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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150917/regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily
#1
Jelena Krstic, Drenka Trivanovic, Hristina Obradovic, Tamara Kukolj, Diana Bugarski, Juan F Santibanez
The ability to differentiate into cells of different lineage, such as muscle, bone, cartilage and fat, is the chief value of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be used with the final aim to regenerate damaged tissue. Due to potential use, as well as importance in tissue development, a number of questions have been raised regarding the molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation. As one of the crucial mediators in organism development, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily directs MSCs commitment in the selection of differentiation pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149831/molecular-mechanisms-triggered-by-bile-acids-on-iintestinal-ca2-absorption
#2
Ana Marchionatti, Maria Rivoira, Valeria Rodriguez, Adriana Perez, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver and are among the main components of bile. For many years, it was thought that they have only a role as emulsifiers of fat in the small intestine facilitating the absorption of lipids and lipid soluble vitamins. Lately, they are also considered important signaling molecules, not only by regulating their own synthesis, but also having a role in several metabolic diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of deoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic and litocholic acids and their combination upon the intestinal Ca2+ absorption...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149826/novel-functions-of-microrna-17-92-cluster-in-the-endocrine-system
#3
Shan Wan, Xiang Chen, Yuedong He, Xijie Yu
BACKGROUND: MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146985/drosophila-muscles-regulate-the-immune-response-against-wasp-infection-via-carbohydrate-metabolism
#4
Hairu Yang, Dan Hultmark
We recently found that JAK/STAT signaling in skeletal muscles is important for the immune response of Drosophila larvae against wasp infection, but it was not clear how muscles could affect the immune response. Here we show that insulin signaling is required in muscles, but not in fat body or hemocytes, during larval development for an efficient encapsulation response and for the formation of lamellocytes. This effect requires TOR signaling. We show that muscle tissue affects the immune response by acting as a master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in the infected animal, via JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles, and that there is indirect positive feedback between JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146412/skeletal-muscle-overexpression-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-mice-coupled-with-voluntary-exercise-augments-exercise-endurance
#5
Sheila R Costford, Bram Brouwers, Meghan E Hopf, Lauren M Sparks, Mauro Dispagna, Ana P Gomes, Heather H Cornnell, Chris Petucci, Peter Phelan, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Glenn A Walter, Timothy F Osborne, David A Sinclair, Randall L Mynatt, Julio E Ayala, Stephen J Gardell, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143330/short-term-high-fat-diet-primes-excitatory-synapses-for-long-term-depression-in-orexin-neurons
#6
Victoria Linehan, Lisa Fang, Michiru Hirasawa
Overconsumption of high-fat diets is one of the strongest contributing factors to the rise of obesity rates. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by palatable high-fat diet and mediate the activation of the mesolimbic reward pathway, resulting in further food intake. While short-term exposure to high-fat diet is known to induce synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic pathway, it is unknown if such changes occur in orexin neurons. To investigate this, 3-week old male rats were fed a palatable high-fat western diet (WD) or control chow for 1 week and then in vitro patch clamp recording was performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141949/microvascular-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-and-brain-occurs-early-in-the-development-of-juvenile-obesity-in-pigs
#7
T Dylan Olver, Zachary Ian Grunewald, Thomas J Jurrissen, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, Paul J LeBlanc, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Alana M Czajkowski, Maurice Harold Laughlin, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender, Eric M Walters, Craig A Emter, Jaume Padilla
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular insulin signaling may develop prior to overt indices of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and represent an early pathological feature of adolescent obesity. Using a translational porcine model of juvenile obesity, we tested the hypotheses that in the early stages of obesity development, impaired insulin signaling manifests in skeletal muscle (triceps), brain (prefrontal cortex) and corresponding vasculatures, and that depressed insulin-induced vasodilation is reversible with acute inhibition of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140550/lncrna-h19-interacts-with-polypyrimidine-tract-binding-protein-1-to-reprogram-hepatic-lipid-homeostasis
#8
Chune Liu, Zhihong Yang, Jianguo Wu, Li Zhang, Sangmin Lee, Dong-Ju Shin, Melanie Tran, Li Wang
H19 is an imprinted long non-coding RNA abundantly expressed in embryonic liver and repressed after birth. Here we show that H19 serves as a lipid sensor by synergizing with RNA-binding protein PTBP1 to modulate hepatic metabolic homeostasis. H19RNA interacts with PTBP1 to facilitate its association with SREBP1c mRNA and protein, leading to increased stability and nuclear transcriptional activity. H19 and PTBP1 are upregulated by fatty acids in hepatocytes and in diet-induced fatty liver, which further augments lipid accumulation...
November 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140299/pdgfr%C3%AE-regulated-by-mir-34a-and-foxo1-promotes-adipogenesis-in-porcine-intramuscular-preadipocytes-through-erk-signaling-pathway
#9
Yun-Mei Sun, Jin Qin, Shu-Ge Liu, Rui Cai, Xiao-Chang Chen, Xiang-Ming Wang, Wei-Jun Pang
Suitable intramuscular fat (IMF) content improves porcine meat quality. The vital genes regulating IMF deposition are necessary for the selection and breeding of an IMF trait. However, the effect and mechanism of PDGFRα on IMF deposition are still unclear. Here, PDGFRα is moderately expressed in porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), whereas it highly expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, PDGFRα-positive cells were located in the gaps of LD fibers which there were IMF adipocytes. Compared with 180-day-old and lean-type pigs, the levels of PDGFRα were much higher in one-day-old and fat-type pigs...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138674/exercise-training-restores-cardiac-microrna-1-and-microrna-29c-to-nonpathological-levels-in-obese-rats
#10
André C Silveira, Tiago Fernandes, Úrsula P R Soci, João L P Gomes, Diego L Barretti, Glória G F Mota, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Edilamar M Oliveira
We previously reported that aerobic exercise training (AET) consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, and 5 days/week AET counteracts CH in obesity. Here, we evaluated the role of microRNAs and their target genes that are involved in heart collagen deposition and calcium signaling, as well as the cardiac remodeling induced by AET in obese Zucker rats. Among the four experimental Zucker groups: control lean rats (LZR), control obese rats (OZR), trained lean rats (LZR + TR), and trained obese rats (OZR + TR), heart weight was greater in the OZR than in the LZR group due to increased cardiac intramuscular fat and collagen...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#11
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138227/the-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-are-up-regulated-in-the-state-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-may-differently-impact-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans
#12
Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Harald Staiger, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Alfred Königsrainer, Ingmar Koenigsrainer, Erwin D Schleicher, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
The liver is a central regulator of whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis and hepatokines, like fetuin-A, have been identified as markers and mediators of fatty liver-induced cardiometabolic risk. The closely related protein fetuin-B was shown to be up-regulated in the fatty liver and to impact on glucose homeostasis in mice. In the present study we aimed to test the relevance of these findings in humans. In 55 subjects hepatic mRNA expression of both hepatokines, fetuin-A and fetuin-B, associated positively with liver triglyceride content, while only fetuin-A expression associated with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138180/inhibition-of-vascular-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-improves-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#13
Petia Doytcheva, Thomas Bächler, Erika Tarasco, Vincenzo Marzolla, Michael Engeli, Giovanni Pellegrini, Simona Stivala, Lucia Rohrer, Francesco Tona, Giovanni G Camici, Paul M Vanhoutte, Christian M Matter, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas F Lüscher, Elena Osto
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#14
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136784/the-alternation-of-autophagy-apoptosis-in-cd4-cd25-foxp3-tregs-on-the-developmental-stages-of-atherosclerosis
#15
Yuling Tian, Xiao Liang, Yue Wu
Naturally regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying Tregs upon long-term development of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, atherosclerotic model was induced in ApoE-/- mice by feeding fat-diet for 10 weeks. Quantification of atherosclerotic lesions was done by calculating the lesion size in the aortic sinus every 2 weeks. The lipid levels and inflammatory mediators were detected in serum sample...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134505/upregulated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-expression-in-human-and-murine-atherosclerotic-plaques
#16
Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Junbin Han, Xuyi Yue, Hao Yang, Mohamed A Zayed, Robert J Gropler, Zhude Tu
PURPOSE: Dysregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) signaling contributes to inflammation-related pathophysiological changes in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis (AS). S1PR1-targeting compounds significantly reduce lesion size in murine models of AS. Therefore, characterization of S1PR1 expression in vitro and in vivo in atherosclerotic plaque could enable mechanistic studies and inform S1PR1 targeted therapies. PROCEDURES: H&E staining and immunostaining studies were performed on variably diseased human femoral endarterectomy plaque specimens, as well as mouse aortic sections from ApoE(-/-) mice maintained on a high-fat diet (AS mice)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134198/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-direct-differentiation-of-the-membrane-phenotype-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-potentiate-osteogenesis
#17
Kandice R Levental, Michal A Surma, Allison D Skinkle, Joseph H Lorent, Yong Zhou, Christian Klose, Jeffrey T Chang, John F Hancock, Ilya Levental
Mammalian cells produce hundreds of dynamically regulated lipid species that are actively turned over and trafficked to produce functional membranes. These lipid repertoires are susceptible to perturbations from dietary sources, with potentially profound physiological consequences. However, neither the lipid repertoires of various cellular membranes, their modulation by dietary fats, nor their effects on cellular phenotypes have been widely explored. We report that differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts or adipocytes results in extensive remodeling of the plasma membrane (PM), producing cell-specific membrane compositions and biophysical properties...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#18
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133384/estrogen-and-high-fat-diet-induced-alterations-in-c57bl-6-mice-endometrial-transcriptome-profile
#19
Yali Cheng, Qiaoying Lv, Bingying Xie, Bingyi Yang, Weiwei Shan, Chengcheng Ning, Bing Li, Liying Xie, Chao Gu, Xuezhen Luo, Xiaojun Chen, Qin Zhu
Unopposed estrogen stimulation and insulin resistance are known to play important roles in endometrial cancer (EC), but the interaction between these two factors and how they contribute to endometrial lesions are not completely elucidated. To investigate the endometrial transcriptome profile and the associated molecular pathway alterations, we established an ovariectomized C57BL/6 mouse model treated with subcutaneous implantation of 17-β estradiol (E2) pellet and/or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to mimic sustained estrogen stimulation and insulin resistance...
November 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131158/ucp1-independent-signaling-involving-serca2b-mediated-calcium-cycling-regulates-beige-fat-thermogenesis-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#20
Kenji Ikeda, Qianqian Kang, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Joao Paulo Camporez, Hiroko Maki, Mayu Homma, Kosaku Shinoda, Yong Chen, Xiaodan Lu, Pema Maretich, Kazuki Tajima, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shingo Kajimura
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) plays a central role in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat; however, its role in beige fat remains unclear. Here we report a robust UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanism in beige fat that involves enhanced ATP-dependent Ca(2+) cycling by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2). Inhibition of SERCA2b impairs UCP1-independent beige fat thermogenesis in humans and mice as well as in pigs, a species that lacks a functional UCP1 protein...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
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