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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817579/the-link-between-bond-forfeiture-and-pretrial-release-mechanism-the-case-of-dallas-county-texas
#1
Stephen J Clipper, Robert G Morris, Amanda Russell-Kaplan
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types) commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture). These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency. METHODS: A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810157/propagating-the-haze-community-and-professional-perceptions-of-cannabis-cultivation-and-the-impacts-of-prohibition
#2
Helen Beckett Wilson, Stuart Taylor, Giles Barrett, Janet Jamieson, Lauren Grindrod
BACKGROUND: Recent decades have seen substantial changes in the UK cannabis landscape, including increased domestic production, the ascendancy of stronger strains (namely 'skunk') and the drug's reclassification under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. Resultantly, cannabis retains significance in the consciousness, priorities and policy agendas of communities, drug services and criminal justice agencies. METHODS: This paper presents an empirical study, which examined both perceptions and impacts of cannabis cultivation and its control within a North-West English borough...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804980/using-bayes-factors-to-evaluate-evidence-for-no-effect-examples-from-the-sips-project
#3
Zoltan Dienes, Simon Coulton, Nick Heather
AIMS: To illustrate how Bayes Factors are important for determining the effectiveness of interventions. METHOD: We consider a case where inappropriate conclusions were publicly drawn based on significance testing, namely the SIPS Project (Screening and Intervention Programme for Sensible drinking), a pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial in each of two healthcare settings and in the criminal justice system. We show how Bayes Factors can disambiguate the non-significant findings from the SIPS Project and thus determine whether the findings represent evidence of absence or absence of evidence...
August 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803503/hiv-testing-and-awareness-of-hiv-status-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greater-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#4
Alexander R Bazazi, Aishwarya Vijay, Forrest W Crawford, Robert Heimer, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
HIV testing services are the gateway into HIV treatment and are critical for monitoring the epidemic. HIV testing is recommended at least annually in high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Malaysia, the HIV epidemic is concentrated among PWID, but their adherence to testing recommendations and the proportion of HIV-positive PWID who are aware of their status remain unknown. We recruited 460 PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur using respondent-driven sampling and conducted HIV testing. We examined past testing behaviors, estimating testing frequency, correlates of testing in the past 12 months, and the proportion of those living with HIV who were aware of their status...
August 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800807/the-changing-health-policy-environment-and-behavioral-health-services-delivery
#5
REVIEW
Laura N Medford-Davis, Rakel C Beall
Deinstitutionalization has left an inadequate supply of inpatient psychiatric beds. Simultaneous cuts to public funding and insurance coverage for outpatient mental health treatment have increased the frequency of acute psychiatric crises. The resulting lack of available options has shifted the burden of treatment to emergency departments and the criminal justice system. Recent legislation has improved insurance access, but rules are not always enforced and there are still few options for care. Discussion of mental health care delivery must acknowledge that many emergent behavioral health crises arise in the context of acute substance intoxication, withdrawal, or dependence...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782445/the-handbook-of-drugs-and-society-wiley-handbooks-in-criminology-and-criminal-justice
#6
Eryn Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770647/the-hebephiliac-pedophile-or-teleiophiliac
#7
Jonghan Sea, Eric Beauregard
The current study aims to fill the gap on hebephile sex offenders by comparing them to a group of pedophile offenders as well as a group of teleiophile offenders. The focus of the study is to examine the victims' and offenders' characteristics, the crime characteristics, and the modus operandi used by a sample of 111 male sex assaults currently serving a sentence for sexual crimes in Korea. Looking at all the comparisons conducted, it seems that the hebephiliac is not more similar to the pedophile nor the teleiophiliac...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770637/many-shades-of-green-assessing-awareness-of-differences-in-mental-health-care-needs-among-subpopulations-of-military-veterans
#8
Eileen M Ahlin, Anne S Douds
The current study sought to examine access to services by various veteran subgroups: racial/ethnic minorities, females, rural populations, and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer). Generally, the Veteran Service Officers (VSOs) interviewed for this study did not feel that these subgroups were well served by the program and treatment options presently available, and that other groups such as males and urban veterans received better access to necessary psychosocial and medical care. This research extends studies that explore overall connection to services by further demonstrating barriers to receipt of services by specific subgroups of veterans, particularly those at risk for involvement in the criminal justice system...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766368/passing-the-threshold-of-one-justice-system-to-the-next-challenges-of-emerging-young-adults-in-hong-kong-s-adult-criminal-justice-process
#9
Kevin Kwok-Yin Cheng, Becky Po-Yee Leung
In many criminal justice systems, there is a clear separation for juvenile and adult defendants. However, those in between, referred to as emerging young adult defendants (ages 18-25 years), are treated as adult defendants despite a growing recognition that emerging adulthood is a distinct period in the life course. The aim of this present study is to investigate the experiences and challenges faced by emerging young adult defendants ( N = 25) in Hong Kong's adult criminal justice process. Through in-depth semistructured interviews, it was found that emerging young adult defendants demonstrated a lack of understanding regarding their rights and the legal procedures, faced stress in being caught up in the criminal justice process, and were susceptible to influence by others, particularly family members, in making legal decisions...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753402/intellectual-disability-policy-as-developed-expressed-and-evaluated-in-aaidd-the-arc-joint-statements-the-role-of-organization-position-statements
#10
Ruth Luckasson, Marty E Ford, Elise D McMillan, Frederick M Misilo, Margaret A Nygren
The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) and The Arc of the United States (The Arc) have a long history of joined efforts to develop, express, and evaluate disability policies. These efforts have resulted in a series of formal statements on critical issues such as education, healthcare, human rights, and criminal justice. Their joint efforts further important policy goals including providing clear strong communication about important policy values and directions, promulgating key principles of high quality supports and services, affirming best professional practices, and emphasizing personal outcomes...
July 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753036/political-therapeutics-dialogues-and-frictions-around-care-and-cure
#11
Cristiana Giordano
In 1978, Italy passed a law establishing the abolition of the mental hospital. Up to that time, the traditional asylums were still governed by the 1904 law that positioned psychiatry within the criminal justice system by assigning it the function of custodia (control, custody) rather than of cura (care). In the 1960s and 1970s, Italian psychiatrist Franco Basaglia initiated a movement of de-institutionalization of the mentally ill that revolutionized psychiatric care in Italy. It also had a deep impact on restructuring the psychiatric system in other European and Latin American countries...
July 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742410/content-analysis-of-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-drinking-among-individuals-with-the-lived-experience-of-homelessness-and-alcohol-use-disorders
#12
Susan E Collins, Emily Taylor, Connor Jones, Laura Haelsig, Véronique S Grazioli, Jessica L Mackelprang, Jessica Holttum, Molly Koker, Alyssa Hatsukami, Madeline Baker, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this population. To better tailor treatment services to their needs, it is imperative we understand this population's perceptions of their alcohol use...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741282/reproductive-health-concerns-among-substance-using-women-in-community-corrections-in-new-york-city-understanding-the-role-of-environmental-influences
#13
Anindita Dasgupta, Alissa Davis, Louisa Gilbert, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Nabila El-Bassel
Women living in urban settings who are engaged in the criminal justice system are disproportionately affected by HIV and also contend with poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH). While studies have examined environmental influences of HIV, few have examined how these influences relate to poor SRH among this population. We used baseline data from an HIV-risk reduction study among substance-using women with a pregnancy history in community corrections in New York City (N = 299). We examined risk environment factors typically associated with HIV, and SRH outcomes of abortion, and miscarriage...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737982/knocking-on-prison-s-door-a-10-fold-rise-in-the-number-of-psychotic-prisoners-in-finland-during-the-years-2005-2016
#14
Alo Jüriloo, Lauri Pesonen, Hannu Lauerma
BACKGROUND: As in many European countries, Finnish psychiatric services experienced a rapid process of deinstitutionalization in the 1990s. In recent decades, the decrease in numbers of psychiatric hospital beds has in several countries been found to be linked with increasing criminality among severely mentally ill individuals. It has been concluded that deinstitutionalization could be the main reason for this development. AIM: To investigate whether the prevalence of severely mentally ill persons to prison is a growing trend also in Finland...
July 24, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737057/commercial-transactions-in-children-the-case-of-ghana
#15
Mensah Adinkrah
The current article represents an examination of commercial transactions involving the sale of children in contemporary Ghana. It presents the results of a criminological analysis of 20 cases of commercial transactions in children in Ghana. It describes the sociodemographic characteristics of offenders and victims, victim-offender relationships, offender motivations, public reactions to the phenomenon, as well as the criminal justice system's responses to the crime. The data were extracted from Ghanaian print and electronic presses...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#16
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733771/a-national-study-of-veterans-treatment-court-participants-who-benefits-and-who-recidivates
#17
Jack Tsai, Andrea Finlay, Bessie Flatley, Wesley J Kasprow, Sean Clark
Although there are now over 400 veterans treatment courts (VTCs) in the country, there have been few studies on participant outcomes in functional domains. Using national data on 7931 veterans in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Justice Outreach program across 115 VA sites who entered a VTC from 2011 to 2015, we examined the housing, employment, income, and criminal justice outcomes of VTC participants; and identified veteran characteristics predictive of outcomes. VTC participants spent an average of nearly a year in the program and 14% experienced a new incarceration...
July 21, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731386/impact-of-childhood-adversity-and-out-of-home-placement-for-male-adolescents-who-have-engaged-in-sexually-abusive-behavior
#18
Kelcey L Hall, Jill D Stinson, Michele R Moser
Child maltreatment and household dysfunction have long been linked to delinquency, adult criminality, and sexual offending. However, the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), factors related to out-of-home placement, and the onset of maladaptive behaviors has not thoroughly been explored in adolescents who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior. In the present study, we examined archival records of 120 male youths who have received treatment for sexually abusive behavior. As expected, the male adolescents in this sample have experienced higher rates of ACEs than samples of adult males in the community, adult males who committed sexual offenses, and juvenile justice-involved males as reported in the literature...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729962/the-protective-effects-of-family-support-on-the-relationship-between-official-intervention-and-general-delinquency-across-the-life-course
#19
Beidi Dong, Marvin D Krohn
PURPOSE: Previous research on the labeling perspective has identified mediational processes and the long-term effects of official intervention in the life course. However, it is not yet clear what factors may moderate the relationship between labeling and subsequent offending. The current study integrates Cullen's (1994) social support theory to examine how family social support conditions the criminogenic, stigmatizing effects of official intervention on delinquency and whether such protective effects vary by developmental stage...
March 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728555/medical-homelessness-and-candidacy-women-transiting-between-prison-and-community-health-care
#20
Penelope Abbott, Parker Magin, Joyce Davison, Wendy Hu
BACKGROUND: Women in contact with the prison system have high health needs. Short periods in prison and serial incarcerations are common. Examination of their experiences of health care both in prison and in the community may assist in better supporting their wellbeing and, ultimately, decrease their risk of returning to prison. METHODS: We interviewed women in prisons in Sydney, Australia, using pre-release and post-release interviews. We undertook thematic analysis of the combined interviews, considering them as continuing narratives of their healthcare experiences...
July 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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