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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215134/drainage-of-pleural-effusion-improves-diaphragmatic-function-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#1
Michele Umbrello, Giovanni Mistraletti, Andrea Galimberti, Ilaria R Piva, Ottavia Cozzi, Paolo Formenti
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion adversely affects the pressuregenerating capacity of the diaphragm. It uncouples the lung and chest wall, which may result in diaphragmatic dysfunction. Information on the effects of effusion drainage on diaphragmatic function is limited, but several studies report relief of dyspnoea after drainage, which was attributed to improved diaphragmatic mechanics, even if this issue was never formally addressed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of drainage of unilateral pleural effusion on diaphragmatic function...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126309/smart-radiation-therapy-biomaterials
#2
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Francis Boateng, Rajiv Kumar, Darrell J Irvine, Silvia Formenti, Twalib Ngoma, Carsten Herskind, Marlon R Veldwijk, Georg Lars Hildenbrand, Michael Hausmann, Frederik Wenz, Juergen Hesser
Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104509/morphometric-vertebral-fractures-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Rebecca Pedersini, Sara Monteverdi, Gherardo Mazziotti, Vito Amoroso, Elisa Roca, Filippo Maffezzoni, Lucia Vassalli, Filippo Rodella, Anna Maria Formenti, Stefano Frara, Roberto Maroldi, Alfredo Berruti, Edda Simoncini, Andrea Giustina
BACKGROUND: The impact of long-term adjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on vertebral fracture (VF) risk is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the prevalence and determinants of VFs in breast cancer (BC) patients before and during AI therapy. Each woman underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and identify VFs by a quantitative morphometric approach. Blood samples were collected to measure serum hormone and calcium levels...
January 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096420/drivers-of-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-madagascar
#4
Renaud Lancelot, Marina Béral, Vincent Michel Rakotoharinome, Soa-Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Michel Héraud, Caroline Coste, Andrea Apolloni, Cécile Squarzoni-Diaw, Stéphane de La Rocque, Pierre B H Formenty, Jérémy Bouyer, G R William Wint, Eric Cardinale
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease widespread in Africa. The primary cycle involves mosquitoes and wild and domestic ruminant hosts. Humans are usually contaminated after contact with infected ruminants. As many environmental, agricultural, epidemiological, and anthropogenic factors are implicated in RVF spread, the multidisciplinary One Health approach was needed to identify the drivers of RVF epidemics in Madagascar. We examined the environmental patterns associated with these epidemics, comparing human and ruminant serological data with environmental and cattle-trade data...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073382/a-retrospective-study-comparing-agar-plate-culture-indirect-immunofluorescence-and-real-time-pcr-for-the-diagnosis-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection
#5
Dora Buonfrate, Francesca Perandin, Fabio Formenti, Zeno Bisoffi
Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite that can cause death in immunocompromised people. A proper diagnosis is hence essential. The real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a novel, promising diagnostic method, that detects the DNA of the parasite in stool samples. In this retrospective study, we compared the sensitivity of agar plate coproculture (APC), an in-house immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and an in-house RT-PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The study sample was composed by 223 samples...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048005/tu-fg-brc-02-radiation-therapy-to-ignite-an-anti-cancer-immune-response
#6
S Formenti
: There is substantial current interest in the potential of radiation therapy for synergizing with novel immunotherapies to transform irradiated tumor into an immunogenic hub with capacity to ignite a powerful and adaptive longterm anti-cancer response. Interest stems from new insights into fundamental mechanisms underlying interactions between cancer, radiation and the immune system. Radically new immunotherapy approaches have been proposed, which target the immune system, rather than the cancer itself...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044329/intravascular-oxygen-sensors-with-novel-applications-for-bedside-respiratory-monitoring
#7
REVIEW
F Formenti, A D Farmery
Measurement allows us to quantify various parameters and variables in natural systems. In addition, by measuring the effect by which a perturbation of one part of the system influences the system as a whole, insights into the functional mechanisms of the system can be inferred. Clinical monitoring has a different role to that of scientific measurement. Monitoring describes measurements whose prime purpose is not to give insights into underlying mechanisms, but to provide information to 'warn' of imminent events...
January 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036088/current-concepts-of-ards-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Michele Umbrello, Paolo Formenti, Luca Bolgiaghi, Davide Chiumello
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958445/thermography-for-skin-temperature-evaluation-during-dynamic-exercise-a-case-study-on-an-incremental-maximal-test-in-elite-male-cyclists
#9
Nicola Ludwig, Athos Trecroci, Marco Gargano, Damiano Formenti, Andrea Bosio, Ermanno Rampinini, Giampietro Alberti
The use of thermal imaging in monitoring the dynamic of skin temperature during prolonged physical exercise is central to assess athletes' ability to dissipate heat from the skin surface to the environment. In this study, seven elite cyclists completed an incremental maximal cycling test to evaluate their skin temperature response under controlled-environment conditions. Thermal images have been analyzed using a method based on maxima detection (T<sub>max</sub>). Data confirmed a reduction in skin temperature due to vasoconstriction during the exercise, followed by a temperature increment after exhaustion...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955791/persistence-and-clearance-of-ebola-virus-rna-from-seminal-fluid-of-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-a-longitudinal-analysis-and-modelling-study
#10
Daouda Sissoko, Sophie Duraffour, Romy Kerber, Jacques Seraphin Kolie, Abdoul Habib Beavogui, Alseny-Modet Camara, Géraldine Colin, Toni Rieger, Lisa Oestereich, Bernadett Pályi, Stephanie Wurr, Jeremie Guedj, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Rosalind M Eggo, Conall H Watson, W John Edmunds, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Lisa L Carter, Liana Eleni Kafetzopoulou, Eeva Kuisma, Janine Michel, Livia Victoria Patrono, Natasha Y Rickett, Katrin Singethan, Martin Rudolf, Angelika Lander, Elisa Pallasch, Sabrina Bockholt, Estefanía Rodríguez, Antonino Di Caro, Roman Wölfel, Martin Gabriel, Céline Gurry, Pierre Formenty, Sakoba Keïta, Denis Malvy, Miles W Carroll, Xavier Anglaret, Stephan Günther
BACKGROUND: By January, 2016, all known transmission chains of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in west Africa had been stopped. However, there is concern about persistence of Ebola virus in the reproductive tract of men who have survived EVD. We aimed to use biostatistical modelling to describe the dynamics of Ebola virus RNA load in seminal fluid, including clearance parameters. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we recruited men who had been discharged from three Ebola treatment units in Guinea between January and July, 2015...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940938/ebola-virus-persistence-in-breast-milk-after-no-reported-illness-a-likely-source-of-virus-transmission-from-mother-to-child
#11
Daouda Sissoko, Mory Keïta, Boubacar Diallo, Negar Aliabadi, David L Fitter, Benjamin A Dahl, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Katrin Singethan, Sarah Meisel, Theresa Enkirch, Antonio Mazzarelli, Victoria Amburgey, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall, N'Faly Magassouba, Miles W Carroll, Xavier Anglaret, Denis Malvy, Pierre Formenty, Raymond Bruce Aylward, Sakoba Keïta, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Nicholas J Loman, Stephan Günther, Sophie Duraffour
A 9-month-old infant died from Ebola virus (EBOV) disease with unknown epidemiological link. While her parents did not report previous illness, laboratory investigations revealed persisting EBOV RNA in the mother's breast milk and the father's seminal fluid. Genomic analysis strongly suggests EBOV transmission to the child through breastfeeding.
December 10, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916820/biological-control-beneath-the-feet-a-review-of-crop-protection-against-insect-root-herbivores
#12
REVIEW
Alan Kergunteuil, Moe Bakhtiari, Ludovico Formenti, Zhenggao Xiao, Emmanuel Defossez, Sergio Rasmann
Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores...
November 29, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894070/the-strategy-study-stress-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-versus-computed-tomography-coronary-angiography-for-the-management-of-symptomatic-revascularized-patients-resources-and-outcomes-impact
#13
Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Cristina Rota, Marco Guglielmo, Saima Mushtaq, Andrea Baggiano, Virginia Beltrama, Laura Fusini, Anna Solbiati, Chiara Segurini, Edoardo Conte, Paola Gripari, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Maria Petulla', Federico Lombardi, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography coronary angiography (cTCA) and stress cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR) are suitable tools for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients with previous history of revascularization. However, performance appraisal of noninvasive tests must take in account the consequent diagnostic testing, invasive procedures, clinical outcomes, radiation exposure, and cumulative costs rather than their diagnostic accuracy only. We aimed to compare an anatomic (cTCA) versus a functional (stress-CMR) strategy in symptomatic patients with previous myocardial revascularization procedures...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888758/left-atrium-and-pulmonary-vein-imaging-using-sub-millisiviert-cardiac-computed-tomography-impact-on-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-cumulative-radiation-exposure-and-outcome-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients
#14
Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Maria Petulla, Andrea Annoni, Andrea I Guaricci, Ester Innocenti, Eleonora Russo, Marco Guglielmo, Saima Mushtaq, Andrea Baggiano, Virginia Beltrama, Laura Fusini, Chiara Segurini, Edoardo Conte, Alberto Formenti, Gaetano Fassini, Stefania Riva, Claudio Tondo, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
BACKGROUND: The outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) has improved thanks to left atrium (LA) anatomy reconstruction by cardiac computed tomography (CCT). A new model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (MBIR) provides image noise reduction achieving effective radiation dose (ED) close to chest X-ray exposure. Aim of this study was comparing RFCA procedural characteristics, AF recurrence and radiation exposure between patients in whom RFCA was guided by CCT image integration with MBIR versus a CCT standard protocol...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877170/comparison-of-s-stercoralis-serology-performed-on-dried-blood-spots-and-on-conventional-serum-samples
#15
Fabio Formenti, Dora Buonfrate, Rosanna Prandi, Monica Marquez, Cintia Caicedo, Eleonora Rizzi, Angel G Guevara, Yosselin Vicuña, Francisco R Huerlo, Francesca Perandin, Zeno Bisoffi, Mariella Anselmi
Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) are used for epidemiological surveys on infectious diseases in settings where limited resources are available. In fact, DBS can help to overcome logistic difficulties for the collection, transport and storage of biological specimens. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of Strongyloides stercoralis serology performed on DBS. Methods: A survey was proposed to children attending a school in the village of Borbon, Ecuador, and to their parents/guardians. Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869596/unusual-ebola-virus-chain-of-transmission-conakry-guinea-2014-2015
#16
Mory Keita, Sophie Duraffour, Nicholas J Loman, Andrew Rambaut, Boubacar Diallo, Nfaly Magassouba, Miles W Carroll, Joshua Quick, Amadou A Sall, Judith R Glynn, Pierre Formenty, Lorenzo Subissi, Ousmane Faye
In October 2015, a new case of Ebola virus disease in Guinea was detected. Case investigation, serology, and whole-genome sequencing indicated possible transmission of the virus from an Ebola virus disease survivor to another person and then to the case-patient reported here. This transmission chain over 11 months suggests slow Ebola virus evolution.
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869095/does-heavy-ion-therapy-work-through-the-immune-system
#17
Marco Durante, David J Brenner, Silvia C Formenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855489/acute-effects-of-kinesio-taping-on-a-6-s-maximal-cycling-sprint-performance
#18
Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Alessio Rossi, Fabio Esposito, Giampietro Alberti
Based on the hypothesis that tactile stimulation affects muscle activation levels, we theorized that taping vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles would improve a 6 s sprint cycling performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the use of kinesio taping (KT) was helpful in increasing maximal-intensity cycling exercise. Sixteen active healthy subjects were enrolled in a randomized placebo, repeated measures design. All subjects were tested on a cycle ergometer under three conditions: without taping, taping along anterior thigh muscles and sham taping across the same muscle groups...
January 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845767/activating-autophagy-to-potentiate-immunogenic-chemotherapy-and-radiation-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Lorenzo Galluzzi, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Sandra Demaria, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Guido Kroemer
Autophagy is fundamental to the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis in virtually all human cells. Accordingly, defective autophagy predisposes healthy cells to undergoing malignant transformation. By contrast, malignant cells are able to harness autophagy to thrive, despite adverse microenvironmental conditions, and to resist therapeutic challenges. Thus, inhibition of autophagy has been proposed as a strategy to kill cancer cells or sensitize them to therapy; however, autophagy is also critical for optimal immune function, and mediates cell-extrinsic homeostatic effects owing to its central role in danger signalling by neoplastic cells responding to immunogenic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy...
November 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830281/a-family-information-brochure-and-dedicated-website-to-improve-the-icu-experience-for-patients-relatives-an-italian-multicenter-before-and-after-study
#20
Giovanni Mistraletti, Michele Umbrello, Elena Silvia Mantovani, Benedetta Moroni, Paolo Formenti, Paolo Spanu, Stefania Anania, Elisa Andrighi, Alessandra Di Carlo, Federica Martinetti, Irene Vecchi, Alessandra Palo, Cristina Pinna, Riccarda Russo, Silvia Francesconi, Federico Valdambrini, Enrica Ferretti, Giulio Radeschi, Edda Bosco, Paolo Malacarne, Gaetano Iapichino
PURPOSE: Good communication between ICU staff and patients' relatives may reduce the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety or depression, and dissatisfaction with clinicians. An information brochure and website to meet relatives' needs were designed to explain in technical yet simple terms what happens during and after an ICU stay, to legitimize emotions such as fear, apprehension, and suffering, and to improve cooperation with relatives without increasing staff workload...
January 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
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