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primaquine falciparum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533239/plasmodium-falciparum-and-p-vivax-demonstrate-contrasting-chloroquine-resistance-reversal-phenotypes
#1
Grennady Wirjanata, Irene Handayuni, Pak Prayoga, Leo Leonardo, Dwi Apriyanti, Leily Trianty, Ruland Wandosa, Basbak Gobay, Enny Kenangalem, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Rintis Noviyanti, Dennis E Kyle, Qin Cheng, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt
High-grade chloroquine (CQ) resistance has emerged in both P. falciparum and P. vivax The aim of the present study was to investigate phenotypic differences of CQ resistance in both of these species and the ability of known CQ resistance reversal agents (CQRRAs) to alter CQ susceptibility.Between April 2015 and April 2016, the potential of verapamil (VP), mibefradil (MF), L703,606 (L7), and primaquine (PQ) to reverse CQ resistance was assessed in 46 P. falciparum and 34 P. vivax clinical isolates in Papua, Indonesia, where CQ resistance is present in both species, using a modified schizont maturation assay...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510573/comparison-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-chloroquine-with-and-without-primaquine-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-in-ethiopia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Tesfay Abreha, Jimee Hwang, Kamala Thriemer, Yehualashet Tadesse, Samuel Girma, Zenebe Melaku, Ashenafi Assef, Moges Kassa, Mark D Chatfield, Keren Z Landman, Stella M Chenet, Naomi W Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Zhiyong Zhou, Ya Ping Shi, S Patrick Kachur, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Hiwot Solomon, Addis Mekasha, Bereket Hailegiorgis Alemayehu, Joseph L Malone, Gunewardena Dissanayake, Hiwot Teka, Sarah Auburn, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts in malaria control have resulted in great gains in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, but P. vivax has been more refractory. Its ability to form dormant liver stages confounds control and elimination efforts. To compare the efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens for radical cure, we undertook a randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status with symptomatic P...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460016/physicians-compliance-with-the-national-drug-policy-on-malaria-in-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-india-from-2010-to-2015-a-mixed-method-study
#3
Soundappan Kathirvel, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Zaw Myo Tun, Binod Kumar Patro, Tarundeep Singh, Ashish Bhalla, Mahesh Devnani, Ewan Wilkinson
Background: National drug policies are formulated to encourage rational use of drugs and to reduce drug resistance. This study assessed physicians' compliance with the National Drug Policy on Malaria at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: This mixed method study extracted data from adult malaria inpatient records of the hospital from 2010-2015, and assessed drug supply at pharmacies. Physicians' practices and perspectives were explored by in-depth interviews...
February 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450185/prophylactic-efficacy-of-primaquine-for-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-in-travelers-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Goodarz Kolifarhood, Ahmad Raeisi, Mansour Ranjbar, Ali Akbar Haghdoust, Allan Schapira, Saeed Hashemi, Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Hossein Mozafar Sadati, Sara Azimi, Nasim Khosravi, Anatoly Kondrashin
BACKGROUND: With increased international travel over the world the need for safe and effective chemoprophylaxis for malaria is as great as ever. The choice of regimen is difficult, as effectiveness should be weighted against potential adverse effects. Although, some studies have reported high prophylactic efficacy of primaquine, there is no comprehensive evidence comparing its prophylactic effectiveness as well as toxicity. To fill the gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out...
April 24, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438137/case-report-of-plasmodium-ovale-curtisi-malaria-in-sri-lanka-relevance-for-the-maintenance-of-elimination-status
#5
Sharmini Gunawardena, Rachel F Daniels, Thishan C Yahathugoda, Mirani V Weerasooriya, Katelyn Durfee, Sarah K Volkman, Dyann F Wirth, Nadira D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Following its recent certification as malaria-free, imported infections now pose the greatest threat for maintaining this status in Sri Lanka. Imported infections may also introduce species that are uncommon or not previously endemic to these areas. We highlight in this case report the increasing importance of less common malaria species such as Plasmodium ovale in elimination settings and discuss its relevance for the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old patient from southern Sri Lanka was diagnosed with malaria after 8 days of fever...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#6
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356147/genotypic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-g6pd-deficiency-in-bengali-adults-with-severe-and-uncomplicated-malaria
#7
Katherine Plewes, Ingfar Soontarawirat, Aniruddha Ghose, Germana Bancone, Hugh W F Kingston, M Trent Herdman, Stije J Leopold, Haruhiko Ishioka, Md Abul Faiz, Nicholas M Anstey, Nicholas P J Day, Md Amir Hossain, Mallika Imwong, Arjen M Dondorp, Charles J Woodrow
BACKGROUND: Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Few data on the prevalence and genotypic basis of G6PD deficiency are available from Bangladesh, where malaria remains a major problem in the South (Chittagong Division). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and associated G6PD genotypes, in adults with falciparum malaria in southern Bangladesh...
March 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319724/interactions-between-tafenoquine-and-artemisinin-combination-therapy-partner-drug-in-asexual-and-sexual-stage-plasmodium-falciparum
#8
Karen Kemirembe, Mynthia Cabrera, Liwang Cui
The 8-aminoquinoline tafenoquine (TFQ), a primaquine derivative, is currently in late-stage clinical development for the radical cure of P. vivax. Here drug interactions between TFQ and chloroquine and six artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) partner drugs in P. falciparum asexual stages and gametocytes were investigated. TFQ was mostly synergistic with the ACT-partner drugs in asexual parasites regardless of genetic backgrounds. However, at fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1, TFQ only interacted synergistically with naphthoquine, pyronaridine and piperaquine in gametocytes...
March 11, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289025/age-weight-and-cyp2d6-genotype-are-major-determinants-of-primaquine-pharmacokinetics-in-african-children
#9
Bronner P Gonçalves, Helmi Pett, Alfred B Tiono, Daryl Murry, Sodiomon B Sirima, Mikko Niemi, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Rob Ter Heine
Low-dose primaquine is recommended to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance and areas aiming for malaria elimination. Community treatment campaigns with artemisinin-based combination therapy in combination with the gametocytocidal primaquine dose target all age groups, but no studies thus far have assessed the pharmacokinetics of this gametocytocidal drug in African children. We recruited 40 children participating in a primaquine efficacy trial in Burkina Faso to study primaquine pharmacokinetics...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264678/passive-case-detection-of-malaria-in-ratanakiri-province-cambodia-to-detect-villages-at-higher-risk-for-malaria
#10
Somony Heng, Lies Durnez, Sokny Mao, Sovannaroth Siv, Sochantha Tho, Vanna Mean, Vincent Sluydts, Marc Coosemans
BACKGROUND: Cambodia reduced malaria incidence by more than 75% between 2000 and 2015, a target of the Millennium Development Goal 6. The Cambodian Government aims to eliminate all forms of malaria by 2025. The country's malaria incidence is highly variable at provincial level, but less is known at village level. This study used passive case detection (PCD) data at village level in Ratanakiri Province from 2010 to 2014 to describe incidence trends and identify high-risk areas of malaria to be primarily targeted towards malaria elimination...
March 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#11
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
May 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025283/costs-and-cost-effectiveness-of-plasmodium-vivax-control
#12
REVIEW
Michael T White, Shunmay Yeung, Edith Patouillard, Richard Cibulskis
The continued success of efforts to reduce the global malaria burden will require sustained funding for interventions specifically targeting Plasmodium vivax The optimal use of limited financial resources necessitates cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for diagnosing and treating P. vivax and vector control tools. Herein, we review the existing published evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for controlling P. vivax, identifying nine studies focused on diagnosis and treatment and seven studies focused on vector control...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825738/the-gametocytocidal-efficacy-of-different-single-doses-of-primaquine-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers-in-the-gambia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Joseph Okebe, Teun Bousema, Muna Affara, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Edgard Dabira, Abdoulaye Gaye, Frank Sanya-Isijola, Henry Badji, Simon Correa, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Chris Drakeley, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic low-density gametocyte carriers represent the majority of malaria-infected individuals. However, the impact of recommended treatment with single low dose of primaquine and an artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce transmission in this group is unknown. METHODS: This was a four-arm, open label, randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) alone or combined with single dose of primaquine (PQ) at 0...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821127/treatment-seeking-behaviour-and-associated-costs-for-malaria-in-papua-indonesia
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Muhammad Karyana, Angela Devine, Enny Kenangalem, Lenny Burdarm, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Ram Vemuri, Nicholas M Anstey, Emiliana Tjitra, Ric N Price, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Eastern Indonesia, where multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to describe treatment-seeking behaviour and household costs prior to a change to a unified treatment policy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Mimika district, Papua province in 2006. METHODS: In 2005 a randomized cross-sectional household survey was conducted to collect data on demographics, socio-economic status (SES), treatment-seeking, case management, and household costs...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799639/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-peru
#15
Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Dionicia Gamboa, Paulo Manrique, Jan E Conn, Marta Moreno, Andres G Lescano, Juan F Sanchez, Hugo Rodriguez, Hermann Silva, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799636/implications-of-plasmodium-vivax-biology-for-control-elimination-and-research
#16
Piero L Olliaro, John W Barnwell, Alyssa Barry, Kamini Mendis, Ivo Mueller, John C Reeder, G Dennis Shanks, Georges Snounou, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784313/an-optimised-age-based-dosing-regimen-for-single-low-dose-primaquine-for-blocking-malaria-transmission-in-cambodia
#17
Rithea Leang, Naw Htee Khu, Mavuto Mukaka, Mark Debackere, Rupam Tripura, Soy Ty Kheang, Say Chy, Neeraj Kak, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Didier Menard, Arantxa Roca-Felterer, Rick M Fairhurst, Sim Kheng, Sinoun Muth, Song Ngak, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Walter Robert John Taylor
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended the addition of single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, 0.25 mg base/kg body weight) to artemisinin combination therapies to block the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum without testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The targeted group was non-pregnant patients aged ≥ 1 year (later changed to ≥ 6 months) with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, primarily in countries with artemisinin-resistant P...
October 27, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731362/a-humanized-mouse-model-for-sequestration-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sexual-stages-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-gametocytidal-drugs
#18
Yoann Duffier, Audrey Lorthiois, Pau Cisteró, Florian Dupuy, Grégory Jouvion, Laurence Fiette, Dominique Mazier, Alfredo Mayor, Catherine Lavazec, Alicia Moreno Sabater
The development of new drugs to disrupt malaria transmission requires the establishment of an in vivo model to address the biology of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages (gametocytes). Herein we show that chemically immune-modulated NSG mice grafted with human erythrocytes support complete sexual development of P. falciparum parasites and generate high gametocytemia. Immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR analyses indicate an enrichment of immature gametocytes in the bone marrow and the spleen, suggesting a sequestration mechanism reminiscent to that observed in humans...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708189/epidemiology-and-control-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-afghanistan
#19
Toby Leslie, Sami Nahzat, Walid Sediqi
Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708185/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-indonesia
#20
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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