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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630288/intact-pirna-pathway-prevents-l1-mobilization-in-male-meiosis
#1
Simon J Newkirk, Suman Lee, Fiorella C Grandi, Valeriya Gaysinskaya, James M Rosser, Nicole Vanden Berg, Cathryn A Hogarth, Maria C N Marchetto, Alysson R Muotri, Michael D Griswold, Ping Ye, Alex Bortvin, Fred H Gage, Jef D Boeke, Wenfeng An
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for retrotransposon silencing. In piRNA-deficient mice, L1-overexpressing male germ cells exhibit excessive DNA damage and meiotic defects. It remains unknown whether L1 expression simply highlights piRNA deficiency or actually drives the germ-cell demise. Specifically, the sheer abundance of genomic L1 copies prevents reliable quantification of new insertions. Here, we developed a codon-optimized L1 transgene that is controlled by an endogenous mouse L1 promoter...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626737/high-level-bacterial-contamination-of-secondary-school-students-mobile-phones
#2
Siiri Kõljalg, Rando Mändar, Tiina Sõber, Tiiu Rööp, Reet Mändar
INTRODUCTION: While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones. METHODS: Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599766/plastic-and-immobile-unequal-intergenerational-mobility-by-genetic-sensitivity-score-within-sibling-pairs
#3
Emily Rauscher
Contrary to traditional biological arguments, the differential susceptibility model suggests genotype may moderate rather than mediate parent-child economic similarity. Using family fixed effects models of Add Health sibling data, I investigate the relationship between an index of sensitive genotypes and intergenerational mobility. Full, same sex sibling comparisons hold constant parental characteristics and address the non-random distribution of genotype that reduces internal validity in nationally representative samples...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593349/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-swarm-motility-phenotype-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-mutant-defective-in-periplasmic-glucan-synthesis
#4
Arvind A Bhagwat, Lynn Young, Allen D Smith, Medha Bhagwat
Movement of food-borne pathogens on moist surfaces enables them to migrate towards more favorable niches and facilitate their survival for extended periods of time. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants defective in Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPG) synthesis are unable to exhibit motility on moist surfaces (swarming); however, their mobility in liquid (swim motility) remains unaffected. In order to understand the role of OPG in swarm motility, transcriptomic analysis was performed using cells growing on a moist agar surface...
June 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577759/pip40a-a-type-1-incc-plasmid-from-1969-carries-the-integrative-element-gisul2-and-a-novel-class-ii-mercury-resistance-transposon
#5
Christopher J Harmer, Mohammad Hamidian, Ruth M Hall
The 167.5kb sequence of the conjugative IncC plasmid pIP40a, isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 1969, was analysed. pIP40a confers resistance to kanamycin, neomycin, ampicillin, sulphonamides and mercuric ions, and several insertions in a type 1 IncC backbone were found, including copies of IS3, Tn1000 and a novel mercury resistance transposon, Tn6182. The antibiotic resistance genes were in two locations. Tn6023, containing the aphA1 kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene, is in a partial copy of Tn1/Tn2/Tn3 (blaTEM, ampicillin resistance) in the kfrA gene, and the sul2 sulphonamide resistance gene is in the integrative element GIsul2 in the position of ARI-B islands...
May 31, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573589/low-resolution-refinement-of-atomic-models-against-crystallographic-data
#6
Robert A Nicholls, Oleg Kovalevskiy, Garib N Murshudov
This review describes some of the problems encountered during low-resolution refinement and map calculation. Refinement is considered as an application of Bayes' theorem, allowing combination of information from various sources including crystallographic experimental data and prior chemical and structural knowledge. The sources of prior knowledge relevant to macromolecules include basic chemical information such as bonds and angles, structural information from reference models of known homologs, knowledge about secondary structures, hydrogen bonding patterns, and similarity of non-crystallographically related copies of a molecule...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572079/mobile-text-messaging-to-improve-medication-adherence-and-viral-load-in-a-vulnerable-canadian-population-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-repeated-measures-study
#7
Elizabeth King, Karen Kinvig, Jonathan Steif, Annie Q Qiu, Evelyn J Maan, Arianne Yk Albert, Neora Pick, Ariane Alimenti, Mary H Kestler, Deborah M Money, Richard T Lester, Melanie Caroline Margaret Murray
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is effective and available, but poor medication adherence limits benefits, particularly in vulnerable populations. In a Kenyan randomized controlled trial, a weekly text-messaging intervention (WelTel) improved cART adherence and HIV viral load (VL). Despite growing evidence for short message service (SMS) text-message interventions in HIV care, there is a paucity of data utilizing these interventions in marginalized or female cohorts...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571994/acquisition-of-a-second-multi-drug-resistance-encoding-element-by-incm1-plasmid-pacm130-abolished-conjugative-transfer
#8
Karen E Preston, John A Tine
Within the IncM plasmid family there is a lineage that has a transposon Tn1721-based multiple-resistance island inserted in the backbone gene mucB. So far, this group includes R1215, p202c, pIGT15, pARM26, and pACM1, from Europe and the USA. A new member of this group, pACM130, was isolated at the same American hospital as pACM1 and has a similar resistance island, but also carries a copy of Tn1331 that interrupts the traY gene in the conjugation operon. The conjugative phenotype of this plasmid has been abolished, though pACM130 could be mobilized by an intact traY cloned into a laboratory vector and transformed into the same donor bacterium...
May 30, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535331/computer-and-mobile-technology-interventions-for-self-management-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Catherine McCabe, Margaret McCann, Anne Marie Brady
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction due to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases, for example, cigarette smoke. The pattern of care for people with moderate to very severe COPD often involves regular lengthy hospital admissions, which result in high healthcare costs and an undesirable effect on quality of life. Research over the past decade has focused on innovative methods for developing enabling and assistive technologies that facilitate patient self-management...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533235/the-tet39-determinant-and-the-msre-mphe-genes-in-acinetobacter-plasmids-are-each-part-of-discrete-modules-flanked-by-inversely-oriented-pdif-xerc-xerd-sites
#10
Grace A Blackwell, Ruth M Hall
The tet39 tetracycline resistance determinant and the macrolide resistance genes msrE and mphE were found in an 18.2 kb plasmid, pS30-1, recovered from a GC2 Acinetobacter baumannii isolate from Singapore, that conferred resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin. pS30-1 also contains mobA and mobC genes encoding MOBQ family proteins but attempts to mobilise pS30-1 utilising a co-resident conjugative repAci6 plasmid were unsuccessful. Eight pdif sites, consisting of inversely-oriented binding sites for the XerC and XerD recombinases separated by 6 bp, were detected in pS30-1...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527335/dissection-of-cis-regulatory-element-architecture-of-the-rice-oleosin-gene-promoters-to-assess-abscisic-acid-responsiveness-in-suspension-cultured-rice-cells
#11
Sol Kim, Soo-Bin Lee, Chae-Seong Han, Mi-Na Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, In Sun Yoon, Yong-Sic Hwang
Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525804/recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-vector-carrying-the-thrombomodulin-lectin-like-domain-for-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#12
Chao-Han Lai, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Fang-Tzu Lee, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Bi-Ing Chang, Yu-Jen Yang, Guey-Yueh Shi, Hua-Lin Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombomodulin (TM), through its lectin-like domain (TMD1), sequesters proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to prevent it from engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) that sustains inflammation and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that short-term treatment with recombinant TM containing all the extracellular domains (i.e., rTMD123) inhibits HMGB1-RAGE signaling and confers protection against CaCl2-induced AAA formation...
March 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525572/crosstalk-between-vertical-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-plasmid-replication-control-by-a-conjugative-relaxase
#13
Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz, Cris Fernández-López, Rudi Lurz, Alicia Bravo, Manuel Espinosa
Horizontal gene transfer is a key process in the evolution of bacteria and also represents a source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. Among elements participating in gene transfer, thousands of small (<10 kb) mobile bacterial plasmids that replicate by the rolling circle mechanism represent a driving force in the spread of antibiotic resistances. In general, these plasmids are built as genetic modules that encode a replicase, an antibiotic-resistance determinant, and a relaxase that participates in their conjugative mobilization...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522611/long-terminal-repeats-power-evolution-of-genes-and-gene-expression-programs-in-mammalian-oocytes-and-zygotes
#14
Vedran Franke, Sravya Ganesh, Rosa Karlic, Radek Malik, Josef Pasulka, Filip Horvat, Maja Kuzman, Helena Fulka, Marketa Cernohorska, Jana Urbanova, Eliska Svobodova, Jun Ma, Yutaka Suzuki, Fugaku Aoki, Richard M Schultz, Kristian Vlahovicek, Petr Svoboda
Retrotransposons are 'copy-and-paste' insertional mutagens that substantially contribute to mammalian genome content. Retrotransposons often carry long terminal repeats (LTRs) for retrovirus-like reverse transcription and integration into the genome. We report an extraordinary impact of a group of LTRs from the mammalian endogenous retrovirus-related ERVL retrotransposon class on gene expression in the germline and beyond. In mouse, we identified >800 LTRs from ORR1, MT, MT2, and MLT families, which resemble mobile gene-remodeling platforms that supply promoters and first exons...
May 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498309/effective-social-relationship-measurement-and-cluster-based-routing-in-mobile-opportunistic-networks
#15
Feng Zeng, Nan Zhao, Wenjia Li
In mobile opportunistic networks, the social relationship among nodes has an important impact on data transmission efficiency. Motivated by the strong share ability of "circles of friends" in communication networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and so on, we take a real-life example to show that social relationships among nodes consist of explicit and implicit parts. The explicit part comes from direct contact among nodes, and the implicit part can be measured through the "circles of friends". We present the definitions of explicit and implicit social relationships between two nodes, adaptive weights of explicit and implicit parts are given according to the contact feature of nodes, and the distributed mechanism is designed to construct the "circles of friends" of nodes, which is used for the calculation of the implicit part of social relationship between nodes...
May 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494014/singularity-scientific-containers-for-mobility-of-compute
#16
Gregory M Kurtzer, Vanessa Sochat, Michael W Bauer
Here we present Singularity, software developed to bring containers and reproducibility to scientific computing. Using Singularity containers, developers can work in reproducible environments of their choosing and design, and these complete environments can easily be copied and executed on other platforms. Singularity is an open source initiative that harnesses the expertise of system and software engineers and researchers alike, and integrates seamlessly into common workflows for both of these groups. As its primary use case, Singularity brings mobility of computing to both users and HPC centers, providing a secure means to capture and distribute software and compute environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482102/apolipoprotein-e4-allele-and-gait-performance-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#17
Ryota Sakurai, Manuel Montero-Odasso
Background: The apolipoprotein E polymorphism ε4 allele (ApoE4) and gait impairment are both known risk factors for developing cognitive decline and dementia. However, it is unclear the interrelationship between these factors, particularly among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are considered as prodromal for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to determine whether ApoE4 carrier individuals with MCI may experience greater impairment in gait performance. Methods: Fifty-six older adults with MCI from the "Gait and Brain Study" who were identified as either ApoE4 carriers (n = 20) or non-ApoE4 carriers (n = 36) with 1 year of follow-up were included...
May 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450881/line-insertion-polymorphisms-are-abundant-but-at-low-frequencies-across-populations-of-anolis-carolinensis
#18
Robert P Ruggiero, Yann Bourgeois, Stéphane Boissinot
Vertebrate genomes differ considerably in size and structure. Among the features that show the most variation is the abundance of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs). Mammalian genomes contain 100,000s LINEs that belong to a single clade, L1, and in most species a single family is usually active at a time. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) contain multiple active families, belonging to several clades, but each of them is represented by a small number of recently inserted copies...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444372/quantifying-the-number-of-independent-organelle-dna-insertions-in-genome-evolution-and-human-health
#19
Einat Hazkani-Covo, William F Martin
Fragments of organelle genomes are often found as insertions in nuclear DNA. These fragments of mitochondrial DNA (numts) and plastid DNA (nupts) are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. They are, however, often edited out during the genome assembly process, leading to systematic underestimation of their frequency. Numts and nupts, once inserted, can become further fragmented through subsequent insertion of mobile elements or other recombinational events that disrupt the continuity of the inserted sequence relative to the genuine organelle DNA copy...
April 21, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439515/endogenous-retroviruses-with-us-and-against-us
#20
REVIEW
Thomas J Meyer, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Lucia Carbone, Shawn L Chavez
Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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