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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650187/disentangling-the-risk-assessment-and-intimate-partner-violence-relation-estimating-mediating-and-moderating-effects
#1
Kirk R Williams, Richard Stansfield
To manage intimate partner violence (IPV), the criminal justice system has turned to risk assessment instruments to predict if a perpetrator will reoffend. Empirically determining whether offenders assessed as high risk are those who recidivate is critical for establishing the predictive validity of IPV risk assessment instruments and for guiding the supervision of perpetrators. But by focusing solely on the relation between calculated risk scores and subsequent IPV recidivism, previous studies of the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments omitted mediating factors intended to mitigate the risk of this behavioral recidivism...
June 26, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649215/does-watching-a-play-about-the-teenage-brain-affect-attitudes-toward-young-offenders
#2
Robert Blakey
Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643049/clozapine-in-reducing-aggression-and-violence-in-forensic-populations
#3
REVIEW
Kathleen Patchan, Gopal Vyas, Ann L Hackman, Marie Mackowick, Charles M Richardson, Raymond C Love, Ikwunga Wonodi, MacKenzie A Sayer, Matthew Glassman, Stephanie Feldman, Deanna L Kelly
Popular media often portray people with a mental illness as being aggressive, violent, and incarcerated as a result of their behavior. Despite exaggeration in the media, risks for some aggressive behaviors are in fact higher in individuals with schizophrenia. This is often the case with influence of comorbid substance use disorders. It is essential that mental health professionals are aware of treatments that may help with attenuating and treating behaviors that contribute to violence, aggression and incarceration...
June 22, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641592/conceptualizations-of-the-societal-perspective-within-economic-evaluations-a-systematic-review
#4
Ruben M W A Drost, Ingeborg M van der Putten, Dirk Ruwaard, Silvia M A A Evers, Aggie T G Paulus
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate how the societal perspective is conceptualized in economic evaluations and to assess how intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs), that is, the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the healthcare sector, impact their results. METHODS: Based on a search in July 2015 using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO, a systematic literature review was performed for economic evaluations which were conducted from a societal perspective...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640686/prevalence-of-financial-fraud-and-scams-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
David Burnes, Charles R Henderson, Christine Sheppard, Rebecca Zhao, Karl Pillemer, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639710/exploring-the-use-of-drug-trend-data-in-the-regional-alcohol-and-other-drug-workforce
#6
Matthew Dunn, Richard Henshaw
OBJECTIVE: Drug trend data can inform appropriate policies to minimise drug-related harm, as well as assist in early detection and prevention. While Australia has a number of monitoring systems, none operate in regional areas. The aim of this study was to explore how drug trend and other data are used by the regional alcohol and other drug workforce. METHOD: Twenty-one key experts from regional Queensland were interviewed between November 2014 and August 2015. Key experts worked in or had contact with the broader alcohol and other drugs (AOD) field in the Darling Downs area of Queensland...
June 22, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637202/adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-and-criminal-recidivism-in-a-canadian-provincial-offender-population
#7
Stefanie N Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Seena Fazel, Lawrence McCandless, Julian M Somers
Preliminary evidence suggests that adherence to antipsychotic medication reduces criminal recidivism among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, existing studies operationalize antipsychotic adherence as a binary variable (usually using a threshold of ≥80%), which does not reflect the prevalence of suboptimal adherence in real-world settings. The purpose of the current analysis was to investigate the association between successive ordinal levels of antipsychotic adherence and criminal recidivism in a well-defined sample of offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 11462)...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637141/misconceptions-about-traumatic-brain-injury-among-probation-services
#8
Conall O'Rourke, Mark A Linden, Maria Lohan
PURPOSE: The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among offender populations is significantly higher than among the general population. Despite this, no study has yet assessed the knowledge of members of the probation service surrounding TBI. METHOD: Knowledge was assessed among members of the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI) using a cross-sectional online version of the Common Misconceptions about TBI (CM-TBI) questionnaire. Mean total misconception scores, along with scores on four subdomains (recovery, sequelae, insight, and hidden injury) were calculated...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635521/assessment-of-an-innovative-voluntary-substance-abuse-treatment-program-designed-to-replace-compulsory-drug-detention-centers-in-malaysia
#9
Farrah Khan, Archana Krishnan, Mansur A Ghani, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Jeannia J Fu, Sin How Lim, Sangeeth Kaur Dhaliwal, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services. OBJECTIVES:   We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan...
February 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635353/a-systematic-review-of-supported-accommodation-programs-for-people-released-from-custody
#10
Bethany Growns, Stuart A Kinner, Elizabeth Conroy, Eileen Baldry, Sarah Larney
One of the challenges that people recently released from custody face is securing housing. Many individuals rely on supported accommodation programs for housing in the immediate post-release period. However, the value of supported accommodation programs in producing positive criminal justice and health outcomes for people released from custody has not been widely examined. This article reviews the current literature on supported accommodation programs and the elements of these services that contribute to positive outcomes for individuals released from custody...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630557/international-guidelines-on-human-rights-and-drug-control-a-tool-for-securing-women-s-rights-in-drug-control-policy
#11
Rebecca Schleifer, Luciana Pol
Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630556/how-drug-control-policy-and-practice-undermine-access-to-controlled-medicines
#12
Naomi Burke-Shyne, Joanne Csete, Duncan Wilson, Edward Fox, Daniel Wolfe, Jennifer J K Rasanathan
Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625876/mental-health-in-zimbabwe-a-health-systems-analysis
#13
Khameer Kidia, Debra Machando, Walter Mangezi, Reuben Hendler, Megan Crooks, Melanie Abas, Dixon Chibanda, Graham Thornicroft, Maya Semrau, Helen Jack
There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619861/geriatrics-and-the-legal-system
#14
Stephanie C Yarnell, Paul D Kirwin, Howard V Zonana
Correctional systems, already struggling to meet the basic and functional requirements of older prisoners, will be further challenged by the increasing medical and psychiatric needs of this population. Mental health and general medical care for older adults requires specific on-site or consultation expertise in geriatric medicine and psychiatry, as well as potential changes in infrastructure, both of which may be prohibitively expensive. However, compassionate and effective treatment of older prisoners requires that prison and legal systems facilitate this expert care...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616441/is-firearm-threat-in-intimate-relationships-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-women
#15
Tami P Sullivan, Nicole H Weiss
In the context of intimate partner violence (IPV), firearms may be used to threaten, coerce, and intimidate. Yet, what little research exists on firearms among IPV victims has focused almost exclusively on homicide or near homicide. Thus, the deleterious health consequences of firearms more broadly remain unknown. The goals of the current study were (1) to document the prevalence of firearm threat in a community sample of female IPV victims, and (2) to identify the extent to which threat with a firearm, independent of other forms of IPV, is related to women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity...
June 1, 2017: Violence and Gender
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612397/understanding-and-treating-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness-in-public-sector-mental-health
#16
H Richard Lamb, Linda E Weinberger
This article begins with the history of the rise and fall of the state hospitals and subsequent criminalization of persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Currently, there is a belief among many that incarceration has not been as successful as hoped in reducing crime and drug use, both for those with and those without SMI. Moreover, overcrowding in correctional facilities has become a serious problem necessitating a solution. Consequently, persons with SMI in the criminal justice system are now being released in large numbers to the community and hopefully treated by public sector mental health...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610602/associations-of-criminal-justice-and-substance-use-treatment-involvement-with-hiv-hcv-testing-and-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-oakland-california
#17
Barrot H Lambdin, Alex H Kral, Megan Comfort, Andrea M Lopez, Jennifer Lorvick
BACKGROUND: People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior...
June 14, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605243/intimate-partner-violence-and-its-resolution-among-mexican-americans
#18
Deborah Finfgeld-Connett
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects the mental and physical health of Mexican women in the United States, and culture is thought to play a role in its prevention and resolution. Qualitative investigations are ideal for explicating context-specific aspects of these phenomena. Thus, a systematic review of 19 primary qualitative research reports was conducted to clearly articulate the process of IPV and its resolution among Mexican American women. Based on the findings, IPV is fueled by aspects of Mexican culture, and barriers exist that make its resolution challenging...
June 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604426/incarceration-sexual-risk-related-behaviors-and-hiv-infection-among-women-at-increased-risk-of-hiv-infection-20-united-states-cities
#19
Akilah Wise, Teresa Finlayson, Lina Nerlander, Catlainn Sionean, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
BACKGROUND: Women involved in the criminal justice system experience multiple risk factors that increase the likelihood of acquiring HIV infection. We evaluated the prevalence of incarceration and compared behaviors among women with and without an incarceration history. METHODS: We use the 2013 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, which uses respondent-driven sampling. We evaluate the association between incarceration and the following past 12 months outcomes: exchange sex, multiple casual sex partners (≥3), multiple condomless sex partners (≥3), HIV test, and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603825/the-profile-of-drug-users-in-tunisia-implications-for-prevention
#20
Rim Sellami, Ines Feki, Abdelmajid Zahaf, Jawaher Masmoudi
BACKGROUND: Despite cultural, religious, and legal constraints on Muslims against the consumption of drugs, usage and misuse do exist. Drug addiction in Tunisia is a wide-spread problem and is destroying the lives of many individuals and families. AIMS: To examine the socio-demographic characteristics of substance users and to identify the drugs commonly used. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the addiction treatment center ''Aide et Ecoute'' in the period from January 2014 to September 2014 formed the sample of the present study...
August 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
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