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Criminal justice

Raheleh Heidari, Tenzin Wangmo, Serena Galli, David M Shaw, Bernice S Elger
Aging in custody and the rising population of elderly prisoners are creating compelling challenges for criminal justice, prison and public healthcare systems. Geriatric syndrome and higher prevalence of co-morbidities amongst older inmates result in heightened vulnerability in prison environments. Empirical research addressing older adults' access to medical care in detention is scarce; therefore, this study assessed access to medical care in prison from the perspective of older prisoners in Switzerland. We interviewed a sample of 35 older inmates (average age 61 years) on their experience of healthcare accessibility in prison; data were qualitatively analysed and major themes regarding evaluation of their access to medical services were extracted...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Femina P Varghese, Kendra M Anderson, Devon L Cummings, Erica Fitzgerald
The purpose of this study was to develop the Offender Job Search Self-Efficacy Scale (OFJSSE) for the specific job search needs of the criminal justice population. Participants were 249 male inmates within 2 years of release from a state correctional facility in the southern region of the United States who identified mostly as Caucasian (56.2%), single (62.2%), working-class (45.4%) men with a mean age of 36.27 years (SD = 10.38). Initial validation data are described, including results of an exploratory factor analysis...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
Dana L Formon, Adam T Schmidt, Craig Henderson
Researchers have found providing employment opportunities for ex-offenders through job training programs to be effective at reducing recidivism. Examining various community-based programs for ex-offenders can be beneficial as they may be able to provide more stable and consistent programming without relying on the justice system. This study examined employment outcomes of graduates with and without criminal histories ( n = 617) from a community-based vocational training program. Results showed that ex-offender graduates obtained employment at equal rates to nonoffender graduates and received equal pay to their nonoffender counterparts...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration removes the substance naldemedine (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4a,7,9-trihydroxy-N-(2-(3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propan-2-yl)-2,3,4,4a,5,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-6-carboxamide) including its salts from the schedules of the Controlled Substances Act. Prior to the effective date of this rule, naldemedine was a schedule II controlled substance because it can be derived from opium alkaloids. This action removes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to controlled substances, including those specific to schedule II controlled substances, on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, dispense, conduct research, import, export, or conduct chemical analysis) or propose to handle naldemedine...
September 29, 2017: Federal Register
Amaia Iratzoqui
The current article examined the overlap of domestic violence across the life course, connecting childhood abuse and adolescent dating victimization to adult intimate partner victimization, and the connection between these behaviors and adult domestic violence perpetration against partners and children. Using three waves of Add Health data, the study found that childhood and adolescent domestic victimization were directly and indirectly linked to adult intimate partner victimization and that domestic violence perpetration also played a role...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Sheryl Kubiak, Erin Comartin, Edita Milanovic, Deborah Bybee, Elizabeth Tillander, Celeste Rabaut, Heidi Bisson, Lisa M Dunn, Michael J Bouchard, Todd Hill, Steven Schneider
The crisis intervention team (CIT) is a tool that can be used to foster pre-booking diversion of individuals with mental illness from the criminal justice system and into community treatment services. Although CIT is often implemented solely as the training of law enforcement officers, the model stipulates that CIT is a vehicle for collaboration with community stakeholders who share a similar philosophy, as well as expanded mental health services offering a 24 hour-seven days per week drop-off option for law enforcement officers...
October 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Laura M April, Jeremiah Weinstock
Individuals involved with the criminal justice system have the highest prevalence of gambling disorder. Yet, this is an understudied area, especially in relation to postrelease functioning and recidivism risk. Participants (N = 100) were recruited from a local nonprofit organization and a federal probation office. Participants completed both self-report and interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing past-year and lifetime gambling behaviors and problems, legal history, health, and risk of recidivism...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Hazel Rose Markus
U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco, Lisa J Colpe
We examined prevalence, treatment patterns, trends, and correlates of mental health and substance use treatments among adults with co-occurring disorders. Our data were from the 325,800 adults who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in the period 2008-14. Approximately 3.3 percent of the US adult population, or 7.7 million adults, had co-occurring disorders during the twelve months before the survey interview. Among them, 52.5 percent received neither mental health care nor substance use treatment in the prior year...
October 1, 2017: Health Affairs
Matthew C Aalsma, Valerie R Anderson, Katherine Schwartz, Fangqian Ouyang, Wanzhu Tu, Marc B Rosenman, Sarah E Wiehe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Youth involved in the juvenile justice system (ie, arrested youth) are at risk for health problems. Although increasing preventive care use by justice-involved youth (JIY) is 1 approach to improving their well-being, little is known about their access to and use of care. The objective of this study was to determine how rates of well-child (WC) and emergency department visits, as well as public insurance enrollment continuity, differed between youth involved in the justice system and youth who have never been in the system...
October 2, 2017: Pediatrics
Colleen L Barry
Major policy efforts are being aimed at combating the epidemic of opioid addiction and overdose deaths. In response to the epidemic, the medical community and policy makers have attempted to intervene; to date, these varied approaches have done little to reverse the increase in mortality related to opioid overdose. One factor that has complicated efforts to control overdose deaths has been the emergence of a public health crisis related to illicit fentanyl. The rise in fentanyl-related overdose deaths means that new approaches are needed to combat the opioid epidemic, including adoption of harm reduction strategies...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Mansoor Malik, Suneeta Kumari, Partam Manalai, Maria Hipolito
Multi-institutional collaboration offers a promising approach to the dissemination of resources for capacity building and the improvement of the training of new investigators and residents, especially in areas of novel curricular content. Physicians should keep pace with the rapid growth of curricular content in an era of restricted resources. Such collaborations, in which educational entities work together and share resources and infrastructure, have been employed in health care to improve quality of care, capacity building, disparity reduction, and resident training...
May 2017: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
Alana Rosenberg, Allison K Groves, Kim M Blankenship
Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems...
2017: Journal of Drug Issues
Lauretta E Grau, Abbie Griffiths-Kundishora, Robert Heimer, Marguerite Hutcheson, Amy Nunn, Caitlin Towey, Thomas J Stopka
BACKGROUND: Contemporary studies about HIV care continuum (HCC) outcomes within substance using populations primarily focus on individual risk factors rather than provider- or systems-level influences. Over 25% of people living with HIV (PLWH) have substance use disorders that can alter their path through the HCC. As part of a study of HCC outcomes in nine small cities in Southern New England (population 100,000-200,000 and relatively high HIV prevalence particularly among substance users), this qualitative analysis sought to understand public health staff and HIV service providers' perspectives on how substance use may influence HCC outcomes...
October 2, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Charles O'Mahony, Aisling de Paor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Lidiane Toledo, Ignácio Cano, Leonardo Bastos, Neilane Bertoni, Francisco Inacio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The international literature has expressed different and sometimes contrasting perspectives when addressing criminal involvement by crack cocaine users, highlighting psychopharmacological aspects, the cycles of craving and pressing economic need, and the interplay with overall deprivation and structural violence. The current study aims to identify variables associated with the arrest and imprisonment of regular crack cocaine users. METHODS: Interviewees were recruited from open drug scenes in the city of Rio de Janeiro and Greater Metropolitan Area from September 2011 to June 2013...
September 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Camille C Weinsheimer, Dayna M Woiwod, Patricia I Coburn, Kristin Chong, Deborah A Connolly
When women encounter the criminal justice system, it is typically as victims rather than as offenders. Consequently, there is limited empirical research on women who have sexually offended against children, but there is a clinically-significant group of victims who have experienced female-perpetrated child sexual abuse (CSA). In a database of 4237 CSA cases that were heard in criminal courts between 1986 and 2012, we found 70 cases that involved female accused. We compared female-accused cases against a randomly selected sample of 70 male-accused cases from the same database...
September 25, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jan Billand, Vera Silvia Facciolla Paiva
This article discusses limits and possibilities of the practice of a reflection group together with male perpetrators of violence against women. It is based on an ethnographic study, which included participant observation and interviews with the facilitators of a group held in a feminist non-governmental organization in partnership with the criminal justice system. Starting with the discussion of an emblematic scene, we argue in favor of this dialogue process as an alternative that could expand the limits of the judiciary approach...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Linda T Caissie, Claire Goggin, Lisa A Best
Visual inscriptions (e.g., graphs, illustrations) are a defining feature of scientific discovery to aid in data analysis, interpretation, and communication (e.g., Latour, 1990; Lynch, 1985). Our purpose was to examine how visual inscriptions are used to present data in gerontology journals. We compared 357 articles sampled from 24 peer-reviewed gerontology journals published between 1995 and 2009. Approximately 11 per cent of page space was dedicated to data presentation with more page space occupied by tables (9...
September 26, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Colleen M Berryessa
The role of the expert witness in legal contexts is to educate fact finders of the court who may have no background in the expert's area. This role can be especially difficult for those who assist in cases involving individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). As expert assistance on ASD is crucial to ensuring just outcomes for individuals diagnosed with ASD, knowledge on how expert witnesses perceive and approach their roles, and what factors may influence these perceptions, is essential. This qualitative research utilizes semi-structured interviews with a sample of expert witnesses in cases involving ASD, analyzed using a grounded-theory constant comparative analytic approach...
2017: Psychology, Crime & Law: PC & L
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