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Ventilation in newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213294/a-low-cost-simplified-and-scaleable-pneumotachograph-and-face-mask-for-neonatal-mouse-respiratory-measurements
#1
Jenny J Sun, Roshan Nanu, Russell S Ray
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal respiratory disorders are a leading cause of perinatal mortality due to complications resulting from premature births and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse, but optimal treatments for these symptoms are still unclear due to a variety of confounds and risk factors. Mouse models present an opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of potential treatments of these conditions with controlled variables. However, measuring respiration in newborn mice is difficult and commercial components are expensive and often require modification, creating a barrier and limiting our understanding of the short and long-term effects of birth complications on respiratory function...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212478/-risk-factors-related-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-therapy
#2
Juan Pablo Romo-Gamboa, Bertha Alicia Sandoval-Pérez, Ana Bertha Rodríguez-López, Marco Antonio Torres-González, Juan Carlos Barrera-de León
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents the second cause of nosocomial infections and it is associated with greater morbility, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and hospital stay. The objective was to determine factors related with VAP in neonates. METHODS: Analytical transversal study including newborns admitted already intubated with at least 48 hours of MV or who were intubated in Neonatal Therapy. VAP was defined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "those patients submitted to MV during at least 48 hours"...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203255/the-influencing-factors-on-procalcitonin-values-in-newborns-with-noninfectious-conditions-during-the-first-week-of-life
#3
Jueseong Lee, Yong Hyeon Bang, Eun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong
PURPOSE: Although procalcitonin (PCT) level is useful for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, PCT reliability is inconsistent because of the varied conditions encountered in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to investigate PCT levels and factors influencing increased PCT levelin newborns without bacterial infection during the first week of life. METHODS: In newborns hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2015, PCT levels were measured on the first, third, and seventh days after birth...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168185/optimal-chest-compression-rate-and-compression-to-ventilation-ratio-in-delivery-room-resuscitation-evidence-from-newborn-piglets-and-neonatal-manikins
#4
REVIEW
Anne Lee Solevåg, Georg M Schmölzer
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to ventilation (C:V) ratio, and applied force, which are influenced by the CC provider...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#5
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118771/risk-factors-associated-with-failure-of-extubation-in-very-low-birth-weight-newborns
#6
Slobodan Spasojevic, Aleksandra Doronjski
AIM: To identify risk factors associated with the failure of extubation of mechanically ventilated very-low-birth-weight newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. Assessment of the occurrence of extubation failure in relation to demographic and ventilation parameters, the SpO2/FiO2 ratio, the spontaneous breathing test (SBT) and values of the Silverman-Andersen score (SAS). Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation for any reason within 72 hours after extubation...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106628/neonatal-micrognathia-national-trends-in-early-mandibular-surgery
#7
Hillary E Jenny, Benjamin B Massenburg, E Hope Weissler, Peter J Taub
BACKGROUND: Micrognathia is a congenital anomaly that may pose breathing and feeding limitations in newborns, sometimes necessitating invasive management. The present study aims to identify the complications associated with receiving mandibular surgery during the birth stay in order to better predict which patients may benefit from early surgical intervention. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the 2000 to 2012 kids' inpatient databases. We included all live newborn infants born in the hospital through vaginal delivery or caesarean section...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100402/the-randomized-controlled-trial-of-late-surfactant-effects-on-respiratory-outcomes-at-1-year-corrected-age
#8
Roberta L Keller, Eric C Eichenwald, Anna Maria Hibbs, Elizabeth E Rogers, Katherine C Wai, Dennis M Black, Philip L Ballard, Jeanette M Asselin, William E Truog, Jeffrey D Merrill, Mark C Mammel, Robin H Steinhorn, Rita M Ryan, David J Durand, Catherine M Bendel, Ellen M Bendel-Stenzel, Sherry E Courtney, Ramasubbareddy Dhanireddy, Mark L Hudak, Frances R Koch, Dennis E Mayock, Victor J McKay, Jennifer Helderman, Nicolas F Porta, Rajan Wadhawan, Lisa Palermo, Roberta A Ballard
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of late surfactant on respiratory outcomes determined at 1-year corrected age in the Trial of Late Surfactant (TOLSURF), which randomized newborns of extremely low gestational age (≤28 weeks' gestational age) ventilated at 7-14 days to late surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide vs inhaled nitric oxide-alone (control). STUDY DESIGN: Caregivers were surveyed in a double-blinded manner at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' corrected age to collect information on respiratory resource use (infant medication use, home support, and hospitalization)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097848/-congenital-pulmonary-capillary-hemangiomatosis-in-a-newborn
#9
Sandra L Sposito Cavallo, Luciano A Macias Sobrino, Luifer J Marenco Altamar, Andrés F Mejía Alquichire
Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is a rare entity characterized by the proliferation of capillaries into alveolar walls, interlobular septa, pleura and pulmonary interstitium, without malignant characteristics, with almost constant association with pulmonary hypertension. Until now two cases of congenital presentation have been reported in the literature. This is the third case in a newborn; he has not followed the usual pattern associated with pulmonary hypertension as occurs in most patients with this pathology; the highest incidence is among 20-40 years old...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096704/neonatal-resuscitation-advances-in-training-and-practice
#10
REVIEW
Taylor Sawyer, Rachel A Umoren, Megan M Gray
Each year in the US, some four hundred thousand newborns need help breathing when they are born. Due to the frequent need for resuscitation at birth, it is vital to have evidence-based care guidelines and to provide effective neonatal resuscitation training. Every five years, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) reviews the science of neonatal resuscitation. In the US, the American Heart Association (AHA) develops treatment guidelines based on the ILCOR science review, and the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) translates the AHA guidelines into an educational curriculum...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079865/differences-in-mortality-characteristics-in-neonates-with-down-s-syndrome
#11
C L Cua, U Haque, S Santoro, L Nicholson, C H Backes
OBJECTIVE: Neonates with Down's syndrome (nDS) may have multiple medical issues that place them at increased risk for mortality during the newborn period. Goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in baseline characteristics, medical complications or procedures performed during hospitalization between nDS who survived versus those who died during initial hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed using the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database on all DS patients admitted to the hospital <30 days postnatal life...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056166/nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-infants-born-at-or-near-term
#12
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte, Gabriel Altit
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major endogenous regulator of vascular tone. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) gas has been investigated as treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment of hypoxaemic term and near-term newborn infants with iNO improves oxygenation and reduces rate of death and use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or affects long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to January 2016), Embase (1980 to January 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to January 2016)...
January 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050683/effect-of-surfactant-therapy-using-orogastric-tube-for-tracheal-catheterization-in-preterm-newborns-with-respiratory-distress
#13
Rampal Singh Tomar, Ranjit Ghuliani, Dinesh Yadav
OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of a modified method of Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy (MIST) therapy where an orogastric tube was used for tracheal catherization to deliver surfactant in preterm newborns less than 34 wk of gestation with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: A single centre, prospective observational study was conducted to enroll eligible inborn preterm neonates with gestation age more than 24 wk but less than 34 wk and suffering from RDS to receive surfactant using MIST...
January 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042638/black-lung-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-saudi-experience-with-sildenafil-and-nitric-oxide
#14
AbdulRahman M Alnemri
To determine the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of Saudi infants with black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Methods: This is a retrospective review of all neonates with PPHN presented to the Armed Force Hospital Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Ten term and near term infants presented with PPHN were included. Maternal diabetes and Down syndrome were the most common identified risk factors for PPHN in the study group...
January 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040456/exhaled-breath-condensate-analysis-from-intubated-newborns-by-nano-hplc-coupled-to-high-resolution-ms
#15
A S Kononikhin, N L Starodubtseva, V V Chagovets, A Y Ryndin, A A Burov, I A Popov, A E Bugrova, R A Dautov, A O Tokareva, Y L Podurovskaya, O V Ionov, V E Frankevich, E N Nikolaev, G T Sukhikh
Invasiveness of examination and therapy methods is a serious problem for intensive care and nursing of premature infants. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is the most attractive biofluid for non-invasive methods development in neonatology for monitoring the status of intubated infants. The aim of the study was to propose an approach for EBC sampling and analysis from mechanically ventilated neonates. EBC collection system with good reproducibility of sampling was demonstrated. Discovery-based proteomic and metabolomic studies were performed using nano-HPLC coupled to high resolution MS...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034711/ventilatory-and-chemoreceptor-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats-chronically-exposed-to-moderate-hyperoxia
#16
Ryan W Bavis, Ke-Yong Li, Kathryn J DeAngelis, Ryan J March, Josefine A Wallace, Sarah Logan, Robert W Putnam
Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO2/pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O2 (Control) or 60% O2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018238/key-brainstem-structures-activated-during-hypoxic-exposure-in-one-day-old-mice-highlight-characteristics-for-modeling-breathing-network-in-premature-infants
#17
Fanny Joubert, Camille Loiseau, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Florence Cayetanot, Alain Frugière, Nicolas Voituron, Laurence Bodineau
We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral, and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012013/ventilation-perfusion-ratio-and-right-to-left-shunt-in-healthy-newborn-infants
#18
Theodore Dassios, Kamal Ali, Thomas Rossor, Anne Greenough
Oxygenation impairment can be assessed non-invasively by determining the degree of right-to-left shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) inequality. These indices have been used in sick newborn infants, but normative values have not been reported which are essential to determine the magnitude of the abnormality. We, therefore, aimed to measure the shunt and VA/Q in infants with no history of respiratory conditions and determine if there was any effect of supine or prone position and the reproducibility of the data...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011948/molecular-hydrogen-affords-neuroprotection-in-a-translational-piglet-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#19
J Nemeth, V Toth-Szuki, V Varga, V Kovacs, G Remzso, F Domoki
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011794/can-ambu-self-inflating-bag-and-neopuff-infant-resuscitator-provide-adequate-and-safe-manual-inflations-for-infants-up-to-10%C3%A2-kg-weight
#20
Mark Tracy, Rajesh Maheshwari, Dharmesh Shah, Murray Hinder
BACKGROUND: Manual resuscitation devices for infants and newborns must be able to provide adequate ventilation in a safe and consistent manner across a wide range of patient sizes (0.5-10 kg) and differing clinical states. There are little comparative data assessing biomechanical performance of common infant manual resuscitation devices across the manufacturers' recommended operating weight ranges. We aimed to compare performance of the Ambu self-inflating bag (SIB) with the Neopuff T-piece resuscitator in three resuscitation models...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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