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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603983/food-components-in-health-promotion-and-disease-prevention
#1
Wolfgang Langhans
The current obesity epidemic with its deleterious effects on public health, and the increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in our aging society have dramatically increased public awareness of nutrition-related health issues. Food components such as fat, sugar, flavors and spices are major determinants of the hedonic value of food, and the constant and almost ubiquitous availability of good-tasting food in our affluent societies promotes overeating and weight gain. On the other hand, several food components, including flavoring compounds and the active ingredients of many plants including spices and herbs (e...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598497/descriptive-and-temporal-saltiness-perception-properties-of-model-solid-lipoproteic-colloid-foods-implications-for-sodium-reduction
#2
Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
Solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods that consist of an oil-in-water emulsion of lipid and protein such as cheese and sausage contribute a significant amount of sodium to modern diets. This study aimed to correlate the overall saltiness perception to the texture and temporal saltiness perception of SLCs to understand saltiness perception during oral processing. Model SLCs with varying levels of protein and fat were prepared via pressure homogenization of whey protein isolate, anhydrous milk fat, and NaCl, followed by heat-induced gelation...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590431/food-and-nutrients-intake-in-the-school-lunch-program-among-school-children-in-shanghai-china
#3
Zhenru Huang, Runying Gao, Nadila Bawuerjiang, Yali Zhang, Xiaoxu Huang, Meiqin Cai
This study aimed to evaluate the intake of food and nutrients among primary, middle, and high schools students in Shanghai, and provide recommendations for possible amendments in new school lunch standards of Shanghai. Twenty schools were included in the school lunch menu survey. Of those, seven schools enrolled 5389 students and conducted physical measurement of plate waste and a questionnaire survey. The amount of food and nutrients was compared according to the new China National Dietary Guideline for School Children (2016) and Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (2013)...
June 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587159/effects-of-low-dose-non-caloric-sweetener-consumption-on-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#4
Takashi Uebanso, Ai Ohnishi, Reiko Kitayama, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs) provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels, 15 mg/kg body weight) on the gut microbiome in mice...
June 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572588/hippocampal-atrophy-and-altered-brain-responses-to-pleasant-tastes-among-obese-compared-to-healthy-weight-children
#5
Z L Mestre, A Bischoff-Grethe, D M Eichen, C E Wierenga, D Strong, K N Boutelle
OBJECTIVE: The hippocampus is a key structure implicated in food motivation and intake. Research has shown that the hippocampus is vulnerable to the consumption of a western diet (i.e., high saturated fat and simple carbohydates). Studies of patients with obesity (OB), compared to healthy weight (HW), show changes in hippocampal volume and response to food cues. Moreover, evidence suggests that OB children, relative to HW, have greater hippocampal response to taste. However, no study has examined the association of hippocampal volume with taste functioning in children...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551189/reformulating-minas-frescal-cheese-using-consumers-perceptions-insights-from-intensity-scales-and-check-all-that-apply-questionnaires
#6
E W Oliveira, E A Esmerino, B Thomas Carr, L P F Pinto, H L A Silva, T C Pimentel, H M A Bolini, A G Cruz, M Q Freitas
We evaluated the performance of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and intensity scales to describe Minas Frescal cheese and its reformulation based on consumers' perceptions. Ten commercial samples with different formulations (full-fat, low-fat, or low-lactose) were evaluated by 200 consumers divided equally into 2 groups: 1 evaluated samples and described their ideal cheese using intensity scales and 1 did the same using CATA questions. Both methodologies provided similar information about the sensory characteristics of the Minas Frescal cheeses, the description of the ideal product, and directions for product reformulation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549583/taste-sensitivity-to-sucrose-is-lower-in-outbred-sprague-dawley-phenotypic-obesity-prone-rats-than-obesity-resistant-rats
#7
Huiling Sun, Junbao Yan, Bo Sun, Lin Song, Jianqun Yan
The purpose of the present study was to better understand the role of sweet taste perception in dietary behavior and body weight in outbred Sprague-Dawley phenotypic obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats by measuring sucrose taste sensitivity using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Rats were given a high fat diet for 2 weeks and were assigned as obesity-prone (P, upper tertile) or obesity-resistant (R, lower tertile) based on weight gain. Each group was then given either chow (C, 10% fat) or the high fat diet (F, 46% fat) for the remainder of the experiment (∼18 weeks) such that there were four groups - obesity-prone on chow (C-P), obesity-prone on high fat (H-P), obesity-resistant on chow (C-R), obesity-resistant on high fat (H-R)...
May 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538841/-nutritional-traffic-light-system-for-processed-foods-qualitative-study-of-awareness-understanding-attitudes-and-practices-in-ecuador
#8
Wilma B Freire, William F Waters, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño
Objectives.: To analyze awareness, understanding, attitudes, and practices related to the nutritional traffic light system (NTLS) on processed food packaging in Ecuador. Materials and methods.: 21 discussions were held in focus groups (FG) in populations of various sizes in the coastal, mountainous, and eastern regions. Nine interviews were conducted with key informants (KI) representing large, medium, and small enterprises producing or selling processed foods. Results...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500692/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-fat-sugar-and-umami-taste-preference-and-food-intake-and-body-weight-regulation
#9
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. METHODS: Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487220/variant-in-a-common-odorant-binding-protein-gene-is-associated-with-bitter-sensitivity-in-people
#10
Iole Tomassini Barbarossa, M Hakan Ozdener, Melania, Latisha Love-Gregory, Makedonka Mitreva, Nada A Abumrad, M Yanina Pepino
Deeper understanding of signaling mechanisms underlying bitterness perception in people is essential for designing novel and effective bitter blockers, which could enhance nutrition and compliance with orally administered bitter-tasting drugs. Here we show that variability in a human odorant-binding protein gene, OBPIIa, associates with individual differences in bitterness perception of fat (oleic acid) and of a prototypical bitter stimulus, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), suggesting a novel olfactory role in the modulation of bitterness sensitivity...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465539/participants-with-normal-weight-or-with-obesity-show-different-relationships-of-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-taster-status-with-bmi-and-plasma-endocannabinoids
#11
Gianfranca Carta, Melania Melis, Stefano Pintus, Paolo Pintus, Carla A Piras, Laura Muredda, Daniela Demurtas, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sebastiano Banni, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Reduced taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), a genetic trait regarded as a general index for oral chemosensory perception, has been associated with a calorie-rich food preference and lower circulating endocannabinoid levels in participants with normal weight (NW), which suggests an adaptive mechanism to maintain a lean phenotype. In this study, we assessed whether participants with obesity (OB) show different patterns of plasma endocannabinoids and lipid metabolism biomarkers from those of NW, with further categorization based on their PROP sensitivity...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460982/nutritional-and-chemical-properties-of-fermented-food-of-wild-and-cultivated-genotypes-of-enset-ensete-ventricosum
#12
Abraham Bosha, Abitew Lagibo Dalbato, Tamado Tana, Wassu Mohammed, Buzayew Tesfaye, Laila M Karlsson
The multipurpose crop enset (Ensete ventricosum) has been traditionally cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. The main food product is the starch-rich fermented kocho made from the pseudostem and corm. There are many vegetatively propagated landraces utilised by farmers, but no concisions breeding have taken place, and there are requests for improved cultivars. There are also populations of wild ensets which propagate sexually, and the variation in characteristics among the wild is not studied. We suggest investigating the variation among the wild, in order utilise the most proper combinations of parent plants when breeding for different purposes...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425579/myringoplasty-outcomes-from-the-swedish-national-quality-registry
#13
Malin Berglund, Rut Florentzson, Mattias Fransson, Malou Hultcrantz, Per O Eriksson, Erling Englund, Eva Westman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Data from patients registered for myringoplasty during 2002 to 2012 in the Swedish National Quality Registry for Myringoplasty. STUDY DESIGN: Both conventional myringoplasty and fat-graft techniques were used aimed at healing the tympanic membrane in noninfected ears. METHODS: Analysis was performed on data in a national database collected from 32 ear, nose, and throat clinics. Surgical procedures and outcomes, and patient satisfaction from a questionnaire were studied...
April 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#14
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414258/postchill-antimicrobial-treatments-to-control-salmonella-listeria-and-campylobacter-contamination-on-chicken-skin-used-in-ground-chicken
#15
Suejee Park, Mark A Harrison, Mark E Berrang
Ground poultry products are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. With the potential for increased regulatory scrutiny, it is important to use sufficient intervention strategies to control pathogen levels effectively. A large proportion of the bacteria introduced to ground chicken are likely to come from broiler skin, which is added to achieve target fat content and maintain product texture and taste. In this research, antimicrobials, including 50 ppm of chlorine and 1,200 ppm of peracetic acid (PAA), were applied in a postchill system to reduce the number of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes , and Campylobacter coli inoculated on chicken skin used to formulate ground chicken...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403529/new-hydrocolloid-based-emulsions-for-replacing-fat-in-panna-cottas-a-structural-and-sensory-study
#16
Jennifer Borreani, Isabel Hernando, Ana Salvador, Amparo Quiles
BACKGROUND: Dairy desserts are popular traditional products but because of their high calorie or fat content, they can be unsuitable for people who have certain dietary requirements. The aim of this study was to design panna cottas with similar organoleptic and textural properties to the traditional ones but with a lower fat content, by replacing part of the cream with new emulsions prepared with hydrocolloids (cellulose ethers), namely methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400840/comparative-evaluation-of-sulfur-compounds-contents-and-antiobesity-properties-of-allium-hookeri-prepared-by-different-drying-methods
#17
Min Hye Yang, Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Jung-Rae Rho, Kwang Ju Ock, Eui-Cheol Shin, Eun Ju Jeong
Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell) coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398946/high-intensity-interval-training-appetite-and-reward-value-of-food-in-the-obese
#18
Catia Martins, Irina Aschehoug, Marit Ludviksen, Jens Holst, Graham Finlayson, Ulrik Wisloff, Linda Morgan, Neil King, Bård Kulseng
PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT), on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a BMI of 33...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372849/effect-of-oral-protein-hydrolysate-on-glucose-control-in-patients-with-gestational-diabetes
#19
Langeza Saleh, Nicole L Schrier, Maaike J Bruins, Eric A P Steegers, Anton H van den Meiracker, Willy Visser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In type 2 diabetic patients, a casein-based protein hydrolysate has been shown to increase plasma insulin and to lower plasma glucose. In the present study, we examined the acute and prolonged effects of protein hydrolysate on postprandial glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses after a standardised breakfast and the effect on daily glucose control in patients with gestational diabetes. METHODS: In a single-centre randomised double blind placebo controlled design, patients with mild gestational diabetes (no use of insulin or oral antidiabetic agents; n = 26/group) were allocated to receive a protein hydrolysate drink, 8...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370265/zizyphin-modulates-calcium-signalling-in-human-taste-bud-cells-and-fat-taste-perception-in-the-mouse
#20
Babar Murtaza, Meryem Berrichi, Chahid Bennamar, Thierry Tordjmann, Fatima Z Djeziri, Aziz Hichami, Julia Leemput, Meriem Belarbi, Hakan Ozdener, Naim A Khan
Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pool and also recruited, in part, Ca(2+) from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels...
April 2, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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