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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9344693/mucosal-tolerance-a-two-edged-sword-to-prevent-and-treat-autoimmune-diseases
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B G Xiao, H Link
Mucosal administration of autoantigens results in the development of a state of peripheral immunological tolerance. Depending upon the dose of antigen administered, anergy/deletion of antigen-specific T cells (higher doses) and/or selective expansion of cells producing immunosuppressive cytokines (TGF-beta, IL-4, and IL-10) (lower doses) are two major mechanisms in mucosal tolerance induction. Mucosal tolerance is more effective after nasal compared to oral administration of antigens at the same dose. A large series of studies have demonstrated that mucosal tolerance by oral or nasal antigen administration effectively prevents several experimental disease models (EAE, EAMG, EAN, EAU, IDDM, and CIA)...
November 1997: Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology
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