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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#1
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228499/neonatal-morbidity-and-1-year-survival-of-extremely-preterm-infants
#2
Hans Jorgen Stensvold, Claus Klingenberg, Ragnhild Stoen, Dag Moster, Kristin Braekke, Hans Jorgen Guthe, Henriette Astrup, Siren Rettedal, Morten Gronn, Arild E Ronnestad
OBJECTIVE: To determine 1-year survival and major neonatal morbidities (intracranial hemorrhage grade >2, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity grade >2, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia) among extremely preterm infants in Norway in 2013-2014, and to compare the results to the first Norwegian Extreme Prematurity Study 1999-2000 and similar contemporary European population-based studies. METHODS: Population-based study of all infants born at 22 through 26 weeks' gestation in Norway in 2013-2014...
February 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212393/infant-mortality-and-morbidity-associated-with-preterm-and-small-for-gestational-age-births-in-southern-mozambique-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Azucena Bardají, Raquel González, Arsenio Nhacolo, Betuel Sigauque, Charfudin Sacoor, María Rupérez, Elisa Sicuri, Quique Bassat, Esperança Sevene, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with adverse outcomes during the first stages of life. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm and SGA births during the first year of life in a rural area of Southern Mozambique. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using previously collected data from children born at the Manhiça District Hospital in two different periods (2003-2005 and 2010-2012)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#4
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210482/delayed-interval-delivery-can-save-the-second-twin-evidence-from-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
S Feys, Y Jacquemyn
BACKGROUND: In case of preterm birth in twins, it is not well established if the second twin benefits from a delayed-interval delivery. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this systematic review is to evaluate survival benefit of the second twin from delayed interval delivery compared to the first twin. Secondly, we will evaluate the survival benefit of the procedure when performed equal to or after 24 weeks gestational age of the first born. METHODS: Delayed interval delivery was defined as every attempt to perform a delayed interval delivery with at minimum placement of a high ligature of the umbilical cord and a delay of delivery of at least 24 hours...
December 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208897/a-validation-of-an-examination-protocol-for-cerebral-visual-impairment-among-children-in-a-clinical-population-in-india
#6
Swetha Sara Philip, Sherab Tsherlinga, Maya Mary Thomas, Gordon N Dutton, Richard Bowman
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. AIM: This study aimed to document the face, content and construct validity of an assessment protocol namely, a 15-domain, Structured Clinical Question Inventory (SCQI), which is based on structured history taking and clinical examination, for the diagnosis of CVI in a clinical population of India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206998/dynamic-outcome-prediction-in-a-socio-demographically-diverse-population-based-cohort-of-extremely-preterm-neonates
#7
M A Steurer, J Anderson, R J Baer, S Oltman, L S Franck, M Kuppermann, L Rand, K K Ryckman, J C Partridge, L L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, E E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: Accurate outcome prediction is crucial for counseling parents and providing individualized treatment to extremely premature infants. We sought to improve upon existing prediction model by using a diverse population-based cohort of extremely premature live births (⩽28 weeks' gestation) for survival and survival without severe neonatal morbidity at different times throughout the first week of life and to evaluate potential differences by race/ethnicity and maternal education...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198787/serologic-responses-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-preterm-infants-born-to-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-singapore-experience
#8
Tan Xt Christelle, Chan Si Min, Le Ye Lee, Christina Ong, Kong Boo Phua, Marion M Aw, Sharon Saw, Guan Huei Lee, Franco Wong, Koh Cheng Thoon
BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends a 4-dose vaccination schedule for preterm low birth weight infants (<2kg) and a 3-dose vaccination schedule for preterm infants (≥2kg) born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers. However, data remain limited for these high risk infants and the optimal dosing schedule in Asia is not well established. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the serologic vaccine responses in preterm infants born to HBsAg positive mothers using current vaccination guidelines...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198749/professional-nurses-perceptions-of-skills-required-for-performing-preterm-infants-follow-up-assessments
#9
Debbie Cordewener, Welma Lubbe
Improved perinatal and neonatal care enhances preterm infant survival rates, but the adverse outcomes remain high. Nurses play vitally important roles regarding the follow-up assessments, treatment, and care of preterm infants. This explorative, descriptive study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of skills required to perform effective preterm infant assessments. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted. Identified themes included the role of the professional nurse, the importance of preterm infant assessments, lack of skills and knowledge to conduct quality assessments, formal and continuous development training needs, the absence of assessment tools and physical resources to perform standardized assessments of preterm infants, and the required support and referral systems...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181680/early-term-deliveries-and-the-risk-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-in-the-offspring
#10
Asnat Walfisch, Tamar Wainstock, Ofer Beharier, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery may affect the development of the upper airways resulting in a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We investigated whether children born at early term (37-38 6/7 weeks' gestation) are at an increased risk for childhood OSA as compared with those born later. METHODS: In this population-based cohort analysis all singleton deliveries occurring between 1991-2013 at a single regional tertiary medical centre were included. Gestational age upon delivery was sub-divided into: early preterm (<33 6/7 weeks' gestation), late preterm (34-36 6/7), early term, full term (39-40 6/7), late term (41-41 6/7), and post term (>42 0/7)...
March 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161061/protective-proteins-and-telomere-length-in-placentas-from-patients-with-pre-eclampsia-in-the-last-trimester-of-gestation
#11
Autumn J Broady, Matthew H Loichinger, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Philip M C Davy, Richard C Allsopp, Gillian D Bryant-Greenwood
INTRODUCTION: Visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), an enzyme involved in energy metabolism and sirtuins, SIRT1 and SIRT3, which are NAD-dependent deacetylases, are critical for cellular function. All three either regulate or are regulated by intracellular NAD+ levels and therefore available cellular energy, important for placental cell survival and successful pregnancy. This study investigates whether these protective proteins are involved in the placental pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and if they are associated with 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage or with placental telomere length...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158932/the-association-of-neonatal-morbidity-with-long-term-neurological-outcome-in-infants-who-were-growth-restricted-and-preterm-at-birth-secondary-analyses-from-truffle-trial-of-randomized-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#12
A G Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, N Marlow, C Lees, H Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between neonatal morbidity (NNM) and two-year neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving children after early fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a European randomised trial (TRUFFLE) of delivery for very preterm fetuses dependent on venous Doppler or cardiotocographic criteria. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centres, participants in TRUFFLE. POPULATION: 402 surviving children after early FGR...
February 3, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153657/fertility-treatments-and-pediatric-neoplasms-of-the-offspring-results-of-a-population-based-cohort-with-a%C3%A2-median-follow-up-of-10-years
#13
Tamar Wainstock, Asnat Walfisch, Ilana Shoham-Vardi, Idit Segal, Avi Harlev, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: Studies have questioned the long-term health effects of offspring conceived after fertility treatments. METHODS: We aimed to evaluate whether an association exists between mode of conception (in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, or spontaneous pregnancy) and neoplasm risk (both benign and malignant tumors) among the offspring; we observed the offspring for up to 18 years. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed that compared the risk for neoplasms among children (up to the age of 18 years) based on mode of conception...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151493/surfactant-reduced-the-mortality-of-neonates-with-birth-weight-%C3%A2-1500%C3%A2-g-and-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-a-survey-from-an-emerging-nicu-network
#14
H Wang, X Gao, C Liu, C Yan, X Lin, Y Dong, B Sun
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of surfactant therapy and assisted ventilation on morbidity and mortality of neonates with birth weight (BW) ⩾1500 g and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 5650 patients with BW ⩾1500 g for incidence, management and outcome of HRF, defined as acute hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation and/or nasal continuous positive airway pressure ⩾24 h. The patients were allocated into groups of moderate preterm (1735, 30...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148737/antenatal-suppression-of-il-1-protects-against-inflammation-induced-fetal-injury-and-improves-neonatal-and-developmental-outcomes-in-mice
#15
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Peck-Yin Chin, Lydia Belarbi, Marie-Ève Brien, Sheetal Pundir, Martin H Berryer, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Ankush Madaan, David J Sharkey, Alexis Lupien-Meilleur, Xin Hou, Christiane Quiniou, Alexandre Beaulac, Ines Boufaied, Amarilys Boudreault, Adriana Carbonaro, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Jean-Sebastien Joyal, William D Lubell, David M Olson, Sarah A Robertson, Sylvie Girard, Sylvain Chemtob
Preterm birth (PTB) is commonly accompanied by in utero fetal inflammation, and existing tocolytic drugs do not target fetal inflammatory injury. Of the candidate proinflammatory mediators, IL-1 appears central and is sufficient to trigger fetal loss. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of antenatal IL-1 exposure on postnatal development and investigated two IL-1 receptor antagonists, the competitive inhibitor anakinra (Kineret) and a potent noncompetitive inhibitor 101.10, for efficacy in blocking IL-1 actions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143615/coxsackievirus-b4-vertical-transmission-in-a-murine-model
#16
Hela Jaïdane, Aymen Halouani, Habib Jmii, Firas Elmastour, Moncef Mokni, Mahjoub Aouni
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening infections with type B Coxsackieviruses (CV-B) are frequently encountered among newborns and are partly attributed to vertically-transmitted virus. Our current study investigates this alternative way of contamination by CV-B, using a mouse model. METHODS: Pregnant Swiss mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with CV-B4 E2 at gestational day 10(G) or 17G. Dams and offspring were monitored for mortality and morbidity, and sampled at different time-points to document the infection and explore eventual vertical transmission...
January 31, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139542/an-audit-of-colistin-use-in-neonatal-sepsis-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-a-resource-limited-country
#17
Bonny Jasani, Sridharan Kannan, Ruchi Nanavati, Nithya J Gogtay, Urmila Thatte
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a challenge for clinicians and microbiologists and has led to use of parenteral colistin. There is a paucity of data regarding safety and efficacy of intravenous colistin use in neonates. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous colistin in the treatment of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: An audit of the data from neonates, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital during January 2012 to December 2012, and who received intravenous colistin was carried out...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131319/review-placental-adaptations-to-the-presence-of-maternal-asthma-during-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
A S Meakin, Z Saif, A R Jones, P F Valenzula Aviles, V L Clifton
Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic medical condition affecting an estimated 12% of pregnant, women each year, with prevalence of asthma greatest (up to 16%) among the socially disadvantaged. Maternal asthma is associated with significant perinatal morbidity and mortality including preterm births, neonatal hospitalisations and low birthweight outcomes each year. We have identified that the placenta adapts to the presence of chronic, maternal asthma during pregnancy in a sex specific manner that may confer sex differences in fetal outcome...
January 21, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129748/the-speed-of-increasing-milk-feeds-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Jane Abbott, Janet Berrington, Ursula Bowler, Elaine Boyle, Jon Dorling, Nicholas Embleton, Edmund Juszczak, Alison Leaf, Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Kenny McCormick, William McGuire, Tracy Roberts, Ben Stenson
BACKGROUND: In the UK, 1-2% of infants are born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) or have very low birth weight (<1500 g). Very preterm infants are initially unable to be fed nutritional volumes of milk and therefore require intravenous nutrition. Milk feeding strategies influence several long and short term health outcomes including growth, survival, infection (associated with intravenous nutrition) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); with both infection and NEC being key predictive factors of long term disability...
January 28, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125815/patent-ductus-arteriosus-treatment-in-very-preterm-infants-a-european-population-based-cohort-study-epice-on-variation-and-outcomes
#20
Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Anna Gudmundsdottir, Rolf F Maier, Liis Toome, Jennifer Zeitlin, Mercedes Bonet, Alan Fenton, Asbjørn Børch Hasselager, Arno van Heijst, Ludwig Gortner, David Milligan, Patrick Van Reempts, Elaine M Boyle, Mikael Norman
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs frequently in very preterm infants and despite the lack of evidence for treatment benefits, treatment for PDA is common in neonatal medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study regional variations in PDA treatment in very preterm infants (≤31 weeks of gestation), its relation to differences in perinatal characteristics, and associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and survival without major neonatal morbidity...
January 26, 2017: Neonatology
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