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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520958/the-development-use-and-impact-of-a-global-laboratory-database-during-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa
#1
Kara N Durski, Shalini Singaravelu, Junxiong Teo, Dhamari Naidoo, Luke Bawo, Amara Jambai, Sakoba Keita, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Beatrice Muraguri, Brice Ahounou, Victoria Katawera, Fredson Kuti-George, Yacouba Nebie, T Henry Kohar, Patrick Jowlehpah Hardy, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, David Kargbo, Nuha Mahmoud, Yewondwossen Assefa, Orla Condell, Magassouba N'Faly, Leon Van Gurp, Margaret Lamanu, Julia Ryan, Boubacar Diallo, Foday Daffae, Dikena Jackson, Fayyaz Ahmed Malik, Philomena Raftery, Pierre Formenty
Background: The international impact, rapid widespread transmission, and reporting delays during the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for a global, centralized database to inform outbreak response. The World Health Organization and Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network addressed this need by supporting the development of a global laboratory database. Methods: Specimens were collected in the affected countries from patients and dead bodies meeting the case definitions for EVD...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493000/serological-and-molecular-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-in-dogs
#2
Dora Buonfrate, Paola Paradies, Fabrizio Iarussi, Fabio Formenti, Francesca Perandin, Domenico Otranto, Zeno Bisoffi
Strongyloides stercoralis can cause severe infection both in humans and dogs. Coproparasitological examination has low sensitivity for the diagnosis of this parasite; hence, different diagnostic techniques have been implemented. However, serology and molecular methods have been assessed almost exclusively in humans. In this study, two serologic assays and a real-time PCR (RT-PCR), routinely used for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in humans, have been tested for the diagnosis in dogs. Five dogs living in the same kennel in Bari, southern Italy, were diagnosed with S...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471861/somatic-testing-on-gynecological-cancers-improve-the-identification-of-lynch-syndrome
#3
Ileana Carnevali, Laura Libera, Annamaria Chiaravalli, Nora Sahnane, Daniela Furlan, Alessandra Viel, Giulia Cini, Laura Cimetti, Thomas Rossi, Giorgio Formenti, Fabio Ghezzi, Cristina Riva, Fausto Sessa, Maria Grazia Tibiletti
OBJECTIVE: Recent data from the literature indicate gynecological cancers (GCs) as sentinel cancers for a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome (LS). Clinical approaches to identifying LS have low sensitivity, whereas somatic tests on GCs may be a more sensitive and cost-effective strategy. METHODS: A series of 78 GCs belonging to 74 patients sent to the Genetic Counselling Service were investigated using microsatellite instability, immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes, and MLH1 promoter methylation...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459810/external-quality-assessment-study-for-ebolavirus-pcr-diagnostic-promotes-international-preparedness-during-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa
#4
Heinz Ellerbrok, Sonja Jacobsen, Pranav Patel, Toni Rieger, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Stephan Günther, Dhamari Naidoo, Livia Schrick, Kathrin Keeren, Angelina Targosz, Anette Teichmann, Pierre Formenty, Matthias Niedrig
During the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa several international mobile laboratories were deployed to the mainly affected countries Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia to provide ebolavirus diagnostic capacity. Additionally, imported cases and small outbreaks in other countries required global preparedness for Ebola diagnostics. Detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has proven effective for diagnosis of ebolavirus disease and several assays are available. However, reliability of these assays is largely unknown and requires serious evaluation...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445682/atrial-fibrillation-diagnostic-accuracy-of-coronary-ct-angiography-performed-with-a-whole-heart-230-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-spatial-resolution-ct-scanner
#5
Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Marco Perchinunno, Marco Guglielmo, Valentina Volpato, Andrea Annoni, Andrea Baggiano, Alberto Formenti, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Virginia Beltrama, Valentina Ditali, Alessandro Campari, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
Purpose To assess image quality, interpretability, diagnostic accuracy, and radiation exposure of a computed tomography (CT) scanner with 16-cm coverage and 230-µm spatial resolution at coronary artery evaluation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method and to compare the results with those obtained in patients with sinus rhythm (SR). Materials and Methods Written informed consent and institutional ethics committee approval were obtained...
April 26, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419317/high-dose-and-high-frequency-lanreotide-autogel-in-acromegaly-a-randomized-multicenter-study
#6
Andrea Giustina, Gherardo Mazziotti, Salvatore Cannavò, Roberto Castello, Giorgio Arnaldi, Giovanna Bugari, Renato Cozzi, Diego Ferone, Anna Maria Formenti, Enza Gatti, Silvia Grottoli, Pietro Maffei, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marcella Montini, Massimo Terzolo, Ezio Ghigo
Context: The increase in drug frequency or dose is recommended for acromegaly patients with partial response to long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs). However, the efficacy and safety data with lanreotide autogel (LAN-ATG) at high-dose (HD) or high-frequency (HF) are still scanty and anecdotal. Objective: To evaluate the biochemical efficacy and safety of HF- and HD LAN-ATG in patients with active acromegaly. Design: 24-week prospective, multicentre, randomized, open-label trial...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417329/quantitative-cancer-risk-assessment-and-local-mortality-burden-for-ambient-air-pollution-in-an-eastern-mediterranean-city
#7
Hassan R Dhaini, Thérèse Salameh, Antoine Waked, Stéphane Sauvage, Agnès Borbon, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin, Nadine Locoge, Charbel Afif
Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405497/results-of-a-phase-i-ii-study-of-adjuvant-concurrent-carboplatin-and-accelerated-radiotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Silvia C Formenti, Encouse B Golden, Judith D Goldberg, Xiaochun Li, Jessica Taff, Maria B Fenton-Kerimian, Sharanya Chandrasekhar, Sandra Demaria, Yelena Novik
Purpose: To determine feasibility and explore the clinical efficacy of concurrent radiotherapy and carboplatin as adjuvant treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients and Methods: Women with Stage I-II TNBC were treated after surgery in a phase I-II prospective trial [NCT01289353]. Weekly carboplatin (AUC = 2.0) was delivered for 6 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy was delivered in the prone position during weeks 2-4, for a total dose of 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions to the breast, and 46.5 Gy in 17 fractions to the tumor bed...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405027/virus-genomes-reveal-factors-that-spread-and-sustained-the-ebola-epidemic
#9
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R Faria, Daniel J Park, Jason T Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun, Filip Bielejec, Sarah L Caddy, Matthew Cotten, Jonathan D'Ambrozio, Simon Dellicour, Antonino Di Caro, Joseph W Diclaro, Sophie Duraffour, Michael J Elmore, Lawrence S Fakoli, Ousmane Faye, Merle L Gilbert, Sahr M Gevao, Stephen Gire, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Augustine Goba, Donald S Grant, Bart L Haagmans, Julian A Hiscox, Umaru Jah, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Di Liu, Jia Lu, Christine M Malboeuf, Suzanne Mate, David A Matthews, Christian B Matranga, Luke W Meredith, James Qu, Joshua Quick, Suzan D Pas, My V T Phan, Georgios Pollakis, Chantal B Reusken, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Stephen F Schaffner, John S Schieffelin, Rachel S Sealfon, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Saskia L Smits, Kilian Stoecker, Lucy Thorne, Ekaete Alice Tobin, Mohamed A Vandi, Simon J Watson, Kendra West, Shannon Whitmer, Michael R Wiley, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Roman Wölfel, Nathan L Yozwiak, Kristian G Andersen, Sylvia O Blyden, Fatorma Bolay, Miles W Carroll, Bernice Dahn, Boubacar Diallo, Pierre Formenty, Christophe Fraser, George F Gao, Robert F Garry, Ian Goodfellow, Stephan Günther, Christian T Happi, Edward C Holmes, Brima Kargbo, Sakoba Keïta, Paul Kellam, Marion P G Koopmans, Jens H Kuhn, Nicholas J Loman, N'Faly Magassouba, Dhamari Naidoo, Stuart T Nichol, Tolbert Nyenswah, Gustavo Palacios, Oliver G Pybus, Pardis C Sabeti, Amadou Sall, Ute Ströher, Isatta Wurie, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut
The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396471/contact-tracing-performance-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-kenema-district-sierra-leone
#10
Mikiko Senga, Alpha Koi, Lina Moses, Nadia Wauquier, Philippe Barboza, Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Etsub Engedashet, Fredson Kuti-George, Aychiluhim Damtew Mitiku, Mohamed Vandi, David Kargbo, Pierre Formenty, Stephane Hugonnet, Eric Bertherat, Christopher Lane
Contact tracing in an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the process of identifying individuals who may have been exposed to infected persons with the virus, followed by monitoring for 21 days (the maximum incubation period) from the date of the most recent exposure. The goal is to achieve early detection and isolation of any new cases in order to prevent further transmission. We performed a retrospective data analysis of 261 probable and confirmed EVD cases in the national EVD database and 2525 contacts in the Contact Line Lists in Kenema district, Sierra Leone between 27 April and 4 September 2014 to assess the performance of contact tracing during the initial stage of the outbreak...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389807/taxonomy-of-the-order-mononegavirales-update-2017
#11
Gaya K Amarasinghe, Yīmíng Bào, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Martin Beer, Nicolás Bejerman, Kim R Blasdell, Alisa Bochnowski, Thomas Briese, Alexander Bukreyev, Charles H Calisher, Kartik Chandran, Peter L Collins, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Qi Fang, Pierre Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Elodie Ghedin, Robert M Harding, Roger Hewson, Colleen M Higgins, Jian Hong, Masayuki Horie, Anthony P James, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Benhur Lee, Eric M Leroy, Ming Li, Andrea Maisner, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Jean L Patterson, Susan L Payne, Janusz T Paweska, Michael N Pearson, Rick E Randall, Peter A Revill, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Martin Schwemmle, Sophie J Smither, Qisheng Song, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Calogero Terregino, Robert B Tesh, Keizo Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Nikos Vasilakis, Viktor E Volchkov, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Peter J Walker, Beibei Wang, David Wang, Fei Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, John H Werren, Anna E Whitfield, Zhichao Yan, Gongyin Ye, Jens H Kuhn
In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species. Five new rhabdovirus genera and one new nyamivirus genus were established to harbor 41 of these species, whereas the remaining new species were assigned to already established genera. Furthermore, non-Latinized binomial species names replaced all paramyxovirus and pneumovirus species names, thereby accomplishing application of binomial species names throughout the entire order. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)...
April 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368352/melatonin-pharmacological-blood-levels-increase-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-critically-ill-patients
#12
Giovanni Mistraletti, Rita Paroni, Michele Umbrello, Lara D'Amato, Giovanni Sabbatini, Martina Taverna, Paolo Formenti, Elena Finati, Gaia Favero, Francesca Bonomini, Rita Rezzani, Russel J Reiter, Gaetano Iapichino
In this study, the aim was to test the biochemical effects of melatonin supplementation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, since their blood levels are decreased. Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. From the evening of the 3rd ICU day, patients were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg, group M) or placebo (group P) twice daily, at 20:00 and 24:00, until discharged. Blood was taken (at 00:00 and 14:00), on the 3rd ICU day to assess basal nocturnal melatonin values, and then during the treatment period on the 4th and 8th ICU days...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364356/diabetes-in-cushing-disease
#13
REVIEW
G Mazziotti, A M Formenti, S Frara, F Maffezzoni, M Doga, A Giustina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus occurring in patients with Cushing disease (CD). RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin resistance and impairment in insulin secretion are both involved in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Correction of glucocorticoid excess does not always resolve abnormalities of glucose homeostasis, and correction of hyperglycaemia is specifically required. In fact, insulin resistance may persist even after correction of glucocorticoid excess and diabetes needs to be treated for long term...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349853/molecular-identification-of-cryptic-cysticercosis-taenia-ovis-krabbei-in-wild-intermediate-and-domestic-definitive-hosts
#14
N Formenti, M Chiari, T Trogu, A Gaffuri, C Garbarino, M B Boniotti, C Corradini, P Lanfranchi, N Ferrari
The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348554/barriers-to-radiation-induced-in-situ-tumor-vaccination
#15
REVIEW
Erik Wennerberg, Claire Lhuillier, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Karsten A Pilones, Elena García-Martínez, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
The immunostimulatory properties of radiation therapy (RT) have recently generated widespread interest due to preclinical and clinical evidence that tumor-localized RT can sometimes induce antitumor immune responses mediating regression of non-irradiated metastases (abscopal effect). The ability of RT to activate antitumor T cells explains the synergy of RT with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which has been well documented in mouse tumor models and is supported by observations of more frequent abscopal responses in patients refractory to immunotherapy who receive RT during immunotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345174/overall-evaluability-of-low-dose-protocol-for-computed-tomography-angiography-of-thoracic-aorta-using-80%C3%A2-kv-and-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-using-different-concentration-contrast-media
#16
Andrea Daniele Annoni, Maria E Mancini, Daniele Andreini, Alberto Formenti, Saima Mushtaq, Enrica Nobili, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Edoardo Conte, Mauro Pepi
INTRODUCTION: Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography (MDCTA) is presently the imaging modality of choice for aortic disease. However, the effective radiation dose and the risk related to the use of contrast agents associated with MDCTA is an issue of concern. Aim of this study was to assess image quality of a low dose ECG-gated MDCTA of thoracic aorta using different concentration contrast media without tailored injection protocol. METHODS: Two-hundred patients were randomised into four different scan protocols: Group A (Iodixanol 320 and 80 Kvp tube voltage), Group B (Iodixanol 320 and 100 Kvp tube voltage), Group C (Iomeprol 400 and 80 Kvp tube voltage) and Group D (Iomeprol 400 and 100 Kvp tube voltage)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303239/epidemiology-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-western-area-region-of-sierra-leone-2014-2015
#17
Margaret Lamunu, Olushayo Oluseun Olu, James Bangura, Zabulon Yoti, Thomas Takpau Samba, David Kabba Kargbo, Foday Mohamed Dafae, Muhammad Ali Raja, Noah Sempira, Michael Lyazi Ivan, Aarti Sing, Fredson Kurti-George, Negusu Worku, Pamela Mitula, Louisa Ganda, Robert Samupindi, Roland Conteh, Kande-Bure Kamara, Beatrice Muraguri, Michael Kposowa, Joseph Charles, Malimbo Mugaga, Christopher Dye, Anshu Banerjee, Pierre Formenty, Brima Kargbo, Raymond Bruce Aylward
INTRODUCTION: Western Area (WA) of Sierra Leone including the capital, Freetown, experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola from 2014 to 2015. At the onset of the epidemic, there was little information about the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and risk factors in urban settings as previous outbreaks were limited to rural/semi-rural settings. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak and the factors which had most impact on the transmission of the epidemic and whether there were different drivers from those previously described in rural settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259724/current-status-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-in-the-world-health-organization-eastern-mediterranean-region-issues-challenges-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Seif S Al-Abri, Idris Al Abaidani, Mehdi Fazlalipour, Ehsan Mostafavi, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Natalia Pshenichnaya, Ziad A Memish, Roger Hewson, Eskild Petersen, Peter Mala, Tran Minh Nhu Nguyen, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Pierre Formenty, Rosanna Jeffries
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries...
May 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215134/drainage-of-pleural-effusion-improves-diaphragmatic-function-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#19
Michele Umbrello, Giovanni Mistraletti, Andrea Galimberti, Ilaria R Piva, Ottavia Cozzi, Paolo Formenti
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion adversely affects the pressuregenerating capacity of the diaphragm. It uncouples the lung and chest wall, which may result in diaphragmatic dysfunction. Information on the effects of effusion drainage on diaphragmatic function is limited, but several studies report relief of dyspnoea after drainage, which was attributed to improved diaphragmatic mechanics, even if this issue was never formally addressed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of drainage of unilateral pleural effusion on diaphragmatic function...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126309/smart-radiation-therapy-biomaterials
#20
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Francis Boateng, Rajiv Kumar, Darrell J Irvine, Silvia Formenti, Twalib Ngoma, Carsten Herskind, Marlon R Veldwijk, Georg Lars Hildenbrand, Michael Hausmann, Frederik Wenz, Juergen Hesser
Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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