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Urinary microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#1
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898455/clinical-implications-of-the-microbiome-in-urinary-tract-diseases
#2
Andreas Hiergeist, André Gessner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888158/metabolomic-profile-of-children-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#3
Sara Bozzetto, Paola Pirillo, Silvia Carraro, Mariangela Berardi, Laura Cesca, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi
Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a widespread condition which has a severe social and economic impact. Immunostimulants are used for their prevention. It is crucial to better characterize children with RRI to refine their diagnosis and identify effective personalized prevention strategies. Metabolomics is a high-dimensional biological method that can be used for hypothesis-free biomarker profiling, examining a large number of metabolites in a given sample using spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical data analysis then enables us to infer which metabolic information is relevant to the biological characterization of a given physiological or pathological condition...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861551/genomes-of-gardnerella-strains-reveal-an-abundance-of-prophages-within-the-bladder-microbiome
#4
Kema Malki, Jason W Shapiro, Travis K Price, Evann E Hilt, Krystal Thomas-White, Trina Sircar, Amy B Rosenfeld, Gina Kuffel, Michael J Zilliox, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
Bacterial surveys of the vaginal and bladder human microbiota have revealed an abundance of many similar bacterial taxa. As the bladder was once thought to be sterile, the complex interactions between microbes within the bladder have yet to be characterized. To initiate this process, we have begun sequencing isolates, including the clinically relevant genus Gardnerella. Herein, we present the genomic sequences of four Gardnerella strains isolated from the bladders of women with symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence; these are the first Gardnerella genomes produced from this niche...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847292/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-kidney-stone-formation
#5
REVIEW
Mansi Mehta, David S Goldfarb, Lama Nazzal
Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease of worldwide prevalence that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. About 75% of kidney stones are predominantly composed of calcium oxalate and urinary oxalate is considered a crucial risk factor. Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones and the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in this renal disease has been a recent area of interest. Oxalobacter formigenes is a gram negative bacteria that degrades oxalate in the gut decreasing urinary oxalate excretion...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795388/biotic-interactions-shape-the-ecological-distributions-of-staphylococcus-species
#6
Erik K Kastman, Noelani Kamelamela, Josh W Norville, Casey M Cosetta, Rachel J Dutton, Benjamin E Wolfe
: Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms...
October 18, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738739/methodology-for-a-vaginal-and-urinary-microbiome-study-in-women-with-mixed-urinary-incontinence
#7
Yuko M Komesu, Holly E Richter, Darrell L Dinwiddie, Nazema Y Siddiqui, Vivian W Sung, Emily S Lukacz, Beri Ridgeway, Lily A Arya, Halina M Zyczynski, Rebecca G Rogers, Marie Gantz
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methods of a study designed to compare vaginal and urinary microbiomes in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and similarly aged, asymptomatic controls. METHODS: This paper delineates the methodology of a supplementary microbiome study nested in an ongoing randomized controlled trial comparing a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention plus midurethral sling versus midurethral sling alone for MUI...
October 13, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669488/urinary-microbiome-of-kidney-transplant-patients-reveals-dysbiosis-with-potential-for-antibiotic-resistance
#8
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Kalista E Andropolis, Dipti V Panchal, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that a complex community of microbes colonize the human urinary tract; however, their role in kidney transplant patients treated with prophylactic antibiotics remains poorly investigated. Our aim was to investigate the urinary microbiome of kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples from 21 patients after kidney transplantation and 8 healthy controls were collected. All patients received prophylactic treatment with the antibiotic combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Metagenomic DNA was isolated from urine samples, sequenced using shotgun sequencing approach on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, and analyzed for microbial taxonomic and functional annotations...
September 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633952/a-diverse-virome-in-kidney-transplant-patients-contains-multiple-viral-subtypes-with-distinct-polymorphisms
#9
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Ahmed Metwally, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597148/changes-in-urinary-microbiome-populations-correlate-in-kidney-transplants-with-interstitial-fibrosis-and-tubular-atrophy-documented-in-early-surveillance-biopsies
#10
B D Modena, R Milam, F Harrison, J A Cheeseman, M M Abecassis, J J Friedewald, A D Kirk, D R Salomon
An unbalanced microbiome may lead to disease by creating aberrant immune responses. A recent association of cellular rejection with the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) suggests the role of immune-mediated tissue injury. We hypothesized that developing IFTA correlates with altered urinary tract microbiomes (UMBs). UMBs at two serial time points, 1 and 6-8 months posttransplant, were assessed by 16S microbial ribosomal gene sequencing in 25 patients developing biopsy-proven IFTA compared to 23 transplant patients with normal biopsies and excellent function (TX) and 20 healthy nontransplant controls (HC)...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593612/-urinary-tract-infection-and-the-microbiome
#11
Thomas E Finucane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562254/colonic-transit-time-is-related-to-bacterial-metabolism-and-mucosal-turnover-in-the-gut
#12
Henrik M Roager, Lea B S Hansen, Martin I Bahl, Henrik L Frandsen, Vera Carvalho, Rikke J Gøbel, Marlene D Dalgaard, Damian R Plichta, Morten H Sparholt, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, H Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Pedersen, Lotte Lauritzen, Mette Kristensen, Ramneek Gupta, Tine R Licht
Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation to protein catabolism as reflected by higher urinary levels of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites...
2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512653/does-the-urinary-microbiome-play-a-role-in-urgency-urinary-incontinence-and-its-severity
#13
Lisa Karstens, Mark Asquith, Sean Davin, Patrick Stauffer, Damien Fair, W Thomas Gregory, James T Rosenbaum, Shannon K McWeeney, Rahel Nardos
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422512/impact-of-cranberries-on-gut-microbiota-and-cardiometabolic-health-proceedings-of-the-cranberry-health-research-conference-2015
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Arpita Basu, Christian G Krueger, Mary Ann Lila, Catherine C Neto, Janet A Novotny, Jess D Reed, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Cheryl D Toner
Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit's efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins interfere with colonization of the gut by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction caused by dietary insults in vivo...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377678/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-response-to-animal-source-foods-varies-among-healthy-young-men-and-is-influenced-by-their-gut-microbiota-composition-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Clara E Cho, Siraphat Taesuwan, Olga V Malysheva, Erica Bender, Nathan F Tulchinsky, Jian Yan, Jessica L Sutter, Marie A Caudill
SCOPE: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite linked to the gut microbiota, is associated with excess risk of heart disease. We hypothesized that (i) TMAO response to animal source foods would vary among healthy men and (ii) this response would be modified by their gut microbiome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A crossover feeding trial in healthy young men (n = 40) was conducted with meals containing TMAO (fish), its dietary precursors, choline (eggs) and carnitine (beef), and a fruit control...
July 5, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182288/the-bladder-is-not-sterile-history-and-current-discoveries-on-the-urinary-microbiome
#16
Krystal Thomas-White, Megan Brady, Alan J Wolfe, Elizabeth R Mueller
In the human body, there are 10 bacterial cells for every one human cell. This fact highlights the importance of the National institutes of Health's initiative to map the human microbiome. The Human Microbiome Project was the first large-scale mapping of the human microbiome of 5 body sites: GI tract, mouth, vagina, skin and nasal cavity using culture-independent methods. The bladder was not originally tested because it was considered to be sterile and there were complexities regarding sample collection. Over the last couple years our team along with other investigators have shown that a urinary microbiome exists and for most individuals it plays a protective role...
March 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061577/urinary-metabolomic-study-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#17
Bei Yan, Jia Huang, Fan Dong, Liping Yang, Cibo Huang, Ming Gao, Aixin Shi, Weibin Zha, Luyi Shi, Xin Hu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with heterogeneous organ and system manifestations. In this study, urinary metabolic alterations related to SLE were investigated by performing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis. Patients with SLE and healthy controls could be clearly differentiated in view of the metabolic abnormity in urine. Among 70 identified endogenous metabolites, 23 metabolites were dramatically increased in SLE patients, which involved in several key metabolic pathways including energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, oxidative stress and gut-microbiome-derived metabolism...
April 9, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002979/relative-importance-and-additive-effects-of-maternal-and-infant-risk-factors-on-childhood-asthma
#18
Pingsheng Wu, Amy S Feldman, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Kristina James, Gabriel Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Sherian Xu Li, Kecia N Carroll, Eileen Walsh, Edward Mitchel, Suman Das, Rajesh Kumar, Chang Yu, William D Dupont, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. METHODS: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999076/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-women-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management
#19
Lindsey Cox, Eric S Rovner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate the most recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Several authors have studied characteristics of populations of women with LUTS and addressed care-seeking behavior for these conditions. Multiple investigators also sought greater understanding of the urinary microbiome and its relationship to LUTS in women...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997279/metagenomic-sequencing-with-strain-level-resolution-implicates-uropathogenic-e-%C3%A2-coli-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-mortality-in-preterm-infants
#20
Doyle V Ward, Matthias Scholz, Moreno Zolfo, Diana H Taft, Kurt R Schibler, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata, Ardythe L Morrow
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) afflicts approximately 10% of extremely preterm infants with high fatality. Inappropriate bacterial colonization with Enterobacteriaceae is implicated, but no specific pathogen has been identified. We identify uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) colonization as a significant risk factor for the development of NEC and subsequent mortality. We describe a large-scale deep shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis of the early intestinal microbiome of 144 preterm and 22 term infants. Using a pan-genomic approach to functionally subtype the E...
March 29, 2016: Cell Reports
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