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Preterm mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449803/the-consequences-of-preterm-birth-and-chorioamnionitis-on-brainstem-respiratory-centers-implications-for-neurochemical-development-and-altered-functions-by-inflammation-and-prostaglandins
#1
REVIEW
Vanesa Stojanovska, Suzanne L Miller, Stuart B Hooper, Graeme R Polglase
Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing. However, preterm infants have difficulty clearing lung liquid, have insufficient surfactant levels, and underdeveloped lungs. Further, preterm infants have an underdeveloped brainstem, resulting in reduced respiratory drive...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447720/no-257-ultrasonographic-cervical-length-assessment-in-predicting-preterm-birth-in-singleton-pregnancies
#2
Kenneth Lim, Kimberly Butt, Joan M Crane
OBJECTIVES: To review (1) the use of ultrasonographic-derived cervical length measurement in predicting preterm birth and (2) interventions associated with a short cervical length. OUTCOMES: Reduction in rates of prematurity and/or better identification of those at risk, as well as possible prevention of unnecessary interventions. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library up to December 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (preterm labour, ultrasound, cervix, incompetent cervix, transvaginal, transperineal, cervical length, fibronectin)...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447332/the-impact-of-the-maternal-foetal-environment-on-outcomes-of-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease-in-neonates
#3
James William Gaynor, Samuel Parry, Julie S Moldenhauer, Rebecca A Simmons, Jack Rychik, Richard F Ittenbach, William W Russell, Erin Zullo, John Laurenson Ward, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Mark P Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancies with congenital heart disease in the foetus have an increased prevalence of pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and preterm birth, which are evidence of an impaired maternal-foetal environment (MFE). METHODS: The impact of an impaired MFE, defined as pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age or preterm birth, on outcomes after cardiac surgery was evaluated in neonates (n = 135) enrolled in a study evaluating exposure to environmental toxicants and neuro-developmental outcomes...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445923/inpatient-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-receiving-%C3%AF-3-enriched-lipid-emulsion-smoflipid-an-observational-study
#4
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434084/comprehensive-assessment-of-risk-factors-of-cause-specific-infant-deaths-in-japan
#5
Yui Yamaoka, Naho Morisaki, Haruko Noguchi, Hideto Takahashi, Nanako Tamiya
BACKGROUND: Public attention is given to infants with socially high risks of child abuse and neglect, while clinical attention is provided to infants with a biologically high risk of diseases. However, few studies have systematically evaluated how biological or social factors cross over and affect cause-specific infant mortality. METHODS: We linked birth data with death data from the Japanese national vital statistics database for all infants born from 2003-2010...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434061/immediate-neonatal-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-born-to-mothers-with-preterm-pre-labour-rupture-of-membranes
#6
Niveditha Dannapaneni, Tejopratap Oleti, Tarakeswari Surapaneni, Deepak Sharma, Srinivas Murki
Background & objectives: With the use of early and appropriate use of antibiotics, outcomes have improved in the mother-infant dyads exposed to preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). This study was undertaken to evaluate immediate neonatal outcomes in infants born before 33 completed weeks of gestation to mothers with PPROM versus without PPROM. Methods: During the study period from January 2013 to December 2013, a total of 182 mother-infant dyads were prospectively included in the study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433703/low-dose-aspirin-for-the-prevention-of-preeclampsia
#7
Heidi Collins Fantasia
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder specific to pregnancy that remains a significant cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Identification of women who are most at risk for preeclampsia is imprecise. Because of the potential negative health consequences of preeclampsia for women and newborns and the lack of effective screening mechanisms preventing preeclampsia is an important component of prenatal care. Researchers have documented that low-dose aspirin, taken daily after the first trimester, can decrease the development of preeclampsia and reduce the incidence of preterm birth and birth of small-for-gestational-age infants...
February 2018: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433369/postpartum-thromboprophylaxis-in-a-multireligious-cohort-a-retrospective-review-of-indications-and-uptake
#8
Hian Yan Voon, Ming Cheng Chai, Ling Yien Hii, Rafaie Amin, Haris Njoo Suharjono
Strategies to prevent mortality from obstetric venous thromboembolism begin with identification, risk stratification and subsequently, implementation of prophylactic measures. We sought to identify the burden of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in postpartum women, including the main clinical indications and its uptake in a multireligious population, with Islam as the official religion. A total of 2514 deliveries between 1st January to 31st December 2016, across three centres in Malaysia were reviewed retrospectively from hospital-based registries...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432888/audit-of-cardiac-surgery-outcomes-for-low-birth-weight-and-premature-infants
#9
Peter Alarcon Manchego, Michael Cheung, Diana Zanino, Russell Nunn, Yves D'Udekem, Christian Brizard
OBJECTIVE: The burden of disease associated with cardiac surgery in preterm and low birth weight infants is increasing. This retrospective study aimed to compare the mortality and morbidity of cardiac surgery in low birth weight and preterm infants with that of a case-matched normal population. METHODS: This was a single-centre audit of cardiac surgery interventions at a tertiary paediatric centre in Melbourne, Australia. Subjects underwent intervention in the first three months of life and were preterm (< 37 weeks gestation) and/or <2,500 grams at birth...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429769/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-infants-with-esophageal-atresia-and-tracheoesophageal-fistula
#11
Wegdan Mawlana, Paul Zamiara, Hilary Lane, Margaret Marcon, Eveline Lapidus-Krol, Priscilla Pl Chiu, Aideen M Moore
BACKGROUND: Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a complex disorder, and most outcome data are confined to mortality and feeding-related morbidities. Our objective was to examine mortality, growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a large recent cohort of infants with EA/TEF. METHODS: Single center study of EA/TEF infants referred from January 2000 to December 2015. Data collected included associated defects, neonatal morbidity and mortality and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12-36months...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426269/identification-of-preterm-birth-in-women-with-threatened-preterm-labour-between-34-and-37-weeks-of-gestation
#12
Cenk Gezer, Atalay Ekin, Ulas Solmaz, Alkim Gulsah Sahingoz Yildirim, Askin Dogan, Mehmet Ozeren
The aim of this study was to assess whether serum markers would be useful as a new predictor of preterm birth in patients with spontaneous, late preterm labour. Patients diagnosed with late preterm labour were divided into preterm delivery (229 patients) and term delivery (178 patients) groups. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical characteristics and levels of serum markers (leukocyte subtypes, platelet, C-reactive protein [CRP], neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [NLR] and platelet to lymphocyte ratio [PLR]), which were obtained at admission...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425317/human-cervical-mucus-plugs-exhibit-insufficiencies-in-antimicrobial-activity-towards-group-b-streptococcus
#13
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Varchita Alishetti, Alyssa Brokaw, Blair Armistead, Hai Qing Tang, James W MacDonald, Theodor K Bammler, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Niels Uldbjerg, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely Group B Streptococcus (GBS)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423017/aerosolized-deferoxamine-administration-in-mouse-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-improve-pulmonary-development
#14
Yanru Chen, Sha Gao, Yufei Yan, Jihong Qian, Hao Chen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication in preterm newborns. It occurs due to early exposure to high-oxygen and ventilation therapy. The mechanisms of disrupted alveolarization and vascular development associated with BPD were unclear. Deferoxamine (DFO) has been reported to reduce mortality and lung injury in mice after chlorine exposure. The effect of DFO in the treatment of BPD has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aerosolized DFO administration in a mouse model of BPD...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421859/review-shows-that-maternal-obesity-induces-serious-adverse-neonatal-effects-and-is-associated-with-childhood-obesity-in-their-offspring
#15
REVIEW
Delphine Mitanchez, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
AIM: Obesity at the start of pregnancy has been rising worldwide, increasing the risk of maternal complications. We reviewed the independent effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy on neonatal adverse outcomes and the risk of childhood obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic profiles. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for papers published in English between December 2007 and November 2017, focusing primarily on human studies published in the last five years. However, we also chose to highlight examples derived from model animals that could bring mechanistic insight and preventive and therapeutic avenues...
February 8, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421328/the-effect-of-a-single-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injection-on-neonatal-growth-and-organ-development-in-vivo-study
#16
Sina Khalili, Yulia Shifrin, Jingyi Pan, Jaques Belik, Kamiar Mireskandari
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the leading causes of blindness in preterm Infants. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is emerging as a promising treatment, but there is insufficient evidence on their safety. We investigate the effect of systemic anti-VEGF in rat pups with equivalent maturity to a 32 week neonate. A single dose of either anti-VEGF antibody (n = 7) or saline (control group; n = 6) was administered to newborn rats intra-peritoneally on the first day of life. 14 days' post treatment, the serum concentration of anti-VEGF was measured and the brain, lung, heart, kidney and liver were harvested and weighed...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415590/the%C3%A2-mortality-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-the-benefit-and%C3%A2-relative-impact-of-changes-in-population-and-therapeutic-variables
#17
Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Valentina Boyko, Liat Lerner-Geva, Cathy Hammerman, Misgav Rottenstreich, Arnon Samueloff, Michael S Schimmel, Brian Reichman
OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) infants' mortality rates have decreased markedly. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of changes in the distribution of population characteristics and changes in specific mortality rates on the decline in mortality rates of VLBW infants. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based observational study of the Israel national VLBW infant database. The study population comprised singleton VLBW infants of 24-32 weeks' gestation born during the epochs 1995-2000 (n = 3728) and 2006-2010 (n = 3246)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415589/late-preterm-birth-and-previous-cesarean-section-a-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Abdool S Yasseen, Kate Bassil, Ann Sprague, Marcelo Urquia, Jonathon L Maguire
BACKGROUND: Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. METHODS: We use population based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411344/maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-of-dichorionic-diamniotic-twin-pregnancies-diagnosed-with-vanishing-twin-syndrome-a-retrospective-analysis-from-a-single-clinical-center
#19
Hakan Timur, Rifat Taner Aksoy, Aytekin Tokmak, Burcu Timur, Bugra Coskun, Dilek Uygur, Nuri Danisman
OBJECTIVES: Multiple pregnancies are known to be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal complications. How-ever, data regarding the outcomes of spontaneously reduced twin pregnancies are limited. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the consequences of the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) in dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies for both mother and baby in our perinatal center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 711 pregnancies were included into the study...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410545/placental-transfusion-in-preterm-neonates-of-30-33-weeks-gestation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Bikramjit Das, Venkataseshan Sundaram, William Tarnow-Mordi, Alpana Ghadge, Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal, Praveen Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To compare effect of placental transfusion by delayed cord clamping (DCC) or cord milking (CM) with early cord clamping (ECC) on a composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA) and 24-30 months' chronological age in neonates of 30-33 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. OUTCOMES: A composite of mortality or abnormal neurological status at 40 weeks PMA and survival free of neurodevelopmental abnormalities at 24-30 months' chronological age...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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