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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628917/anatomical-characteristics-of-facial-nerve-and-cochlea-interaction
#1
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the relationship between the labyrinthine portion (LP) of the facial canal and the cochlea in human inner ear molds and temporal bones using micro-CT and 3D rendering. A reduced cochlea-facial distance may spread electric currents from the cochlear implant to the LP and cause facial nerve stimulation. Influencing factors may be the topographic anatomy and otic capsule properties. METHODS: An archival collection of human temporal bones underwent micro-CT and 3D reconstruction...
June 20, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609892/reappraisal-of-i-synagrops-i-g%C3%A3-nther-1887-with-rehabilitation-and-revision-of-i-parascombrops-i-alcock-1889-including-description-of-seven-new-species-and-two-new-genera-perciformes-acropomatidae
#2
Werner W Schwarzhans, Artem M Prokofiev
An ongoing review of the fishes of the basal percoid family Acropomatidae has revealed that the genus Synagrops Günther, 1887 as it is currently understood is not a natural group. Species with a serrated pelvic-fin spine are here placed in the resurrected genus Parascombrops Alcock, 1889 (type-species: Parascombrops pellucidus Alcock, 1889), and the new, monospecific genus Caraibops n. gen. (type-species: Synagrops trispinosus Mochizuki & Sano, 1984). Parascombrops is unique amongst Acropomatidae in the combination of the presence of vacant 8th interneural space, a predorsal formula /0+0/0+2/ and an epaxialis attachment type 1...
May 4, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603711/autophagy-in-the-vertebrate-inner-ear
#3
REVIEW
Marta Magariños, Sara Pulido, María R Aburto, Rocío de Iriarte Rodríguez, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583486/ototoxicity-associated-with-topical-administration-of-diclofenac-sodium-as-an-otic-drop-an-experimental-animal-study
#4
Engin Acioglu, Ozgur Yigit, Firat Onur, Ahmet Atas, Ela Araz Server, Eyup Kara
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate the ototoxicity of topical diclofenac sodium in comparison to positive and negative controls prior to the investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of the agent in otic administration. METHODS: Twenty four ears of 12 guinea pigs were included in the study. Wide myringotomy was performed on all tympanic membranes under general anesthesia and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were evaluated. The subjects were separated into four groups, two groups received diclofenac sodium at low and high doses, positive controls received gentamicin and negative controls received isotonic sodium chloride topically for 14 days and ABRs were reevaluated...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573817/imaging-of-labyrinthine-fistula-after-repair-with-bone-pate
#5
Jeffrey T Vrabec
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To demonstrate imaging of labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma and illustrate outcome following repair with bone pate. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Patients with labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma were identified, and pre- and postoperative imaging was assessed. Method of repair was recorded. The fistula site was examined for patency and bone density after repair. RESULTS: Twenty-nine fistulae were seen in a cohort of 375 cholesteatoma cases (8%)...
June 2, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549773/cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-otosclerosis-of-the-otic-capsule
#6
Jay Burmeister, Susan Rathgeb, Jacques Herzog
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of cochlear implantation of patients with otosclerosis of the otic capsule. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case series of 6 patients (7 ears). PATIENTS: 6 patients (7 ears), 5 patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss; 1 patient with mild to profound sensorineural hearing loss, with radiologic evidence of otosclerosis. All patients were adult males, with or without history of stapes surgery...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537554/pioneer-neurog1-expressing-cells-ingress-into-the-otic-epithelium-and-instruct-neuronal-specification
#7
Esteban Hoijman, Laura Fargas, Patrick Blader, Berta Alsina
Neural patterning involves regionalised cell specification. Recent studies indicate that cell dynamics play instrumental roles in neural pattern refinement and progression, but the impact of cell behaviour and morphogenesis on neural specification is not understood. Here we combine 4D analysis of cell behaviours with dynamic quantification of proneural expression to uncover the construction of the zebrafish otic neurogenic domain. We identify pioneer cells expressing neurog1 outside the otic primordium that migrate and ingress into the epithelialising placode to become the first otic neuronal progenitors...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535123/topical-otic-drugs-in-a-multi-purpose-manufacturing-facility-a-guide-on-determination-and-application-of-permitted-daily-exposure-pde
#8
Lisa Wiesner, Maarten Prause, Ester Lovsin Barle
Due to newly introduced EU GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) guideline for Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary use, product specific permitted daily exposure (PDE) for toxicological evaluation in multi-purpose facilities are required within a documented process for risk assessment. European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance on setting PDE limits so far focused on systemic administration routes such as intravenous (IV), oral or inhalation. This article provides guidance on setting PDE values for risk management purposes in multi-purpose facilities for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) applied as topical otic drugs to the outer ear canal...
June 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535077/sticky-situations-cyanoacrylate-exposures-reported-to-a-poison-control-system
#9
Shaun D Carstairs, Cynthia Koh, Lily Qian, Mariam Qozi, Grant Seivard, F Lee Cantrell
INTRODUCTION: Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue(®)) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502255/a-moist-edge-environment-aids-the-regeneration-of-traumatic-tympanic-membrane-perforations
#10
Z C Lou, Z H Lou
OBJECTIVE: To review the history of moist therapy used to regenerate traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. METHODS: The literature on topical agents used to treat traumatic tympanic membrane perforations was reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of moist therapy were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 76 studies were included in the analysis. Topical applications of certain agents (e...
July 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498272/paget-s-disease-of-the-temporal-bone-a-single-institution-contemporary-review-of-27-patients
#11
Nicholas L Deep, Jake G Besch-Stokes, John I Lane, Colin L W Driscoll, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVES: To report a contemporary review from a single-institution series on Paget's disease of the temporal bone (PDTB). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of patients evaluated from 1998 to 2016. SETTING: Quaternary referral center. PATIENTS: Patients with radiographically confirmed PDTB. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical, audiological, and radiological features and management strategies of PDTB...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492243/identification-of-mouse-cochlear-progenitors-that-develop-hair-and-supporting-cells-in-the-organ-of-corti
#12
Jinshu Xu, Hiroo Ueno, Chelsea Y Xu, Binglai Chen, Irving L Weissman, Pin-Xian Xu
The adult mammalian cochlear sensory epithelium houses two major types of cells, mechanosensory hair cells and underlying supporting cells, and lacks regenerative capacity. Recent evidence indicates that a subset of supporting cells can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after ablation only within the first week postparturition. Here in vivo clonal analysis of mouse inner ear cells during development demonstrates clonal relationship between hair and supporting cells in sensory organs. We report the identification in mouse of a previously unknown population of multipotent stem/progenitor cells that are capable of not only contributing to the hair and supporting cells but also to other cell types, including glia, in cochlea undergoing development, maturation and repair in response to damage...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459451/generation-of-inner-ear-organoids-containing-functional-hair-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#13
Karl R Koehler, Jing Nie, Emma Longworth-Mills, Xiao-Ping Liu, Jiyoon Lee, Jeffrey R Holt, Eri Hashino
The derivation of human inner ear tissue from pluripotent stem cells would enable in vitro screening of drug candidates for the treatment of hearing and balance dysfunction and may provide a source of cells for cell-based therapies of the inner ear. Here we report a method for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells to inner ear organoids that harbor functional hair cells. Using a three-dimensional culture system, we modulate TGF, BMP, FGF, and WNT signaling to generate multiple otic-vesicle-like structures from a single stem-cell aggregate...
June 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458386/carotid-vertebrobasilar-anastomoses-with-reference-to-their-segmental-property
#14
Katsunari Namba
The primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are primitive embryonic cerebral vessels that temporarily provide arterial supply from the internal carotid artery to the longitudinal neural artery, the future vertebrobasilar artery in the hindbrain. Four types known are the trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries. The arteries are accompanied by their corresponding nerves and resemble an intersegmental pattern. These vessels exist in the very early period of cerebral arterial development and rapidly involute within a week...
May 1, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414607/cardiac-arrest-in-an-american-cocker-spaniel-during-a-deep-ear-flush-procedure
#15
Alexandra Gould, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira, W Dunbar Gram
CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-year-old spayed female American Cocker Spaniel with bilateral otitis media and no evidence of cardiovascular instability was anesthetized to allow performance of a deep ear flush. CLINICAL FINDINGS Otoscopic examination of the left ear revealed evidence of chronic inflammation; the ear was flushed with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Examination of the right ear revealed more severe chronic inflammation than in the left ear, including a ruptured tympanum (timing of rupture unknown)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393066/signaling-and-transcription-factors-during-inner-ear-development-the-generation-of-hair-cells-and-otic-neurons
#16
Héctor Gálvez, Gina Abelló, Fernando Giraldez
Integration between cell signals and bHLH transcription factors plays a prominent role during the development of hair cells of the inner ear. Hair cells are the sensory receptors of the inner ear, responsible for the mechano-transduction of sound waves into electrical signals. They derive from multipotent progenitors that reside in the otic placode. Progenitor commitment is the result of cell signaling from the surrounding tissues that result in the restricted expression of SoxB1 transcription factors, Sox2 and Sox3...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385905/in-vivo-characterization-of-an-ahr-dependent-long-noncoding-rna-required-for-proper-sox9b-expression
#17
Gloria R Garcia, Britton C Goodale, Michelle W Wiley, Jane K La Du, David A Hendrix, Robert L Tanguay
Xenobiotic activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents the proper formation of craniofacial cartilage and the heart in developing zebrafish. Downstream molecular targets responsible for AHR-dependent adverse effects remain largely unknown; however, in zebrafish sox9b has been identified as one of the most-reduced transcripts in several target organs and is hypothesized to have a causal role in TCDD-induced toxicity. The reduction of sox9b expression in TCDD-exposed zebrafish embryos has been shown to contribute to heart and jaw malformation phenotypes...
June 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361311/directed-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-inner-ear-sensory-epithelia-in-3d-culture
#18
Jing Nie, Karl R Koehler, Eri Hashino
The inner ear sensory epithelium harbors mechanosensory hair cells responsible for detecting sound and maintaining balance. This protocol describes a three-dimensional (3D) culture system that efficiently generates inner ear sensory epithelia from aggregates of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. By mimicking the activations and repressions of key signaling pathways during in vivo inner ear development, mES cell aggregates are sequentially treated with recombinant proteins and small molecule inhibitors for activating or inhibiting the Bmp, TGFβ, Fgf, and Wnt signaling pathways...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353620/electrode-array-displacement-into-the-fallopian-canal-in-revisions-of-long-standing-cochlear-implants
#19
Jennifer Alyono, Garrett Locketz, Carleton Eduardo Corrales, Nikolas H Blevins
OBJECTIVE: To describe extracochlear extension of revision cochlear implant arrays into the Fallopian canal. PATIENTS: Two adult patients with extension of revision cochlear implant arrays into the Fallopian canal. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography (CT), selective deactivation of non-functional electrodes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Facial nerve function, facial nerve stimulation, cochlear implant electrode position, radiography, functional hearing...
June 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330922/joint-histology-in-alligator-mississippiensis-challenges-the-identification-of-synovial-joints-in-fossil-archosaurs-and-inferences-of-cranial-kinesis
#20
Alida M Bailleul, Casey M Holliday
Archosaurs, like all vertebrates, have different types of joints that allow or restrict cranial kinesis, such as synovial joints and fibrous joints. In general, synovial joints are more kinetic than fibrous joints, because the former possess a fluid-filled cavity and articular cartilage that facilitate movement. Even though there is a considerable lack of data on the microstructure and the structure-function relationships in the joints of extant archosaurs, many functional inferences of cranial kinesis in fossil archosaurs have hinged on the assumption that elongated condylar joints are (i) synovial and/or (ii) kinetic...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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