabetta Mancini, Massimo Verdecchia, Laura Fusini, Lorenzo Bonfanti, Elisa Consiglio, Mark G Rabbat, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
PURPOSE: Recently, a new intracycle motion correction algorithm (MCA) was introduced to reduce motion artifacts from heart rate (HR) in coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the image quality, overall evaluability, and effective radiation dose (ED) of cCTA with prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering plus MCA as compared with standard protocol with retrospective ECG triggering in patients with HR≥65 bpm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients (67±10 y) scheduled for cCTA with 65<HR<80 bpm were retrospectively analyzed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313482/assessment-of-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-detection-of-trichostrongylus-spp-dna-from-human-fecal-samples
#4
Francesca Perandin, Elena Pomari, Camilla Bonizzi, Manuela Mistretta, Fabio Formenti, Zeno Bisoffi
Sporadic cases of Tricostrongylosis are reported in humans. Diagnosis of enteric Trichostrongylus relies primarily on coproscopic analysis but morphological identification is difficult because of similarity among nematode species. The method is time consuming and requires some expertise. To overcome these limitations, we developed a molecular approach by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to provide a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool to detect Trichostrongylus spp. in human feces. We designed primers and probe specific for Trichostrongylus rDNA region 5...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282434/the-inspired-sinewave-technique-a-comparison-study-with-body-plethysmography-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Phi Anh Phan, Cathy Zhang, Daniel Geer, Federico Formenti, Clive E W Hahn, Andrew D Farmery
The inspired sinewave technique is a noninvasive method to measure airway dead space, functional residual capacity, pulmonary blood flow, and lung inhomogeneity simultaneously. The purpose of this paper was to assess the repeatability and accuracy of the current device prototype in measuring functional residual capacity, and also participant comfort when using such a device. To assess within-session repeatability, six sinewave measurements were taken over two-hour period in 17 healthy volunteers. To assess day-to-day repeatability, measurements were taken over 16 days in 3 volunteers...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280462/optimizing-dose-per-fraction-a-new-chapter-in-the-story-of-the-abscopal-effect
#6
EDITORIAL
Silvia C Formenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258856/emerging-biomarkers-for-the-combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockers
#7
REVIEW
Claire Lhuillier, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Over the past few years, multiple immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have achieved unprecedented clinical success and have been approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of an increasing number of malignancies. However, only a limited fraction of patients responds to ICBs employed as a standalone intervention, calling for the development of combinatorial regimens. Radiation therapy (RT) stands out as a very promising candidate for this purpose. Indeed, RT mediates antineoplastic effects not only by cytotoxic and cytostatic mechanisms, but also by modulating immunological functions, both locally (within the irradiated field) and systemically...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249855/metastatic-osseous-pain-control-radiation-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Josephine Kang, Silvia C Formenti
Metastatic disease to the bone is a common manifestation of advanced cancer, and can result in pain, pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, and overall functional compromise. External beam radiation is a proven, highly efficacious, and noninvasive therapy that can provide symptomatic relief from painful osseous lesions. When deciding upon the best treatment regimen, it is important to consider patient factors such as overall life expectancy, performance status, disease burden, and site of osseous metastatic pain...
December 2017: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180535/radiotherapy-and-ctla-4-blockade-shape-the-tcr-repertoire-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-cells
#9
Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Karsten A Pilones, Claire Lhuillier, Erik Wennerberg, John-William Sidhom, Ryan O Emerson, Harlan S Robins, Jonathan Schneck, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Immune checkpoint inhibitors activate T cells to reject tumors. Unique tumor mutations are key T-cell targets, but a comprehensive understanding of the nature of a successful antitumor T-cell response is lacking. To investigate the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire associated with treatment success versus failure we used a well-characterized mouse carcinoma that is rejected by CD8 T cells in mice treated with radiotherapy (RT) and anti-CTLA-4 in combination, but not as monotherapy, and comprehensively analyzed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by high-throughput sequencing of the TCRΒ CDR3 region...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164383/image-quality-and-radiation-dose-of-coronary-ct-angiography-performed-with-whole-heart-coverage-ct-scanner-with-intra-cycle-motion-correction-algorithm-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#10
Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Edoardo Conte, Marco Guglielmo, Valentina Volpato, Andrea Annoni, Andrea Baggiano, Alberto Formenti, Valentina Ditali, Marco Perchinunno, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate image quality, coronary evaluability and radiation exposure of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) performed with whole-heart coverage cardiac-CT in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 164 patients with AF who underwent a clinically indicated CCTA with a 16-cm z-axis coverage scanner. In all patients CCTA was performed using prospective ECG-triggering with targeted RR interval. We evaluated image quality, coronary evaluability and effective dose (ED)...
November 21, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163458/molecular-biology-can-change-the-classic-laboratory-approach-for-intestinal-protozoan-infections
#11
Fabio Formenti, Matteo Valerio, Massimo Guerriero, Francesca Perandin, Barbara Pajola, Manuela Mistretta, Stefano Tais, Monica Degani, Zeno Bisoffi
For many years microscopy has been considered the mainstay of the diagnosis of parasitic infections. In our laboratory, before the advent of molecular biology, the approach for the identification of parasitic infections in stools was the microscopic exam of three samples. Once we adopted molecular biology, a real-time PCR on one single sample was added to the classical coproparasitological exam of three samples. Given the high sensitivity of real-time PCR (Rt-PCR), we then decided to evaluate if a change of our routine was justified...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147629/trial-watch-immune-checkpoint-blockers-for-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Claire Lhuillier, Lucillia Bezu, Fernando Aranda, Takahiro Yamazaki, Oliver Kepp, Jitka Fucikova, Radek Spisek, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are literally revolutionizing the clinical management of an ever more diversified panel of oncological indications. Although considerable attention persists around the inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) signaling, several other co-inhibitory T-cell receptors are being evaluated as potential targets for the development of novel ICBs. Moreover, substantial efforts are being devoted to the identification of biomarkers that reliably predict the likelihood of each patient to obtain clinical benefits from ICBs in the absence of severe toxicity...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146587/prognostic-stratification-of-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-prospect-a-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-study
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gianluca Pontone, Andrea I Guaricci, Daniele Andreini, Giovanni Ferro, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Laura Fusini, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Valentina Lorenzoni, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Patrizia Carità, Massimo Verdecchia, Silvia Pica, Fabio Fazzari, Nicola Cosentino, Giancarlo Marenzi, Mark G Rabbat, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi, Pier Giorgio Masci
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a robust tool to evaluate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), myocardial salvage index, microvascular obstruction, and myocardial hemorrhage in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We evaluated the additional prognostic benefit of a CMR score over standard prognostic stratification with global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) score and transthoracic echocardiography LVEF measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred nine consecutive patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (age, 61...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145885/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-melanoma-bridge-napoli-november-30th-3rd-december-2016
#14
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Gennaro Ciliberto, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Connie P M Duong, Soldano Ferrone, Silvia C Formenti, Claus Garbe, Ruth Halaban, Samir Khleif, Jason J Luke, Lluis M Mir, Willem W Overwijk, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Paul Sondel, Janis M Taube, Per Thor Straten, David F Stroncek, Jennifer A Wargo, Hassane Zarour, Magdalena Thurin
Major advances have been made in the treatment of cancer with targeted therapy and immunotherapy; several FDA-approved agents with associated improvement of 1-year survival rates became available for stage IV melanoma patients. Before 2010, the 1-year survival were quite low, at 30%; in 2011, the rise to nearly 50% in the setting of treatment with Ipilimumab, and rise to 70% with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in 2013 was observed. Even more impressive are 1-year survival rates considering combination strategies with both targeted therapy and immunotherapy, now exceeding 80%...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121201/high-prevalence-of-radiological-vertebral-fractures-in-women-on-tsh-suppressive-therapy-for-thyroid-carcinoma
#15
Gherardo Mazziotti, Anna Maria Formenti, Stefano Frara, Roberto Olivetti, Giuseppe Banfi, Maurizio Memo, Roberto Maroldi, Raffaele Giubbini, Andrea Giustina
Context: Bone loss and non-vertebral fractures have been reported in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) undergoing TSH-suppressive therapy. Radiological vertebral fractures (VFs) are an early and clinically crucial marker of bone fragility but they have never been investigated so far in this specific clinical setting. Objective and design: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the prevalence and determinants of radiological VFs in women under L-T4 therapy for DTC...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110129/real-life-management-and-outcome-of-thyroid-carcinoma-related-bone-metastases-results-from-a-nationwide-multicenter-experience
#16
G Mazziotti, A M Formenti, M B Panarotto, E Arvat, A Chiti, A Cuocolo, M E Dottorini, C Durante, L Agate, S Filetti, F Felicetti, A Filice, L Pace, T Pellegrino, M Rodari, M Salvatori, C Tranfaglia, A Versari, D Viola, S Frara, A Berruti, A Giustina, R Giubbini
PURPOSE AND PATIENTS: The M.O.S.CA.TI. (Metastases of the Skeleton from CArcinoma of the ThyroId) is a multicenter, retrospective study investigating the real-life outcome and management of bone metastases (BM) in 143 patients (63 M, 80 F; median age 64 years, range 11-87) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). RESULTS: Radio-active iodine (RAI) treatment was performed in 131 patients (91.6%), surgical approach and/or external radiotherapy in 68 patients (47...
November 6, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098936/facial-asymmetry-in-the-resting-state-reflects-anxiety-status-on-young-males
#17
Alessio Rossi, Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Alice Morgante, Palmina Caruso, Marco Gargano, Nicola Ludwig, Isabella Merzagora, Giampietro Alberti
Facial asymmetry is considered a marker of psychological, emotional and physiological distress, while anxiety is a behavioural, psychological and physiological response to a threat to well-being. Since individuals respond to anxiety with specific patterns (e.g., muscular tension), it is reasonable to hypothesize that anxiety could contribute to facial tension and therefore facial asymmetry. Instead, since facial asymmetry is perceived as "unpleasant" from peers, its presence may be a hindrance to social adaptation contributing to generate anxiety...
November 3, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037377/thermographic-imaging-in-sports-and-exercise-medicine-a-delphi-study-and-consensus-statement-on-the-measurement-of-human-skin-temperature
#18
REVIEW
Danilo Gomes Moreira, Joseph T Costello, Ciro J Brito, Jakub G Adamczyk, Kurt Ammer, Aaron J E Bach, Carlos M A Costa, Clare Eglin, Alex A Fernandes, Ismael Fernández-Cuevas, José J A Ferreira, Damiano Formenti, Damien Fournet, George Havenith, Kevin Howell, Anna Jung, Glen P Kenny, Eleazar S Kolosovas-Machuca, Matthew J Maley, Arcangelo Merla, David D Pascoe, Jose I Priego Quesada, Robert G Schwartz, Adérito R D Seixas, James Selfe, Boris G Vainer, Manuel Sillero-Quintana
The importance of using infrared thermography (IRT) to assess skin temperature (tsk) is increasing in clinical settings. Recently, its use has been increasing in sports and exercise medicine; however, no consensus guideline exists to address the methods for collecting data in such situations. The aim of this study was to develop a checklist for the collection of tsk using IRT in sports and exercise medicine. We carried out a Delphi study to set a checklist based on consensus agreement from leading experts in the field...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016305/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-on-bronchoalveolar-lavage-an-alternative-method-for-diagnosing-chronic-pulmonary-schistosomiasis
#19
Federico Gobbi, Fabio Formenti, Francesca Perandin, Dora Buonfrate, Andrea Angheben, Simona Paiano, Zeno Bisoffi
Schistosomiasis causes mainly hepatic and genitourinary damage. Although lung nodules have been commonly described in acute phase, they are presumably underdiagnosed in chronic schistosomiasis. We previously reported a series of patients with chronic pulmonary schistosomiasis confirmed by the histological examination of the lung biopsies. In the present work, we retrospectively tested an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for Schistosoma (currently validated for diagnosis on stool and on urine) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of a couple of those patients, and both resulted positive...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932642/trex1-dictates-the-immune-fate-of-irradiated-cancer-cells
#20
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
The optimal radiation dose and fractionation to induce anti-tumor immunity remain elusive. We recently found that the exonuclease TREX1 abrogates the immunogenicity of irradiated cancer cells by degrading interferon-stimulatory cytosolic dsDNA. TREX1 upregulation by radiation dose per fraction beyond a threshold of 10-12 Gy results in poor synergy with immune checkpoint blockers.
2017: Oncoimmunology
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