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Sepsis in newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925621/presepsin-for-the-detection-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-newborns
#1
Paolo Montaldo, Roberto Rosso, Alfredo Santantonio, Giovanni Chello, Paolo Giliberti
BACKGROUND: Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is responsible for an important fraction of neonatal morbidity and mortality all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess whether presepsin (P-SEP) can be a more accurate biomarker of EOS compared with pro-calcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive preterm neonates (<34 wk gestational age, admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by 6 h of age and undergoing sepsis evaluation) were recruited as part of a case-matched control study...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924109/care-of-newborn-in-the-community-and-at-home
#2
REVIEW
S B Neogi, J Sharma, M Chauhan, R Khanna, M Chokshi, R Srivastava, P K Prabhakar, A Khera, R Kumar, S Zodpey, V K Paul
India has contributed immensely toward generating evidence on two key domains of newborn care: Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC) and community mobilization. In a model developed in Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) in the 1990s, a package of Interventions delivered by community health workers during home visits led to a marked decline in neonatal deaths. On the basis of this experience, the national HBNC program centered around Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) was introduced in 2011, and is now the main community-level program in newborn health...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923247/patterns-of-empiric-antibiotic-administration-for-presumed-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-in-the-united-states
#3
Emily A Oliver, Patricia B Reagan, Jonathan L Slaughter, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
Objective To evaluate current patterns in empiric antibiotic use for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study of newborns admitted on postnatal day 0 to 1 and discharged from NICUs participating in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS 2006-2013). Analyses included frequency of antibiotic initiation within 3 days of birth, duration of first course, and variation among hospitals. Results Of 158,907 newborns, 118,624 (74.7%) received antibiotics on or before postnatal day 3...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921299/one-dose-per-day-compared-to-multiple-doses-per-day-of-gentamicin-for-treatment-of-suspected-or-proven-sepsis-in-neonates
#4
REVIEW
Shripada C Rao, Ravisha Srinivasjois, Kwi Moon
BACKGROUND: Animal studies and trials in older children and adults suggest that a 'one dose per day' regimen of gentamicin is superior to a 'multiple doses per day' regimen. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of one dose per day compared to multiple doses per day of gentamicin in suspected or proven sepsis in neonates. SEARCH METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 8 April 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 8 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 8 April 2016), and CINAHL (December 1982 to 8 April 2016)...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#6
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#7
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895847/efficacy-of-a-low-cost-bubble-cpap-system-in-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-in-a-neonatal-ward-in-malawi
#9
Kondwani Kawaza, Heather E Machen, Jocelyn Brown, Zondiwe Mwanza, Suzanne Iniguez, Al Gest, E O'Brian Smith, Maria Oden, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#10
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887934/currarino-syndrome-in-a-fetus-infant-child-and-adolescent-spectrum%C3%A2-of-clinical-presentations-and-imaging-findings
#11
REVIEW
Pablo Caro-Domínguez, Juan Bass, Julie Hurteau-Miller
In 1981, Currarino et al described a triad of findings that consist of partial sacral dysgenesis, presacral mass (anterior meningocele, enteric cyst, or presacral teratoma) and anorectal malformation. Currarino syndrome exhibits variable expressivity and the clinical presentation tends to vary with the age of the subject such as spinal anomaly detected in the fetus, imperforate anus in the newborn, and intractable constipation or neurologic symptoms in the infant and older child. At any age, meningitis can be the presenting symptom and imaging is required for proper investigation...
November 22, 2016: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885699/strains-of-group-b-streptococci-from-septic-patients-induce-platelet-activation-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#12
Xiaoyan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Xianming Luo, Ping Zhang, Yanmin Gao, Shuangfeng Xie, Kang Xu, Jianxing Chang, Liping Ma
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes life-threatening bacterial sepsis, especially in newborns and pregnant women. Patients suffering from sepsis often display low platelet counts, characterized by thrombocytopenia, because of platelet activation. In the present study, the roles of six GBS strains from septic patients in platelet aggregation, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. Incubation of platelets with three of the strains induced platelet aggregation, increased the secretion of cellular adhesin molecule CD62P and activation of GPIIb/IIIa...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878782/trajectory-of-cause-of-death-among-brought-dead-neonates-in-tertiary-care-public-facilities-of-pakistan-a-multicenter-study
#13
Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Munir Ahmed Sheikh, Ijaz-Ul-Haque Taseer, Syed Jamal Raza, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Tasleem Akhter, Ghazala Mohyuddin Arain, Sultana Habibullah, Sohail Safdar, Rukhsana Firdous, Muhammad Adnan
BACKGROUND: Considering the fact that Pakistan is amongst the countries with very high neonatal mortality rates, we conducted a research study to determine the possible causes and characteristics of neonates presenting dead to the emergency department of tertiary public health care facilities of Pakistan using verbal autopsies. METHODS: A descriptive case series study was conducted in emergency department/pediatrics ward/neonatal ward/nursery unit of ten tertiary care public health facilities, situated in seven major cities of Pakistan from November, 2011 to June, 2013...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876013/reduced-neonatal-mortality-in-a-regional-hospital-in-mozambique-linked-to-a-quality-improvement-intervention
#14
Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Paolo Lanzoni, Mazungo Olivier Wingi, Damiano Pizzol, Marco Daverio, Liviana Da Dalt, Giovanni Putoto, Daniele Trevisanuto
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains a serious health issue especially in low resource countries, where 99% of neonatal deaths occur. Doctors with Africa CUAMM is an Italian non-governmental organization in the field of healthcare that has been working in Africa since 1955. In Mozambique, at the Central Beira Hospital (CBH), it has a project with the aim of supporting the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the Obstetrical Department of the CBH through a multi-level intervention...
November 22, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872823/serial-physical-examinations-a-simple-and-reliable-tool-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-for-early-onset-sepsis
#15
Alberto Berardi, Anna Maria Buffagni, Cecilia Rossi, Eleonora Vaccina, Chiara Cattelani, Lucia Gambini, Federica Baccilieri, Francesca Varioli, Fabrizio Ferrari
AIM: To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks' gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861552/pathoadaptive-mutations-of-escherichia-coli-k1-in-experimental-neonatal-systemic-infection
#16
Alex J McCarthy, David Negus, Patricia Martin, Catarina Pechincha, Eric Oswald, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Although Escherichia coli K1 strains are benign commensals in adults, their acquisition at birth by the newborn may result in life-threatening systemic infections, most commonly sepsis and meningitis. Key features of these infections, including stable gastrointestinal (GI) colonization and age-dependent invasion of the bloodstream, can be replicated in the neonatal rat. We previously increased the capacity of a septicemia isolate of E. coli K1 to elicit systemic infection following colonization of the small intestine by serial passage through two-day-old (P2) rat pups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856045/first-case-of-neonatal-bacteremia-due-to-dyella-genus
#17
Nesrine Hakima, Philippe Bidet, Maureen Lopez, Stéphane Rioualen, Agnès Carol, Stéphane Bonacorsi
We describe the first case of sepsis due to a yet unnamed species of Dyella genus associated to gastrointestinal perforation in a premature newborn. The rarity of such environmental bacteria in human infection, their misidentification with classical methods and their antibiotic resistance represent real challenges for both microbiologists and clinicians.
March 2, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849621/vancomycin-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-a-newborn
#18
Kunal Kalra, Hema Gupta Mittal, Arti Maria
Neonatal thrombocytopenia is common and is frequently seen in neonatal sepsis. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is likely to be missed unless a high index of suspicion is present. Changing of antibiotics for assumed nonresolution of sepsis may lead to persistent thrombocytopenia in a neonate if drug-induced thrombocytopenia is missed. Vancomycin-induced neonatal thrombocytopenia is rarely described in scientific literature. We describe a newborn who was diagnosed with early onset sepsis and vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849234/thyroid-abnormalities-in-term-infants-with-fungal-sepsis
#19
Maria Helena Baptista Nunes da Silva, Maria Cristina Korbage de Araujo, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero Ceccon, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
Objective: To describe thyroid alterations in term newborns (TNB) with fungal sepsis during NICU hospitalization. Method: The study included six TNB that during the clinical and laboratory manifestations of sepsis with positive cultures for fungus showed changes in thyroid hormones, called low T3 syndrome and low T3-T4 syndrome. TNB that could present hormonal changes caused by disease as those born to mothers with thyroid disease, or who had perinatal asphyxia and major surgeries were excluded...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845942/outcome-differences-between-simple-and-complex-gastroschisis
#20
Vesna Milojkovic Marinovic, Maija Lukac, Zeljko Mikovic, Blagoje Grujic, Maja Milickovic, Gordana Samardzija, Aleksandra Stojanovic, Dalibor Sabbagh
BACKGROUND: We reviewed differences of the outcome of newborn with simple and complex gastroschisis treated at our institution over the past fifteen years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on all infants with gastroschisis treated at the Institute for mother and child health care, Belgrade, between 2001 and 2015 (n=70). Premature infants (<34 weeks of gestation) and babies with birth weight less than 1500 g were excluded (n=5). We compared outcomes in infants with simple gastroschisis and those with complex gastroschisis...
October 14, 2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
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