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primaquine falciparum

Yoann Duffier, Audrey Lorthiois, Pau Cisteró, Florian Dupuy, Grégory Jouvion, Laurence Fiette, Dominique Mazier, Alfredo Mayor, Catherine Lavazec, Alicia Moreno Sabater
The development of new drugs to disrupt malaria transmission requires the establishment of an in vivo model to address the biology of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages (gametocytes). Herein we show that chemically immune-modulated NSG mice grafted with human erythrocytes support complete sexual development of P. falciparum parasites and generate high gametocytemia. Immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR analyses indicate an enrichment of immature gametocytes in the bone marrow and the spleen, suggesting a sequestration mechanism reminiscent to that observed in humans...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Toby Leslie, Sami Nahzat, Walid Sediqi
Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michelle E Roh, Caesar Oyet, Patrick Orikiriza, Martina Wade, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Gertrude N Kiwanuka, Sunil Parikh
Despite the potential benefit of primaquine in reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, concerns over risk of hemolytic toxicity in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) have hampered its deployment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to assess the G6PDd prevalence among 631 children between 6 and 59 months of age in southwestern Uganda, an area where primaquine may be a promising control measure...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Richard Mwaiswelo, Billy Ngasala, Irina Jovel, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Roland Gosling, Zul Premji, Bruno Mmbando, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the addition of a single low-dose of the gametocytocidal drug primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in low transmission settings as a component of pre-elimination or elimination programmes. However, it is unclear whether that influences the ACT cure rate. The study assessed treatment outcome of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) versus standard AL regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania...
2016: Malaria Journal
Mamadou A Diallo, Aida S Badiane, Khadim Diongue, Awa Deme, Naomi W Lucchi, Marie Gaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Louise K Sene, Abdoulaye Diop, Amy Gaye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Diama Samb, Mamadou S Yade, Omar Ndir, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale is rarely described in Senegal. A case of clinical malaria due to P. ovale wallikeri in West Central of Senegal is reported. CASE: A 34-year-old male baker in Dakar, with no significant previous medical history, was admitted to a health clinic with fever and vomiting. Fever had been lasting for 4 days with peaks every 48 h. As monospecific Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 RDT was negative, he was treated with antibiotics. However, owing to persisting symptoms, he was referred to the emergency unit of the Youssou Mbargane Diop Hospital, Dakar, Senegal...
2016: Malaria Journal
Yehenew A Ebstie, Solomon M Abay, Wondmagegn T Tadesse, Dawit A Ejigu
Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Ahmet Özbilgin, İbrahim Çavuş, Ahmet Yıldırım, Cumhur Gündüz
Plasmodium knowlesi is now added to the known four Plasmodium species (P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale) as a cause of malaria in humans because of the recent increasing rate of cases reported from countries of southeastern Asia. P.knowlesi which infects macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and M.nemestrina) is transmitted to humans especially by Anopheles leucosphyrus and An.hackeri mosquitos. First human cases of P.knowlesi malaria have been detected in Malaysia which have reached high numbers in recent years and also have been reported from countries of Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore and Vietnam...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Teresinha C Mesquita, Thamires G O Martin, Eduardo R Alves, Marcia B C Mello, Andreia F Nery, Luciano T Gomes, Cor Jesus F Fontes
Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Eugenie Poirot, Adam Soble, Nyasatu Ntshalintshali, Asen Mwandemele, Nomcebo Mkhonta, Calisile Malambe, Sibonakaliso Vilakati, Sisi Pan, Sarah Darteh, Gugu Maphalala, Joelle Brown, Jimee Hwang, Cheryl Pace, Andy Stergachis, Eric Vittinghoff, Simon Kunene, Roland Gosling
BACKGROUND: Countries remain reluctant to adopt the 2012 World Health Organization recommendation for single low-dose (0.25 mg/kg) primaquine (SLD PQ) for Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking due to concerns over drug-related haemolysis risk, especially among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PDd) people, without evidence demonstrating that it can be safely deployed in their settings. Pharmacovigilance methods provide a systematic way of collecting safety data and supporting the rollout of SLD PQ...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Verena I Carrara, Khin Maung Lwin, Craig A Bonnington, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
Falciparum malaria persists in hard-to-reach areas or demographic groups that are missed by conventional healthcare systems but could be reached by trained community members in a malaria post (MP). The main focus of a MP is to provide uninterrupted and rapid access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) too all inhabitants of a village. RDTs allow trained community members to perform malaria diagnosis accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment, reducing as much as possible any delay between the onset of fever and treatment...
2016: Malaria Journal
Napaporn Kaewpruk, Peerapan Tan-ariya, Stephen A Ward, Naruemon Sitthichot, Nantana Suwandittakul, Mathirut Mungthin
Primaquine (PQ), an 8-aminoquinoline, is considered a tissue schizonticide drug for radical cure in vivax and ovale malaria, with minimal impact on asexual erythrocytic stages at therapeutic concentrations. Tafenoquine (TQ), a new 8-aminoquinoline analog of PQ, is active against both malaria parasite tissue and blood stages and is being promoted as a drug candidate for antimalarial chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis and potential transmission blocking against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. This study compared in vitro sensitivity of Thai P...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Rosalind E Howes, Katherine E Battle, Kamini N Mendis, David L Smith, Richard E Cibulskis, J Kevin Baird, Simon I Hay
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria, putting 2.5 billion people at risk of infection. Its unique biological and epidemiological characteristics pose challenges to control strategies that have been principally targeted against Plasmodium falciparum Unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax infections have typically low blood-stage parasitemia with gametocytes emerging before illness manifests, and dormant liver stages causing relapses. These traits affect both its geographic distribution and transmission patterns...
July 11, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andrea Allgower, W Robert Taylor, François Chappuis, Gilles Eperon
Since 2007, the incidence and mortality of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum have declined. However, this trend has not been seen with Plasmodium vivax which has biological features. Severe vivax malaria is increasingly reported in endemic countries even though P. vivax has been thought of as a benign disease. Diagnosis is challenging: the usual rapid diagnostic tests are less sensitive in detecting P. vivax and there is no test for the detection of the dormant forms (hypnozoites). The treatment of the acute phase is an artemisinin based combination, e...
May 4, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Richard Mwaiswelo, Billy E Ngasala, Irina Jovel, Roland Gosling, Zul Premji, Eugenie Poirot, Bruno P Mmbando, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the safety of the new World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of adding a single low-dose of primaquine (PQ) to standard artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), regardless of individual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status, for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. METHODS: Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged ≥1 year with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomized to either standard artemether-lumefantrine (AL) regimen alone or with a 0...
2016: Malaria Journal
Wahib M Atroosh, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Georges Snounou, Adel Al-Jasari, Hany Sady, Nabil A Nasr, Yee-Ling Lau, Johari Surin
BACKGROUND: In Yemen, artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, which accounts for about 99 % of malaria cases. There is evidence that resistance to SP is increasing, with potential negative impact on efficacy, and in particular on curbing transmission. This study aims: (a) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of AS + SP treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Yemen; (b) to investigate the frequency of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with resistance to AS (Kelch 13 propeller domain, pfK13) and SP (dihydrofolate reductase, pfdhfr, and dihydropteroate synthase, pfdhps); and (c) to assess the adequacy of this ACT to clear gametocytes...
2016: Malaria Journal
Hsiao-Han Chang, Elamaran Meibalan, Justin Zelin, Rachel Daniels, Alice C Eziefula, Evan C Meyer, Fitsum Tadesse, Lynn Grignard, Regina C Joice, Chris Drakeley, Dyann F Wirth, Sarah K Volkman, Caroline Buckee, Teun Bousema, Matthias Marti
Artemisinin resistance is rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) continues to be excellent across Africa. We performed parasite transcriptional profiling and genotyping on samples from an antimalarial treatment trial in Uganda. We used qRT-PCR and genotyping to characterize residual circulating parasite populations after treatment with either ACT or ACT-primaquine. Transcripts suggestive of circulating ring stage parasites were present after treatment at a prevalence of >25% until at least 14 days post initiation of treatment...
2016: Scientific Reports
Benedikt Ley, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Kamala Thriemer, Mohammad Sharif Hossain, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Sarah Auburn, Eugenie Poirot, Ric N Price, Wasif Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: The Bangladeshi national treatment guidelines for uncomplicated malaria follow WHO recommendations but without G6PD testing prior to primaquine administration. A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the efficacy of the current antimalarial policy. METHODS: Patients with uncomplicated malaria, confirmed by microscopy, attending a health care facility in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (days 0-2) plus single dose primaquine (0...
2016: PloS One
Thomas J Peto, Sabine E Kloprogge, Rupam Tripura, Chea Nguon, Nou Sanann, Sovann Yok, Chhouen Heng, Cholrawee Promnarate, Jeremy Chalk, Ngak Song, Sue J Lee, Yoel Lubell, Mehul Dhorda, Mallika Imwong, Nicholas J White, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Treatment of the sub-clinical reservoir of malaria, which may maintain transmission, could be an important component of elimination strategies. The reliable detection of asymptomatic infections with low levels of parasitaemia requires high-volume quantitative polymerase chain reaction (uPCR), which is impractical to conduct on a large scale. It is unknown to what extent sub-clinical parasitaemias originate from recent or older clinical episodes. This study explored the association between clinical history of malaria and subsequent sub-clinical parasitaemia...
2016: Malaria Journal
Joachim Richter, Gabriele Franken, Martha C Holtfreter, Susanne Walter, Alfons Labisch, Heinz Mehlhorn
Malaria recurrences after an initially successful therapy and malarial fever occurring a long time after infection are well-known problems in malariology. Currently, two distinct types of malaria recurrences are defined: recrudescence and relapse. A recrudescence is thought to originate from circulating Plasmodium blood stages which do not cause fever before a certain level of a microscopically detectable parasitemia is reached. Contrary, a relapse is thought to originate from quiescent intracellular hepatic parasite stages called hypnozoites...
June 2016: Parasitology Research
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