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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662550/radiotherapy-and-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-winning-new-combination
#1
REVIEW
Eric C Ko, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as an important therapeutic approach to the management of malignancies across multiple disease settings. Concomitantly, there has been an increasing appreciation for the role of radiotherapy in eliciting and promoting tumor-directed immune responses. In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence to date on combinations of radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, both from the standpoint of safety and efficacy. We highlight important but yet-unanswered questions for this combination approach, as well as their implications for future prospective studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661221/practice-patterns-and-outcomes-for-patients-with-node-negative-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-and-intermediate-21-gene-recurrence-scores
#2
Jonathan Chen, Xian Wu, Paul J Christos, Silvia Formenti, Himanshu Nagar
BACKGROUND: The recommendation for chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients has been refined by the 21-gene Recurrence Score. However, uncertainty remains whether patients in the Intermediate Risk category benefit from chemotherapy. METHODS: We analyzed female patients from the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012 who had pT1c-T2N0M0 breast cancer, were ER/PR-positive and HER2-negative, received endocrine therapy, and had a 21-gene Recurrence Score from 11 to 25...
April 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602723/impact-of-a-new-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-asir-v-algorithm-on-image-quality-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#3
Gianluca Pontone, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Fabio Fazzari, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Elisabetta Mancini, Massimo Verdecchia, Alessandro Campari, Chiara Martini, Marco Gatti, Laura Fusini, Lorenzo Bonfanti, Elisa Consiglio, Mark G Rabbat, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A new postprocessing algorithm named adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-V has been recently introduced. The aim of this article was to analyze the impact of ASIR-V algorithm on signal, noise, and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated coronary computed tomography angiography (Revolution CT; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI)...
March 27, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598848/dual-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-and-programmed-death-1-blockade-a-strategy-for-immune-excluded-tumors
#4
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Silvia C Formenti
Tumors that elude infiltration by CD8+ T lymphocytes are particularly resistant to multiple forms of treatment, including immune checkpoint blockade. Stromal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β appears to play a key role in this process, potentially constituting a target for novel combinatorial regimens tackling immune-excluded neoplasms.
March 26, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589579/field-investigation-with-real-time-virus-genetic-characterisation-support-of-a-cluster-of-ebola-virus-disease-cases-in-dubr%C3%A3-ka-guinea-april-to-june-2015
#5
Alessandro Pini, Delayo Zomahoun, Sophie Duraffour, Tarik Derrough, Myrna Charles, Joshua Quick, Nick Loman, Lauren Cowley, Mamadou Leno, Nobila Ouedraogo, Oumou Thiam, Alfonso Hernández-Romieu, Annie Iko, Halimatou Keita, Djiba Konate, Aboubacar Aboubak Soumah, Etran Bouchouar, Samuel Ileka-Priouzeau, Sakoba Keita, Boubacar Diallo, Fode Cisse, Josep Jansa, Miles Carroll, Stephan Günther, Ettore Severi, Pierre Formenty
On 11 May 2015, the Dubréka prefecture, Guinea, reported nine laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD). None could be epidemiologically linked to cases previously reported in the prefecture. We describe the epidemiological and molecular investigations of this event. We used the Dubréka EVD registers and the Ebola treatment centre's (ETC) records to characterise chains of transmission. Real-time field Ebola virus sequencing was employed to support epidemiological results. An epidemiological cluster of 32 cases was found, of which 27 were laboratory confirmed, 24 were isolated and 20 died...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589416/conscious-sedation-in-critically-ill-patients-is-associated-with-stressors-perception-lower-than-assessed-by-caregivers
#6
Giovanni Mistraletti, Michele Umbrello, Vera Mariani, Elisabetta Carloni, Sara Miori, Martina Taverna, Giovanni Sabbatini, Paolo Formenti, Stefano Terzoni, Anne L Destrebecq, Davide Chiumello, Egidio A Moja, Gaetano Iapichino
BACKGROUND: In ICU, the stay is frequently a stressful experience. Caregivers may help to understand patients' perceptions; however, their reliability is uncertain. Despite the recent recommendations of lighter sedation targets, little is known about the impact of "conscious sedation" on ICU patients memories. Purpose of this prospective, observational study is to analyze the stress perception in consciously-sedated ICU-patients, comparing it to caregivers and staff members...
March 27, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548066/immunotherapy-plus-stereotactic-radiosurgery-building-on-the-promise-of-precision-medicine-for-cns-malignancies-part-2-existing-experience-and-considerations-for-future-trials
#7
REVIEW
Isabella Zhang, Silvia C Formenti, Jonathan P S Knisely
The brain has long been considered an immunologically privileged site, and the role of immunotherapy in treating intracranial disease has only recently been revived-with preclinical evidence showing that the systemic immune system responds to immunotherapy for intracranial disease, and with clinical evidence demonstrating improved locoregional control and survival compared with historical outcomes when immune-directed therapies are combined with radiation. Pharmaceutical industry-supported multi-institutional drug efficacy studies routinely exclude patients with brain metastases, so current evidence for treatment of brain metastases using stereotactic radiosurgery combined with immunotherapy comes from single-institution studies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547359/molecular-and-serological-evidence-of-the-presence-of-midichloria-mitochondrii-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-in-france
#8
Valentina Serra, Alessandra Cafiso, Nicoletta Formenti, Hélène Verheyden, Olivier Plantard, Chiara Bazzocchi, Davide Sassera
Midichloria mitochondrii is a tick-borne intracellular bacterium of the order Rickettsiales, found with high prevalence in the sheep tick ( Ixodes ricinus). Midichloria mitochondrii is capable of vertical transmission in the tick, but recently evidence of potential horizontal transmission to the tick hosts through the blood meal has been reported. We investigated the presence of the bacterium in the blood of roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) collected from an area known to be highly infested with I. ricinus ticks...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527223/pten-at-the-interface-of-immune-tolerance-and-tumor-suppression
#9
Andrew Brandmaier, Sheng-Qi Hou, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Wen H Shen
BACKGROUND: PTEN is well known to function as a tumor suppressor that antagonizes oncogenic signaling and maintains genomic stability. The PTEN gene is frequently deleted or mutated in human cancers and the wide cancer spectrum associated with PTEN deficiency has been recapitulated in a variety of mouse models of Pten deletion or mutation. Pten mutations are highly penetrant in causing various types of spontaneous tumors that often exhibit resistance to anticancer therapies including immunotherapy...
June 2017: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507831/bilateral-asymmetry-of-skin-temperature-is-not-related-to-bilateral-asymmetry-of-crank-torque-during-an-incremental-cycling-exercise-to-exhaustion
#10
Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Nicola Ludwig, Marco Gargano, Andrea Bosio, Ermanno Rampinini, Giampietro Alberti
Although moderate relationships (| r | ∼ 0.5) were reported between skin temperature and performance-related variables (e.g., kinetic), it remains unclear whether skin temperature asymmetry reflects muscle force imbalance in cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether a relationship exists between kinetic and thermal asymmetry during a fatiguing exercise. Ten elite cyclists were enrolled and tested on a maximal incremental cycling test. Peak crank torques of both legs were obtained at the initial and final workload...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506722/diagnostic-performance-of-coronary-ct-angiography-carried-out-with-a-novel-whole-heart-coverage-high-definition-ct-scanner-in-patients-with-high-heart-rate
#11
Daniele Andreini, Saima Mushtaq, Gianluca Pontone, Edoardo Conte, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Annoni, Andrea Baggiano, Alberto Formenti, Valentina Ditali, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Simone Zanchi, Eleonora Melotti, Daniela Trabattoni, Piero Montorsi, Paolo Mario Ravagnani, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to evaluate image quality, radiation exposure and diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) performed with a novel cardiac CT scanner in patients with very high heart rate (HR). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 202 patients (111 men, mean age 66±8years) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA with a whole-organ volumetric CT scanner. The HR during the scan was ≥80bpm in 100 patients (Group 1), while it was ≤65bpm in the remaining 102 patients (Group 2)...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497130/ultra-intense-laser-interaction-with-nanostructured-near-critical-plasmas
#12
Luca Fedeli, Arianna Formenti, Lorenzo Cialfi, Andrea Pazzaglia, Matteo Passoni
Near-critical plasmas irradiated at ultra-high laser intensities (I > 1018 W/cm2 ) allow to improve the performances of laser-driven particle and radiation sources and to explore scenarios of great astrophysical interest. Near-critical plasmas with controlled properties can be obtained with nanostructured low-density materials. By means of 3D Particle-In-Cell simulations, we investigate how realistic nanostructures influence the interaction of an ultra-intense laser with a plasma having a near-critical average electron density...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492951/immunotherapy-plus-stereotactic-radiosurgery-building-on-the-promise-of-precision-medicine-for-cns-malignancies-part-1-principles-of-combined-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Isabella Zhang, Silvia C Formenti, Jonathan P S Knisely
The role of systemic therapy in the treatment of intracranial metastases has traditionally been limited by the blood-brain barrier, and radiation therapy-either with whole-brain treatment or stereotactic radiosurgery-has remained a primary treatment modality. Recent evidence has demonstrated that antigens released in the brain can inform the systemic immune system, and systemic antibodies can traverse into the brain. This has led to a renewed interest in investigating novel immunotherapy agents to treat both systemic and intracranial disease...
February 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477292/qualitative-assessment-of-academic-radiation-oncology-department-chairs-insights-on-diversity-equity-and-inclusion-progress-challenges-and-future-aspirations
#14
Rochelle D Jones, Christina H Chapman, Emma B Holliday, Nafisha Lalani, Emily Wilson, James A Bonner, Benjamin Movsas, Shalom Kalnicki, Silvia C Formenti, Charles R Thomas, Stephen M Hahn, Fei-Fei Liu, Reshma Jagsi
PURPOSE: A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited)...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476019/focal-irradiation-and-systemic-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-blockade-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Silvia C Formenti, Percy Lee, Sylvia Adams, Judith D Goldberg, Xiaochun Li, Michael Xie, Josephine Ratikan, Carol Felix, Lin Hwang, Kym Faull, James W Sayre, Sara Hurvitz, John Glaspy, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Sandra Demaria, Dorthe Schaue, William H McBride
PURPOSE: This study examined the feasibility, efficacy (abscopal effect) and immune effects of TGFβ blockade during radiotherapy in metastatic breast cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial comparing two doses of TGFβ blocking antibody fresolimumab. Metastatic breast cancer patients with at least three distinct metastatic sites whose tumor had progressed after at least one line of therapy were randomized to receive 1 or 10 mg/kg of fresolimumab, every 3 weeks for 5 cycles, with focal radiotherapy to a metastatic site at week 1, (3 doses of 7...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449659/using-immunotherapy-to-boost-the-abscopal-effect
#16
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Omoruyi Credit Irabor, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jürgen Hesser, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti
More than 60 years ago, the effect whereby radiotherapy at one site may lead to regression of metastatic cancer at distant sites that are not irradiated was described and called the abscopal effect (from 'ab scopus', that is, away from the target). The abscopal effect has been connected to mechanisms involving the immune system. However, the effect is rare because at the time of treatment, established immune-tolerance mechanisms may hamper the development of sufficiently robust abscopal responses. Today, the growing consensus is that combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy provides an opportunity to boost abscopal response rates, extending the use of radiotherapy to treatment of both local and metastatic disease...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386105/active-ebola-virus-replication-and-heterogeneous-evolutionary-rates-in-evd-survivors
#17
Shannon L M Whitmer, Jason T Ladner, Michael R Wiley, Ketan Patel, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Foday Sahr, Karla Prieto, Samuel S Shepard, Ellie Carmody, Barbara Knust, Dhamari Naidoo, Gibrilla Deen, Pierre Formenty, Stuart T Nichol, Gustavo Palacios, Ute Ströher
Following cessation of continuous Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission within Western Africa, sporadic EBOV disease (EVD) cases continued to re-emerge beyond the viral incubation period. Epidemiological and genomic evidence strongly suggests that this represented transmission from EVD survivors. To investigate whether persistent infections are characterized by ongoing viral replication, we sequenced EBOV from the semen of nine EVD survivors and a subset of corresponding acute specimens. EBOV evolutionary rates during persistence were either similar to or reduced relative to acute infection rates...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346192/image-quality-overall-evaluability-and-effective-radiation-dose-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-with-prospective-electrocardiographic-triggering-plus-intracycle-motion-correction-algorithm-in-patients-with-a-heart-rate-over-65-beats-per-minute
#18
Gianluca Pontone, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Andrea Baggiano, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Fabio Fazzari, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Elisabetta Mancini, Massimo Verdecchia, Laura Fusini, Lorenzo Bonfanti, Elisa Consiglio, Mark G Rabbat, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
PURPOSE: Recently, a new intracycle motion correction algorithm (MCA) was introduced to reduce motion artifacts from heart rate (HR) in coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the image quality, overall evaluability, and effective radiation dose (ED) of cCTA with prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering plus MCA as compared with standard protocol with retrospective ECG triggering in patients with HR≥65 bpm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients (67±10 y) scheduled for cCTA with 65<HR<80 bpm were retrospectively analyzed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313482/assessment-of-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-detection-of-trichostrongylus-spp-dna-from-human-fecal-samples
#19
Francesca Perandin, Elena Pomari, Camilla Bonizzi, Manuela Mistretta, Fabio Formenti, Zeno Bisoffi
Sporadic cases of Tricostrongylosis are reported in humans. Diagnosis of enteric Trichostrongylus relies primarily on coproscopic analysis but morphological identification is difficult because of similarity among nematode species. The method is time consuming and requires some expertise. To overcome these limitations, we developed a molecular approach by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to provide a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool to detect Trichostrongylus spp. in human feces. We designed primers and probe specific for Trichostrongylus rDNA region 5...
March 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282434/the-inspired-sinewave-technique-a-comparison-study-with-body-plethysmography-in-healthy-volunteers
#20
Phi Anh Phan, Cathy Zhang, Daniel Geer, Federico Formenti, Clive E W Hahn, Andrew D Farmery
The inspired sinewave technique is a noninvasive method to measure airway dead space, functional residual capacity, pulmonary blood flow, and lung inhomogeneity simultaneously. The purpose of this paper was to assess the repeatability and accuracy of the current device prototype in measuring functional residual capacity, and also participant comfort when using such a device. To assess within-session repeatability, six sinewave measurements were taken over two-hour period in 17 healthy volunteers. To assess day-to-day repeatability, measurements were taken over 16 days in 3 volunteers...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
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