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Criminal justice

Catherine A Grodensky, David L Rosen, Colleen M Blue, Anna R Miller, Steve Bradley-Bull, Wizdom A Powell, Marisa E Domino, Carol E Golin, David A Wohl
Prison inmates suffer from a heavy burden of physical and mental health problems and have considerable need for healthcare and coverage after prison release. The Affordable Care Act may have increased Medicaid access for some of those who need coverage in Medicaid expansion states, but inmates in non-expansion states still have high need for Medicaid coverage and face unique barriers to enrollment. We sought to explore barriers and facilitators to Medicaid enrollment among prison inmates in a non-expansion state...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule fentanyl-related substances that are not currently listed in any schedule of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and their isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers in schedule I. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of these synthetic opioids in schedule I is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle fentanyl-related substances...
February 6, 2018: Federal Register
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule seven fentanyl-related substances in schedule I. These seven substances are: N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpentanamide (valeryl fentanyl), N-(4-fluorophenyl)N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)butyramide (para-fluorobutyryl fentanyl), N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)butyramide (para-methoxybutyryl fentanyl), N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (para-chloroisobutyryl fentanyl), N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylisobutyramide (isobutyryl fentanyl), N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylcyclopentanecarboxamide (cyclopentyl fentanyl), and N-(2- fluorophenyl)-2-methoxy-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)acetamide (ocfentanil)...
February 1, 2018: Federal Register
Shannon McConville, Alyssa C Mooney, Brie A Williams, Renee Y Hsia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide data on all ED encounters in 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants included 3 757 870 non-elderly adult ED patients who made at least one ED visit in 2014...
June 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Alyssa C Mooney, Eric Giannella, M Maria Glymour, Torsten B Neilands, Meghan D Morris, Jacqueline Tulsky, May Sudhinaraset
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of California Proposition 47, which reclassified felony drug offenses to misdemeanors in 2014, on racial/ethnic disparities in drug arrests. METHODS: Using data on all drug arrests made in California from 2011 to 2016, we compared racial/ethnic disparities in drug arrests between Whites, Blacks, and Latinos, immediately and 1 year after policy changes, controlling for secular and seasonal trends. RESULTS: In the month following passage, absolute Black-White disparities in monthly felony drug arrests decreased from 81 to 44 per 100 000 and continued to decrease over time...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Natalie Bonfine, Christian Ritter, Jennifer L S Teller, Mark R Munetz
OBJECTIVE: Mental health courts and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) are tools to help people with serious mental illness engage in treatment and avoid or reduce institutionalization. As both programs become increasingly prevalent, questions remain about whether people with severe mental illness who receive AOT have the same characteristics, histories, and service needs as those who participate in mental health courts. If there are differences, each program may require assessments and interventions tailored to the specific characteristics and needs of participants...
June 20, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Catriona Connell, Vivek Furtado, Elizabeth A McKay, Swaran P Singh
BACKGROUND: Personality disorder is highly prevalent in offender populations and is associated with poor health, criminal justice, and social outcomes. Research has been conducted into factors that influence offending and health, but, in order to improve (re)habilitation, service providers must also be able to identify the variables associated with social outcomes and the mechanisms by which they operate. AIM: To establish what is known about what influences social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder...
June 19, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Carolyn S Dewa, Desmond Loong, Austin Trujillo, Sarah Bonato
PURPOSE: People with mental illnesses are at a significantly greater risk of police arrest than the general population. This pattern of arrests has been associated with a phenomenon referred to as the criminalization of mental illness such that people with mental illnesses are inappropriately diverted to the criminal justice system rather than to treatment. To decrease arrests of people with mental illnesses experiencing a crisis, pre-booking diversion programs have been developed to intervene at the point of police contact...
2018: PloS One
Shufang Sun, Natasha Crooks, Rebecca Kemnitz, Ryan P Westergaard
RATIONALE: Both the HIV epidemic and incarceration disproportionately affect Black men in the United States. A critical period for incarcerated Black men living with HIV/AIDS is re-entry into the community, which is often associated with adverse health outcomes. Additionally, Black men living with HIV/AIDS involved in the criminal justice system are burdened by multiple, intersecting disadvantaged identities and social positions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine community re-entry experiences among Black men living with HIV/AIDS from an intersectional perspective...
June 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Michael O Maume, Christina Lanier, Kristen DeVall
Despite the enormous resources spent by states in the United States on bridging the gap between criminal justice and behavioral health services, there have been relatively few statewide evaluations of drug treatment client recidivism. We present the results of an evaluation of recidivism outcomes for a sample of individuals ( n = 1,274) referred to the Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC) program in North Carolina from 2007 to 2008. The methodology accounted for both client and offense characteristics drawn from TASC, court, and corrections records...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
David Polizzi
Regardless the specific theoretical perspective, all ethical formulations for criminal justice practice in some way construct the ontological character of the offender, which, in turn, situates both epistemology and method. How this ethical process ultimately constructs the offender will likely help to establish the degree of ethical worth such an individual is deemed worthy to receive. Whether based upon the seriousness of the crime or based upon the specific configuration of the architecture of incarceration, the very possibility of legitimate ethical practice is greatly compromised...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Kaitlin Guston, Elizabeth Combs, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio, Norman Hoffmann
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been observed in a sizable proportion of the U.S. adult correctional population. Jail administrators must pay particularly close attention to inmates with PTSD symptoms, considering these facilities serve as the gateway to the criminal justice system and inmates with PTSD may pose a risk to themselves, other inmates, and staff. The reality of conducting behavioral health assessments in a jail environment is wrought with significant challenges, including limited time...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Miriam Lindner
One of the most consistent findings in the domain of criminal justice is that female and male offenders are perceived differently, often resulting in milder sentencing of women compared to men. Although previous studies have sought to identify factors that shape public reactions to terrorism and support for harsh interrogation techniques in its aftermath, empirical studies on differential reactions to female (vs. male) terrorist violence remain scarce. Here, it is argued that the often-violent evolutionary history of our species has shaped the way in which we perceive and react to female (vs...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
David Shackleton, Jenny Pagram, Lesley Ives, Des Vanhinsbergh
The RapidHIT™ 200 System is a fully automated sample-to-DNA profile system designed to produce high quality DNA profiles within 2h. The use of RapidHIT™ 200 System within the United Kingdom Criminal Justice System (UKCJS) has required extensive development and validation of methods with a focus on AmpFℓSTR® NGMSElect™ Express PCR kit to comply with specific regulations for loading to the UK National DNA Database (NDNAD). These studies have been carried out using single source reference samples to simulate live reference samples taken from arrestees and victims for elimination...
June 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lia N Pizzicato, Rebecca Drake, Reed Domer-Shank, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
BACKGROUND: High overdose mortality after release from state prison systems is well documented; however, little is known about overdose mortality following release from local criminal justice systems (CJS). The purpose of this study was to assess overdose mortality following release from a local CJS in Philadelphia, PA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals released to the community from a local CJS between 2010 and 2016. Incarceration records were linked to overdose fatality data from the Medical Examiner's Office and death certificate records...
June 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Stephanie A Van Horn, Robert D Morgan, Lori Brusman-Lovins, Andrew K Littlefield, Joe T Hunter, Greg Gigax, Kim Ridley
Interventions that focus on the psychiatric and criminogenic needs of justice-involved persons with mental illness are rare. A Treatment Manual for Justice Involved Persons with Mental Illness: Changing Lives and Changing Outcomes (CLCO) was developed specifically for meeting these co-occurring needs. Although results from an initial evaluation indicated that CLCO successfully resulted in reduced symptomatology and some aspects of criminal risk, much additional work examining the effectiveness of CLCO remains to be done...
June 14, 2018: Psychological Services
Ross Coomber, Leah Moyle, Vendula Belackova, Tom Decorte, Pekka Hakkarainen, Andrew Hathaway, Karen Joe Laidler, Simon Lenton, Sheigla Murphy, John Scott, Michaela Stefunkova, Katinka van de Ven, Marieke Vlaemynck, Bernd Werse
BACKGROUND: It is now commonly accepted that there exists a form of drug supply, that involves the non-commercial supply of drugs to friends and acquaintances for little or no profit, which is qualitatively different from profit motivated 'drug dealing proper'. 'Social supply', as it has become known, has a strong conceptual footprint in the United Kingdom, shaped by empirical research, policy discussion and its accommodation in legal frameworks. Though scholarship has emerged in a number of contexts outside the UK, the extent to which social supply has developed as an internationally recognised concept in criminal justice contexts is still unclear...
June 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Daniel D'Hotman, Jonathan Pugh, Thomas Douglas
Heroin use poses a significant health and economic burden to society, and individuals with heroin dependence are responsible for a significant amount of crime. Owing to its efficacy and cost-effectiveness, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is offered as an optional alternative to imprisonment for drug offenders in several jurisdictions. Some object to such 'MMT offers' on the basis that they involve coercion and thus invalidate the offender's consent to MMT. While we find these arguments unpersuasive, we do not attempt to build a case against them here...
June 8, 2018: Bioethics
Glenn Kelly, Suzanne Brown, Grahame K Simpson
People with acquired brain injury (ABI) are overrepresented in prison populations across many countries. An effective service response to reduce this trend requires collaboration between the ABI and criminal justice (CJ) sectors. The Building Bridges project piloted a novel professional development model designed to increase cross-sectoral knowledge and collaboration between the ABI and CJ sectors. A total of 178 service providers from Victoria, Australia, participated in six professional development forums that included content about ABI, policing, disability and legal supports, and correctional/post-release services...
June 8, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Gregory Phillips, Michelle Birkett, Paul Salamanca, Daniel Ryan, Robert Garofalo, Lisa Kuhns, Brian Mustanski
PURPOSE: Criminal justice involvement is a significant problem in the United States, and poses substantial negative immediate and long-term effects, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Research has been mixed on the association between a history of arrest or incarceration and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus, but there are clear trends in the association between criminal justice involvement and sexual risk behaviors. METHODS: Drawing from a racially or ethnically diverse sample of young men who have sex with men, we conducted an investigation into whether there was a temporal relationship between history of criminal justice involvement and engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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