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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121061/a-randomized-double-blind-active-control-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-three-day-course-of-tafenoquine-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#1
Mark M Fukuda, Srivicha Krudsood, Khadeeja Mohamed, Justin A Green, Sukhuma Warrasak, Harald Noedl, Ataya Euswas, Mali Ittiverakul, Nillawan Buathong, Sabaithip Sriwichai, R Scott Miller, Colin Ohrt
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine is an investigational 8-aminoquinoline for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapse. Tafenoquine has a long half-life and the potential for more convenient dosing, compared with the currently recommended 14-day primaquine regimen. METHODS: This randomized, active-control, double-blind trial was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax were randomized (2:1) to tafenoquine 400 mg once daily for 3 days or 2500 mg total dose chloroquine phosphate (1500 mg chloroquine base) given over 3 days plus primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082022/systematic-review-of-the-clinical-manifestations-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-implications-for-malaria-elimination-and-beyond
#2
Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Hodaka Kosugi, Sophea Thoeun, Hitomi Araki, Moe Moe Thandar, Moritoshi Iwagami, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
INTRODUCTION: To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016333/distribution-of-mutations-associated-with-antifolate-and-chloroquine-resistance-among-imported-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-state-of-qatar
#3
Devendra Bansal, Anushree Acharya, Praveen K Bharti, Mohamed H Abdelraheem, Ashraf Elmalik, Salem Abosalah, Fahmi Y Khan, Mohamed ElKhalifa, Hargobinder Kaur, Pradyumna K Mohapatra, Rakesh Sehgal, Mohammed A Idris, Jagadish Mahanta, Neeru Singh, Hamza A Babiker, Ali A Sultan
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent parasite worldwide, escalating by spread of drug resistance. Currently, in Qatar, chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine are recommended for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes and CQ resistance transporter (crt-o) genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. Blood samples were collected from patients positive for P...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886443/antiplasmodial-activities-of-dyes-against-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-and-sexual-stages-contrasted-uptakes-of-triarylmethanes-brilliant-green-green-s-e142-and-patent-blue-v-e131-by-erythrocytes
#4
Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, Lise Musset, Christophe Duplais
The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P...
August 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883977/management-of-plasmodium-vivax-risk-and-illness-in-travelers
#5
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird
Malaria poses an exceptionally complex problem for providers of travel medicine services. Perceived high risk of exposure during travel typically prompts prescribing protective antimalarial drugs. Suppressive chemoprophylactic agents have dominated strategy for that practice for over 70 years. This broad class of therapeutic agents kills parasites after they emerge from the liver and attempt development in red blood cells. The dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine stems largely from the view of Plasmodium falciparum as the utmost threat to the patient - these drugs are poorly suited to preventing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale due to inactivity against the latent liver stages of these species not produced by P...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862132/the-complex-relationship-of-exposure-to-new-plasmodium-infections-and-incidence-of-clinical-malaria-in-papua-new-guinea
#6
Natalie E Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Rahel Wampfler, Benson Kiniboro, Albina Teliki, Jonah Iga, Andreea Waltmann, Inoni Betuela, Ingrid Felger, Leanne J Robinson, Ivo Mueller
The molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) is a quantitative surrogate metric for malaria transmission at population level and for exposure at individual level. Relationships between molFOB, parasite prevalence and clinical incidence were assessed in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort, where P.vivax (Pv) hypnozoites were eliminated in half the children by primaquine (PQ). Discounting relapses, children acquired equal numbers of new P. falciparum (Pf) and Pv blood-stage infections/year (Pf-molFOB = 0-18, Pv-molFOB = 0-23) resulting in comparable spatial and temporal patterns in incidence and prevalence of infections...
September 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857064/implementation-of-g6pd-testing-and-primaquine-for-p-vivax-radical-cure-operational-perspectives-from-thailand-and-cambodia
#7
Suravadee Kitchakarn, Dysoley Lek, Sea Thol, Chantheasy Hok, Aungkana Saejeng, Rekol Huy, Nipon Chinanonwait, Krongthong Thimasarn, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
Following progressive success in reducing the burden of malaria over the past two decades, countries of the Asia Pacific are now aiming for elimination of malaria by 2030. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the two main malaria species that are endemic in the region. P. vivax is generally perceived to be less severe but will be harder to eliminate, owing partly to its dormant liver stage (known as a hypnozoite) that can cause multiple relapses following an initial clinical episode caused by a mosquito-borne infection...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826608/high-throughput-multiplex-genotyping-directly-from-blood-or-dried-blood-spot-without-dna-extraction-for-the-screening-of-multiple-g6pd-gene-variants-at-risk-for-drug-induced-hemolysis
#8
Xiaoyi Tian, Jun Zhou, Ye Zhao, Zhibin Cheng, Wenqi Song, Yu Sun, Xiaodong Sun, Zhi Zheng
Clinical or epidemiologic screening of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers requires large-scale multiplexed genotyping. Available genotyping tools require DNA extraction and multiplex PCR, which may limit throughput and suffer amplification bias. Herein, a novel genotyping approach has been developed, multiplex extension and ligation-based probe amplification (MELPA), which eliminates DNA extraction and achieves uniform PCR amplification. MELPA lyses blood or dried blood spot and directly captures specific target DNA to 96-well plates using tailed probes...
September 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749756/efficacy-of-different-primaquine-regimens-to-control-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytemia-in-colombia
#9
Maria Arroyo-Arroyo, Eliana Arango, Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Beatriz Aristizabal, Stephanie Yanow, Amanda Maestre
Treatment against Plasmodium falciparum malaria includes blood schizonticides to clear asexual parasites responsible for disease. The addition of gametocytocidal drugs can eliminate infectious sexual stages with potential for transmission and the World Health Organization recommends a single dose (SD) of primaquine (PQ) to this end. The efficacy of PQ at 0.75 mg/kg to suppress gametocytemia when administered in single or fractionated doses was evaluated. A clinical controlled study with an open-label design was executed; three groups of 20 subjects were studied sequentially...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#10
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606284/-efficacy-of-clindamycin-primaquine-as-the-salvage-treatment-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-patients
#11
X Wang, G F Wang, Z Jin, J J Huang, X D Mu, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients. Methods: Clinical data of non-HIV-infected patients with PCP who were treated with clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment in Peking University First Hospital from Jan 2010 to May 2016 were collected and reviewed in this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as a salvage treatment. Results: A total of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with PCP were included...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533239/plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-demonstrate-contrasting-chloroquine-resistance-reversal-phenotypes
#12
Grennady Wirjanata, Irene Handayuni, Pak Prayoga, Leo Leonardo, Dwi Apriyanti, Leily Trianty, Ruland Wandosa, Basbak Gobay, Enny Kenangalem, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Rintis Noviyanti, Dennis E Kyle, Qin Cheng, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt
High-grade chloroquine (CQ) resistance has emerged in both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic differences of CQ resistance in both of these species and the ability of known CQ resistance reversal agents (CQRRAs) to alter CQ susceptibility. Between April 2015 and April 2016, the potential of verapamil (VP), mibefradil (MF), L703,606 (L7), and primaquine (PQ) to reverse CQ resistance was assessed in 46 P. falciparum and 34 P. vivax clinical isolates in Papua, Indonesia, where CQ resistance is present in both species, using a modified schizont maturation assay...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#13
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384505/the-vivax-surveyor-online-mapping-database-for-plasmodium-vivax-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
R J Commons, K Thriemer, G Humphreys, I Suay, C H Sibley, P J Guerin, R N Price
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent P. vivax infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although radical cure can reduce recurrent infection, it is confounded by antimalarial resistance and the lack of safe and effective hypnozoitocidal treatment. This study documents the available literature of published clinical trials of P. vivax, providing an up to date, online, open access tool to view and download available information. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective P...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381261/challenges-for-achieving-safe-and-effective-radical-cure-of-plasmodium-vivax-a-round-table-discussion-of-the-apmen-vivax-working-group
#15
REVIEW
Kamala Thriemer, Benedikt Ley, Albino Bobogare, Lek Dysoley, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Ayodhia P Pasaribu, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Elodie Jambert, Gonzalo J Domingo, Robert Commons, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Angela Devine, Mohammad M Aktaruzzaman, Nayeem Sohel, Rinzin Namgay, Tobgyel Drukpa, Surender Nath Sharma, Elvieda Sarawati, Iriani Samad, Minerva Theodora, Simone Nambanya, Sonesay Ounekham, Rose Nanti Binti Mudin, Garib Da Thakur, Leo Sora Makita, Raffy Deray, Sang-Eun Lee, Leonard Boaz, Manjula N Danansuriya, Santha D Mudiyanselage, Nipon Chinanonwait, Suravadee Kitchakarn, Johnny Nausien, Esau Naket, Thang Ngo Duc, Ha Do Manh, Young S Hong, Qin Cheng, Jack S Richards, Rita Kusriastuti, Ari Satyagraha, Rintis Noviyanti, Xavier C Ding, Wasif Ali Khan, Ching Swe Phru, Zhu Guoding, Gao Qi, Akira Kaneko, Olivo Miotto, Wang Nguitragool, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Katherine Battle, Rosalind E Howes, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Stephan Duparc, Ipsita Pal Bhowmick, Enny Kenangalem, Jo-Anne Bibit, Alyssa Barry, David Sintasath, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Carol H Sibley, James McCarthy, Lorenz von Seidlein, J Kevin Baird, Ric N Price
The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia-Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes...
April 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319724/interactions-between-tafenoquine-and-artemisinin-combination-therapy-partner-drug-in-asexual-and-sexual-stage-plasmodium-falciparum
#16
Karen Kemirembe, Mynthia Cabrera, Liwang Cui
The 8-aminoquinoline tafenoquine (TFQ), a primaquine derivative, is currently in late-stage clinical development for the radical cure of P. vivax. Here drug interactions between TFQ and chloroquine and six artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) partner drugs in P. falciparum asexual stages and gametocytes were investigated. TFQ was mostly synergistic with the ACT-partner drugs in asexual parasites regardless of genetic backgrounds. However, at fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1, TFQ only interacted synergistically with naphthoquine, pyronaridine and piperaquine in gametocytes...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254294/fabrication-of-highly-sensitive-gold-nanourchins-based-electrochemical-sensor-for-nanomolar-determination-of-primaquine
#17
Neeta Bachheti Thapliyal, Tirivashe Elton Chiwunze, Rajshekhar Karpoormath, Srinivasulu Cherukupalli
A gold nanourchins modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNu/GCE) was developed for the determination of antimalarial drug, primaquine (PQ). The surface of AuNu/GCE was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). EIS results indicated that the electron transfer process at AuNu/GCE was faster as compared to the bare electrode. The SEM and TEM image confirmed the presence and uniform dispersion of gold nanourchins on the GCE surface...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170391/haemolysis-in-g6pd-heterozygous-females-treated-with-primaquine-for-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-a-nested-cohort-in-a-trial-of-radical-curative-regimens
#18
Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, Kerryn A Moore, Htun Htun Win, Niramon Thitipanawan, Christina Po, Nongnud Chowwiwat, Rattanaporn Raksapraidee, Pornpimon Wilairisak, Aung Pyae Phyo, Lily Keereecharoen, Stéphane Proux, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, François Nosten, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine) is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD heterozygous females, because of individual variation in the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (Lyonisation) in erythroid cells, may have low G6PD activity in the majority of their erythrocytes, yet are usually reported as G6PD "normal" by current phenotypic screening tests...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121993/a-comparison-of-three-quantitative-methods-to-estimate-g6pd-activity-in-the-chittagong-hill-tracts-bangladesh
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Benedikt Ley, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, James J O'Donnell, Mohammad Sharif Hossain, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Nusrat Jahan, Wasif A Khan, Kamala Thriemer, Mark D Chatfield, Ric N Price, Jack S Richards
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency (G6PDd) is a major risk factor for primaquine-induced haemolysis. There is a need for improved point-of-care and laboratory-based G6PD diagnostics to unsure safe use of primaquine. METHODS: G6PD activities of participants in a cross-sectional survey in Bangladesh were assessed using two novel quantitative assays, the modified WST-8 test and the CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor (Access Bio), The results were compared with a gold standard UV spectrophotometry assay (Randox)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070879/a-review-of-pharmacogenetics-of-antimalarials-and-associated-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Hazem Elewa, Kyle John Wilby
Genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters is known to influence the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Antimalarial drugs are a class of agents known to utilize metabolic and elimination pathways prone to genetic variation. This paper aims to review the genetic variants affecting antimalarial medications and discuss their clinical implications. Data were identified for the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and the P-glycoprotein drug transporter...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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