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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352082/clostridial-strain-specific-characteristics-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Sophia Schönherr-Hellec, Geraldine L Klein, Johanne Delannoy, Laurent Ferraris, Jean Christophe Rozé, Marie José Butel, Julio Aires
We aimed at identifying potential clostridial factors linking these bacteria with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC and control preterm neonates (PN). When strains characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348196/placental-findings-and-effect-of-prophylactic-hydrocortisone-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#2
Alice Héneau, Fabien Guimiot, Damir Mohamed, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Corinne Alberti, Olivier Baud
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between histologic findings of the placenta and response to early postnatal hydrocortisone treatment used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: In an exploratory analysis of the Early Low-Dose Hydrocortisone to Improve Survival Without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants (PREMILOC) trial, detailed placental analyses were performed on the basis of standardized macroscopic and histologic examinations...
January 18, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341044/antenatal-medical-therapies-to-improve-lung-development-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#3
Aidan Kashyap, Philip DeKoninck, Kelly Crossley, Marta Thio, Graeme Polglase, Francesca Maria Russo, Jan Deprest, Stuart Hooper, Ryan Hodges
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect characterized by failed closure of the diaphragm, allowing abdominal viscera to herniate into the thoracic cavity and subsequently impair pulmonary and vascular development. Despite improving standardized postnatal management, there remains a population of severe CDH for whom postnatal care falls short. In these severe cases, antenatal surgical intervention (fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion [FETO]) may improve survival; however, FETO increases the risk of preterm delivery, is not widely offered, and still fails in half of cases...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336477/intraoperative-adverse-events-associated-with-extremely-preterm-cesarean-deliveries
#4
Charline Bertholdt, Sophie Menard, Pierre Delorme, Marie-Charlotte Lamau, François Goffinet, Camille Le Ray
INTRODUCTION: At the same time as survival is increasing among premature babies born before 26 weeks of gestation, the rates of cesarean deliveries before 26 weeks is also rising. Our purpose was to compare the frequency of intraoperative adverse events during cesarean deliveries at two gestational age groups: 24-25 weeks and 26-27 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study included all women with cesarean deliveries performed before 28+0 weeks from 2007 through 2015...
January 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335086/-research-progress-in-drug-therapy-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#5
Yu-Chen Yang, Jian Mao, Juan Li
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common long-term complication in surviving extremely preterm infants. This may lead to pulmonary hypertension, increase late neonatal mortality, and cause abnormal neural development. There is still controversy over the efficacy, as well as advantages and disadvantages, of drug therapy for BPD in preterm infants. This article reviews the research progress in the drug therapy for BPD.
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333811/neonatal-mortality-and-associated-factors-in-newborn-infants-admitted-to-a-neonatal-care-unit
#6
Juan C Lona Reyes, René O Pérez Ramírez, Leonardo Llamas Ramos, Larissa M Gómez Ruiz, Edith A Benítez Vázquez, Virginia Rodríguez Patino
INTRODUCTION: The increasing survival rate of preterm infants has altered the epidemiology of neonatal diseases; however, neonatal mortality is still the main component of child mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate neonatal mortality and associated factors in newborn infants admitted to a neonatal care unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted between January 2016 and January 2017 at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328889/respiratory-phenotypes-for-preterm-infants-children-and-adults-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-more
#7
Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980's have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions...
January 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321180/two-year-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants-treated-with-early-hydrocortisone-treatment-effect-according-to-gestational-age-at-birth
#8
Olivier Baud, Clémence Trousson, Valérie Biran, Emilie Leroy, Damir Mohamed, Corinne Alberti
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation)...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320647/long-term-effects-of-inhaled-budesonide-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#9
Dirk Bassler, Eric S Shinwell, Mikko Hallman, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Richard Plavka, Virgilio Carnielli, Christoph Meisner, Corinna Engel, Alexander Koch, Karen Kreutzer, Johannes N van den Anker, Matthias Schwab, Henry L Halliday, Christian F Poets
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to receive early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo. The prespecified secondary long-term outcome was neurodevelopmental disability among survivors, defined as a composite of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay (a Mental Development Index score of <85 [1 SD below the mean of 100] on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, with higher scores on the scale indicating better performance), deafness, or blindness at a corrected age of 18 to 22 months...
January 11, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315356/il22-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-preterm-labor-in-mice
#10
Svetlana Dambaeva, Sylvia Schneiderman, Mukesh K Jaiswal, Varkha Agrawal, Gajendra Katara, Alice Gilman-Sachs, Emmet Hirsch, Kenneth D Beaman
Preterm birth is widespread and causes 35% of all neonatal deaths. Infants who survive face potential long-term complications. A major contributing factor of preterm birth is infection. We investigated the role of Interleukin 22 (IL22) as a potential clinically relevant cytokine during gestational infection. IL22 is an effector molecule secreted by immune cells. While the expression of IL22 was reported in normal non-pregnant endometrium and early pregnancy decidua, little is known about uterine IL22 expression during mid- or late gestational stages of pregnancy...
January 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313560/surgical-closure-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-less-than-750-grams
#11
Tomasz Stankowski, Sleiman Sebastian Aboulhassan, Dirk Fritzsche, Marcin Misterski, Jakub Marczak, Anna Szymańska, Lukasz Szarpak, Cyprian Augustyn, Romuald Cichoń, Bartłomiej Perek
BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs more frequently in premature infants. Depending on the degree of prematurity, these children often have other serious comorbidities that could significantly impact on surgical outcome. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate clinical results of the surgical ligation of PDA in extremely low body weight preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and to identify risk factors of mortality. METHODS: A total of 31 preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and significant PDA were operated between 2006 and 2016 through posterolateral thoracotomy (n=16) or with the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) method (n = 15)...
January 9, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310614/preterm-birth-and-the-timing-of-puberty-a-systematic-review
#12
Evlyn James, Claire L Wood, Harish Nair, Thomas C Williams
BACKGROUND: An estimated 11% of births occur preterm, and survival is improving. Early studies suggested an association between preterm birth and earlier puberty. Given the adverse outcomes associated with early puberty this could have significant public health implications. The objective of this review was to assess the timing of puberty after preterm birth. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Popline, Global Health and Global Health Library were searched using terms relating to "premature birth", "menarche", "puberty" and "follow up studies"...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306095/effect-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-congeners-on-placental-cytokine-production
#13
Yuko Arita, Corinne Yeh, Theodosia Thoma, Darios Getahun, Ramkumar Menon, Morgan R Peltier
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304545/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-does-laterality-predict-perinatal-outcomes
#14
Jeffrey D Sperling, Teresa N Sparks, Victoria K Berger, Jody A Farrell, Kristen Gosnell, Roberta L Keller, Mary E Norton, Juan M Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to examine laterality as a predictor of outcomes among fetuses with prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS:  This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies with CDH evaluated at our center from 2008 to 2016 compared cases with right-sided CDH (RCDH) versus left-sided CDH (LCDH). The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes included ultrasound predictors of poor prognosis (liver herniation, stomach herniation, lung area-to-head circumference ratio [LHR]), concurrent anomalies, hydrops, stillbirth, preterm birth, mode of delivery, small for gestational age, use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281615/vitamin-d-ameliorates-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-via-suppressing-tlr4-in-a-murine-model
#15
Yongyan Shi, Tianjing Liu, Xinyi Zhao, Li Yao, Ana Hou, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue
BACKGROUND: The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play an important role in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). As an established regulator of TLR4, vitamin D has been demonstrated to be intestinal-protective. This study aims at finding out whether the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway ameliorates NEC by regulating TLR4. METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was tested and compared in 15 preterm infants with NEC, 12 preterm infants without known complications and 20 healthy term infants...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279020/short-term-outcomes-comparison-between-preterm-infants-with-and-without-acute-hypoxic-respiratory-failure-attributable-to-presumed-pulmonary-hypoplasia-after-prolonged-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-before-25-gestational-weeks
#16
Ga Young Park, Won Soon Park, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Se In Sung, Sung Shin Kim, Yun Sil Chang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the updated outcomes of preterm infants with acute hypoxic respiratory failure attributable to presumed pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) following maternal midtrimester prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: Among preterm infants with birthweight < 1500 g and 23-34 weeks gestational age in a single center, infants exposed to maternal prolonged (≥ 7 days) PPROM before 25 gestational weeks (PPPROM25, n = 76) were retrospectively reviewed...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278645/impact-of-preterm-birth-on-the-developing-myocardium-of-the-neonate
#17
Jonathan G Bensley, Lynette Moore, Robert De Matteo, Richard Harding, M Jane Black
BACKGROUND: Globally, approximately 10% of infants are born before full-term. Preterm birth exposes the heart to the demands of postnatal cardiovascular function before cardiac development is complete. Our aim was to examine, in hearts collected from infants at autopsy, the effects of preterm birth on myocardial structure and on cardiomyocyte development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart tissue was collected at perinatal autopsies of 16 infants who died following preterm birth between 23-36 weeks gestation, and survived for 1-42 days; the hearts of 37 appropriately grown stillborn infants, aged 20-40 weeks gestation, were used for comparison...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276042/intestinal-tight-junctions-are-severely-altered-in-nec-preterm-neonates
#18
Amir Bein, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Dan Arbell, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity...
December 7, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242570/monitoring-cerebral-oxygenation-of-preterm-infants-using-a-neonatal-specific-sensor
#19
M Kenosi, J M O'Toole, G A Hawkes, W Hutch, E Low, M Wall, G B Boylan, C A Ryan, E M Dempsey
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral oxygenation (rcSO2) monitoring in preterm infants may identify periods of cerebral hypoxia or hyperoxia. We hypothesised that there was a relationship between rcSO2 values and short term outcome in infants of GA < 32weeks. METHODS: RcSO2 values were recorded for the first 48 h of life using an INVOS monitor with a neonatal sensor. The association between cranial ultrasound scan measured brain injury and rcSO2 was assessed. RESULTS: 120 infants were included...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242415/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-neonates-in-a-level-iii-neonatal-unit-in-india
#20
Savita Bhunwal, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Shalmoli Bhattacharya, Pranab Dey, Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal
OBJECTIVE: To find out the incidence and associations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm neonates. DESIGN: Prospective, observational. METHODS: All consecutively born neonates <33 weeks gestation requiring oxygen or respiratory support first 3 days of life were enrolled from a level III neonatal unit in Chandigarh, India. Those with malformations were excluded. Placenta was examined for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm rupture of membranes and/or preterm spontaneous onset of labour...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
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