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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453006/illicit-and-prescription-drug-misuse-as-reported-to-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#1
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444626/experiences-of-intimate-partner-violence-victims-with-police-and-the-justice-system-in-canada
#2
Michael D Saxton, Laura Olszowy, Jennifer C D MacGregor, Barbara J MacQuarrie, C Nadine Wathen
Legal responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) can determine whether and how those exposed to IPV seek help. Understanding the victim's perspective is essential to developing policy and practice standards, as well as informing professionals working in policing and the justice system. In this survey study, we utilized a subset of 2,831 people who reported experiencing IPV to examine (a) rates of reporting to the police; (b) experiences with, and perceived helpfulness of, police; (c) rates of involvement with the criminal and family law systems, including protection orders; and (d) experiences with, and perceived helpfulness of, the justice system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439939/need-for-gender-sensitive-health-system-responses-to-violence-against-women-and-children
#3
Adsa Fatima, Aarthi Chandrasekhar, Amita Pitre
Five years since Nirbhaya, and nearly as long since the Justice Verma Committee Report, amendments to the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013, and the National guidelines and protocols on medico-legal care for survivors of sexual violence by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) 2014, we, concerned individuals, women's groups, health organisations, ethicists, and academicians, urgently demand the attention of the central and state governments - to the continuing injustice, violations and discrimination against survivors of gender-based violence (GBV)...
January 18, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437240/comparison-of-characteristics-of-female-drivers-with-single-and-multiple-dui-convictions
#4
Annah K Bender, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Vivia V McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Women are increasingly involved in drunk driving and fatal crashes, yet except for the screening performed in criminal justice settings, little is known about their life context, psychiatric histories, and family backgrounds. This study describes a sample of women with histories of arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) who were interviewed outside a criminal justice setting and contrasts women with single versus multiple DUI convictions. METHODS: Women with recent documented histories of DUI participated in a study of women's health behaviors...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433977/high-neighborhood-incarceration-rate-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-disease-in-nonincarcerated-black-individuals
#5
Matthew L Topel, Heval M Kelli, Tené T Lewis, Sandra B Dunbar, Viola Vaccarino, Herman A Taylor, Arshed A Quyyumi
PURPOSE: To examine the association between residence in neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration and cardiometabolic disease among nonincarcerated individuals. METHODS: We used data from two community cohort studies (n = 1368) in Atlanta, Georgia-META-Health and Predictive Health (2005-2012)-to assess the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and cardiometabolic disease, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood-level factors. We also examined the interaction between race and neighborhood incarceration rate...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428813/gaging-the-impact-of-multiple-substance-use-on-community-corrections-involvement
#6
C Brendan Clark, Jeffrey A Swails, Karen A Akao, Heidi M Pontinen, Karen L Cropsey
Historically, research has demonstrated that multiple substance use, compared to single substance use, poses additional challenges for treatment throughout the continuum of care including referrals, interventions, and relapse prevention. However, it appears that this pattern cannot be easily generalized to all criminal justice settings as evidenced by mixed findings across criminal justice samples. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible differences in legal and substance-related outcomes between multiple substance users and single substance users within a community corrections sample...
February 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427705/dismantling-the-justice-silos-flowcharting-the-role-and-expertise-of-forensic-science-forensic-medicine-and-allied-health-in-adult-sexual-assault-investigations
#7
Sally F Kelty, Roberta Julian, Eva Bruenisholz, Linzi Wilson-Wilde
Forensic science is increasingly used to help exonerate the innocent and establishing links between individuals and criminal activities. With increased reliance on scientific services provided by multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational in the private and government sectors (health, justice, legal, police) practitioners, the potential for miscommunication resulting unjust outcomes increases. The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational information sharing is to prevent the 'justice silo effect'; where practitioners from different organisations operate in isolation with minimal or no interaction...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420448/the-interaction-of-sexual-validation-criminal-justice-involvement-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-risk-among-adolescent-and-young-adult-males
#8
Pamela A Matson, Vivian Towe, Jonathan M Ellen, Shang-En Chung, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Young men who have been involved with the criminal justice system are more likely to have concurrent sexual partners, a key driver of sexually transmitted infections. The value men place on having sexual relationships to validate themselves may play an important role in understanding this association. METHODS: Data were from a household survey. Young men (N = 132), aged 16 to 24 years, self-reported whether they ever spent time in jail or juvenile detention and if they had sexual partnerships that overlapped in time...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417659/ethical-challenges-to-research-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#9
Penelope Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415846/associations-between-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-dependence-and-clinical-and-criminal-justice-outcomes-among-adults-with-co-occurring-serious-mental-illness
#10
Allison G Robertson, Michele M Easter, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Linda K Frisman, Jeffrey W Swanson, Marvin S Swartz
Adults suffering from a serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder are at especially high risk for poor clinical outcomes and also arrest and incarceration. Pharmacotherapies for treating opioid dependence could be a particularly important mode of treatment for opioid-dependent adults with SMI to lower their risk for overdose, high-cost hospitalizations, repeated emergency department visits, and incarceration, given relapse rates are very high following detoxification in the absence of one of the three FDA-approved pharmacotherapies...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414488/examining-social-supply-among-nonmedical-prescription-stimulant-users-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#11
Fiona Murphy, Sheigla Murphy, Paloma Sales, Nicholas Lau
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408721/fit-for-purpose-quality-management-system-for-military-forensic-exploitation
#12
Lauren Elizabeth Wilson, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, James Robertson, Chris Lennard
In a previous publication we described a systems approach to forensic science applied in the military domain. The forensic science 'system of systems' describes forensic science as a sub-system in the larger criminal justice, law enforcement, intelligence, and military systems, with quality management being an important supporting system. Quality management systems help to ensure that organisations achieve their objective and continually improve their capability. Components of forensic science quality management systems can include standardisation of processes, accreditation of facilities to national/international standards, and certification of personnel...
January 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396985/extended-release-injectable-naltrexone-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Shrinidhi Subramaniam, D Andrew Tompkins, Emmanuel A Oga, George E Bigelow, Kenneth Silverman
AIMS: To review systematically the published literature on extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol®), marketed as a once-per-month injection product to treat opioid use disorder. We addressed the following questions: (1) How successful is induction on XR-NTX?; (2) What are adherence rates to XR-NTX?; and (3) Does XR-NTX decrease opioid use? Factors associated with these outcomes as well as overdose rates were examined. METHODS: We searched PubMed and used Google Scholar for forward citation searches of peer-reviewed articles from January 2006 to June 2017...
February 3, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389161/the-role-of-estimator-variables-in-eyewitness-identification
#14
Carolyn Semmler, John Dunn, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Estimator variables are factors that can affect the accuracy of eyewitness identifications but that are outside of the control of the criminal justice system. Examples include (1) the duration of exposure to the perpetrator, (2) the passage of time between the crime and the identification (retention interval), (3) the distance between the witness and the perpetrator at the time of the crime. Suboptimal estimator variables (e.g., long distance) have long been thought to reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications (IDs), but recent evidence suggests that this is not true of IDs made with high confidence and may or may not be true of IDs made with lower confidence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385958/mental-health-providers-attitudes-about-criminal-justice-involved-clients-with-serious-mental-illness
#15
Sachini N Bandara, Gail L Daumit, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Sarah Linden, Seema Choksy, Emma E McGinty
OBJECTIVE: Community mental health providers' attitudes toward criminal justice-involved clients with serious mental illness were examined. METHODS: A total of 627 Maryland psychiatric rehabilitation program providers responded to a survey (83% response rate). Measures assessed providers' experience with, positive regard for, and perceptions of similarity, with their clients with serious mental illness. Chi-square tests were used to compare providers' attitudes toward clients with and without criminal justice involvement...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381106/medical-evidence-and-proof-of-cause-of-death-in-nigerian-courts
#16
John Oladapo Obafunwa, Oluwatomi Ajayi, Mathias I Okoye
Medical evidence has continued to be given and evaluated in Nigerian courts since Nigeria's independence from Britain. The attitudes of the courts have been largely varied against a background of the individual judge's appreciation of forensic science and who should be considered an expert witness. The prosecution and defence lawyers equally display limited knowledge of forensic science. This paper reviews some of the decided cases, the reasons for the verdicts, forensic concerns and recommendations for the improvement of the criminal justice system...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376122/the-accuracy-fairness-and-limits-of-predicting-recidivism
#17
Julia Dressel, Hany Farid
Algorithms for predicting recidivism are commonly used to assess a criminal defendant's likelihood of committing a crime. These predictions are used in pretrial, parole, and sentencing decisions. Proponents of these systems argue that big data and advanced machine learning make these analyses more accurate and less biased than humans. We show, however, that the widely used commercial risk assessment software COMPAS is no more accurate or fair than predictions made by people with little or no criminal justice expertise...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368239/ethical-legal-and-forensic-issues-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#18
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Juan Young, Silpa Balachandran, Dhweeja Dasarathy, Deena Tampi
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To evaluate the ethical, legal and forensic issues that is faced by the older adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Many older individuals will face a host of ethical, medical and legal issues associated with their care. Most prominent among these issues are the maintenance of autonomy while ensuring their safety and the safety of individuals who care for them. Decisions regarding end of life including the formulation of advance directives add to the complexity of care for these older adults...
January 25, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367098/developing-a-tailored-substance-use-intervention-for-youth-exiting-foster-care
#19
Jordan M Braciszewski, Golfo K Tzilos Wernette, Roland S Moore, Tanya B Tran, Beth C Bock, Robert L Stout, Patricia Chamberlain, Adam Vose-O'Neal
Youth who are aging out of the foster care system face significant barriers to accessing substance use treatment. Mobile interventions have shown efficacy for several mental and physical health issues and may be helpful in overcoming barriers facing foster youth with substance use problems. A program (iHeLP) for substance use reduction was developed that used a computerized screening and brief intervention (SBI) followed by six months of dynamically-tailored text messages. The program was shown to focus groups of youth (N = 24) ages 18-19 who recently left foster care and had moderate to severe substance use risk...
January 19, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363384/analysis-of-dental-injuries-with-clinical-implications-a-forensic-case-report
#20
Si-Lei Tan, Shu-Ya Peng, Lei Wan, Jie-Min Chen, Wen-Tao Xia
Dental injuries, especially of the incisors, caused by punches in violent criminal attacks could be seen in daily forensic casework involving the identification of injuries to a living body. Sometimes, when there is neither circumstantial evidence nor information about the surrounding circumstances, it is difficult to discern the cause of these injuries and the manner in which they were inflicted. As an example of clinical forensic medicine, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman whose teeth were injured when fighting with her son-in-law over household affairs with no witnesses present...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
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