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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685299/the-introduction-of-forensic-advisors-in-belgium-and-their-role-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#1
Sonja Bitzer, Laetitia Heudt, Aurélie Barret, Lore George, Karolien Van Dijk, Fabrice Gason, Bertrand Renard
Forensic advisors (FA) at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC), generalists in forensic science, act as an advising body to the magistrate to improve communication between the various parties involved in the investigation: magistrate, police and crime scene investigators, and forensic experts. Their role is manifold, but their main objectives are to optimise trace processing by selecting the most pertinent traces in the context of the case and by advising magistrates on the feasibility of forensic analyses in particular circumstances in regards to the latest technical advances...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680329/dual-diagnosis-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-disorder-and-injury-in-adults-recently-released-from-prison-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Jesse T Young, Ed Heffernan, Rohan Borschmann, James R P Ogloff, Matthew J Spittal, Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, David B Preen, Amanda Butler, Lisa Brophy, Julia Crilly, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: People with mental illness and substance use disorder are over-represented in prisons. Injury-related mortality is elevated in people released from prison, and both mental illness and substance use disorder are risk factors for injury. Effective care coordination during the transition between criminal justice and community service providers improves health outcomes for people released from prison. However, the health outcomes and support needs of people with dual diagnosis (co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder) released from prison are poorly understood...
April 17, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676219/application-of-the-modified-erikson-psychosocial-stage-inventory-25-years-in-review
#3
Cynthia S Darling-Fisher
The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (MEPSI) is an 80-item, comprehensive measure of psychosocial development based on Erikson's theory with published reliability and validity data. Although designed as a comprehensive measure, some researchers have used individual subscales for specific developmental stages as a measure; however, these subscale reliability scores have not been generally shared. This article reviewed the literature to evaluate the use of the MEPSI: the major research questions, samples/populations studied, and individual subscale and total reliability and validity data...
April 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673337/communities-in-charge-of-alcohol-cica-a-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomised-control-trial-of-an-alcohol-health-champions-programme
#4
Penny A Cook, Suzy C Hargreaves, Elizabeth J Burns, Frank de Vocht, Steve Parrott, Margaret Coffey, Suzanne Audrey, Cathy Ure, Paul Duffy, David Ottiwell, Kiran Kenth, Susan Hare, Kate Ardern
BACKGROUND: Communities In Charge of Alcohol (CICA) takes an Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) approach to reducing alcohol harm. Through a cascade training model, supported by a designated local co-ordinator, local volunteers are trained to become accredited 'Alcohol Health Champions' to provide brief opportunistic advice at an individual level and mobilise action on alcohol availability at a community level. The CICA programme is the first time that a devolved UK region has attempted to coordinate an approach to building health champion capacity, presenting an opportunity to investigate its implementation and impact at scale...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672095/concurrent-validity-of-the-personality-assessment-screener-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#5
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Mental health problems are disproportionately prevalent in forensic and correctional settings, and there have been numerous attempts to develop screening tools to evaluate individuals in such contexts. This study investigates the clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997), a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in a large mixed-gender offender sample (N = 1,658). The PAS is a 22-item measure derived from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007), a more comprehensive self-report instrument widely used to assess for psychological disturbances among forensic and correctional populations...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671203/the-policy-driven-hiv-epidemic-among-opioid-users-in-the-russian-federation
#6
REVIEW
Robert Heimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America. RECENT FINDINGS: The syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667292/sharing-power-in-criminal-justice-the-potential-of-co-production-for-offenders-experiencing-mental-health-and-addictions-in-new-zealand
#7
Katey Thom, Dave Burnside
Co-production has begun to make inroads into research, policy, and practice in mental health and addictions. Little is known, however, about the role co-production has or could have in shaping how the criminal justice system responds to mental health and addictions. Given that a large majority of prisoners in Aotearoa New Zealand have been diagnosed with either a mental health or substance use disorder within their lifetime, it is imperative alternative approaches are considered if we are to reduce the high imprisonment rates and contribute positively to health, safety, and well-being of all New Zealanders...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658091/improving-the-evidence-base-for-services-working-with-youth-at-risk-of-involvement-in-the-criminal-justice-system-developing-a-standardised-program-approach
#8
Alice Knight, Myfanwy Maple, Anthony Shakeshaft, Bernie Shakehsaft, Tania Pearce
BACKGROUND: Young people who engage in multiple risk behaviour (high-risk young people) such as substance abuse, antisocial behaviour, low engagement in education and employment, self-harm or suicide ideation are more likely to experience serious harms later in life including homelessness, incarceration, violence and premature death. In addition to personal disadvantage, these harms represent an avoidable social and economic cost to society. Despite these harms, there is insufficient evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people...
April 16, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656711/the-fierce-urgency-of-now-improving-outcomes-for-justice-involved-people-with-serious-mental-illness-and-substance-misuse
#9
Glenda Wrenn, Brian McGregor, Mark Munetz
People with serious mental illness are more likely to be arrested multiple times for the same crime, spend more time in jail before adjudication, serve longer sentences, and have higher recidivism rates than those without mental illness. Several conceptual foundations, such as the sequential intercept model and the risk-needs-responsivity model, have been developed to help communities address the overrepresentation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system. The Stepping Up Initiative is a national effort to enlist counties to commit to reduce the number of people with mental illness in their jails...
April 16, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650498/five-years-post-nirbhaya-critical-insights-into-the-status-of-response-to-sexual-assault
#10
Sunita Vs Bandewar, Amita Pitre, Lakshmi Lingam
It is five years since the fatal gang rape of Jyothi Singh (Nirbhaya), a physiotherapy student, on December 16, 2012, in New Delhi, the capital of India. The legal and policy reforms triggered by the Nirbhaya case will remain a watershed moment in the history of efforts towards seeking justice for survivors of gender-based violence in India. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and the "Guidelines and protocols: Medico-legal care for survivors/victims of sexual violence" issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 2014 are two landmark reforms...
March 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642770/providing-coordinated-immediate-trauma-focused-and-interdisciplinary-responses-to-children-exposed-to-severe-intimate-partner-violence-assessing-feasibility-of-a-collaborative-model
#11
Amanda M Stylianou, Elizabeth Ebright
Despite the known consequences associated with children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), numerous children exposed to IPV never access victim services and/or mental health treatment. Informed by the Child Development-Community Policing Program (CD-CP), the Child Trauma Response Team (CTRT) is designed to provide a coordinated, immediate, trauma-informed, and interdisciplinary response to children, adolescents, and their impacted family members who are exposed to severe IPV. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the CTRT from the perspective of the key stakeholders and to identify what facilitated and/or hindered the collaborative model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627964/evaluating-concurrent-validity-of-criminal-justice-and-clinical-assessments-among-women-on-probation
#12
Camila D Odio, Megan Carroll, Susan Glass, Ashley Bauman, Faye S Taxman, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: Women in the criminal justice (CJ) system experience complex and comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, which often contribute to CJ involvement. To identify intersections between CJ and health needs, we calculated Spearman r correlations between concurrent CJ and clinical assessments from women on probation in Connecticut who were enrolled in a clinical trial. We examined longitudinal trends in CJ risk scores over 9 years of observation (2005-2014), modeling time to probation recidivism with shared gamma frailty models and comparing contiguous time points by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests...
April 7, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617597/drug-purchasing-strategies-to-treat-people-with-hepatitis-c-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#13
Matthew J Akiyama, Rich Feffer, William H von Oehsen, Alain H Litwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609680/intimate-partner-violence-myths-in-police-reports-a-directed-content-analysis
#14
Mary Katherine Twis, Anh Phuong Nguyen, Anne Nordberg
Although much has changed in social and criminal justice system responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) since public awareness campaigns began in the 1970s, stigmatization around IPV offense and victimization remains a barrier to victims obtaining available assistance, including those offered by police forces. Unfortunately, stigma is often perpetuated by mythology about the crime, its offenders, its victims, and overarching gender norms. Since IPV cases are managed under the auspices of the criminal justice system, the manner in which the system itself perpetuates IPV myths is worthy of attention...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609678/the-relationship-between-experiences-with-the-criminal-justice-system-and-mental-health-outcomes-among-survivors-of-homicide
#15
Evgenia Milman, Joah L Williams, Kaitlin Bountress, Alyssa A Rheingold
Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief (CG). Accordingly, this survey study examined how satisfaction with the criminal justice system (CJS) was associated with depression, PTSD, and CG among 47 homicide survivors. It also examined how satisfaction with specific aspects of the CJS related to satisfaction with the overall CJS. Satisfaction with the overall CJS was uniquely associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608714/are-electronic-cigarettes-an-effective-aid-to-smoking-cessation-or-reduction-among-vulnerable-groups-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#16
Sarah Gentry, Nita Forouhi, Caitlin Notley
Introduction: Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. Methods: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and Open Grey...
March 28, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607774/civil-commitment-for-opioid-and-other-substance-use-disorders-does-it-work
#17
Abhishek Jain, Paul Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum
Many states are turning to civil commitment for substance use disorders as a potential solution to address rising rates of overdose deaths. Civil commitment allows family members or others to seek court-ordered involuntary treatment for a substance-abusing person. In contrast to mandatory treatment ordered by drug courts, civil commitment does not require involvement with the criminal justice system. Although these laws are understandably appealing, statutes and their implementation are highly variable, ethical concerns about deprivation of liberty continue to be raised, and outcome data are limited and often not generalizable...
April 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607658/syndemic-effect-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-on-viral-suppression-among-recently-incarcerated-hiv-infected-individuals-in-the-care-corrections-study
#18
Hannah Yellin, Curt Beckwith, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, Breana Castonguay, Rudy Patrick, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Irene Kuo
Few studies on HIV-related syndemics of co-occurring and mutually reinforcing psychosocial conditions have assessed clinical outcomes in criminal justice (CJ)-involved populations. Baseline data from the CARE+ Corrections study were used to quantify co-occurring mental illness and substance use and examine syndemic effects on viral suppression among 106 CJ-involved HIV-infected individuals. Ninety-one (86%) reported a mental illness diagnosis, 30 (28%) reported hazardous alcohol use, and 61 (58%) were drug dependent...
April 1, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606059/a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-veterans-who-are-serving-sentences-in-custody
#19
Michele Unwin, Belinda Winder
The focus on veterans in research is not a novel topic; however, the majority of studies are related to trauma, employment, mental health, suicide, and substance misuse. The criminal justice system involvement with veterans is a topic that has yet to be examined to a great extent. This study, conducted with adult male prisoners, elicited information from six veterans regarding their experiences of being in the armed forces, leaving the armed forces, and becoming involved in the criminal justice system. Responses were evaluated using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and three main themes were identified: "you're baptized into the army," "them and us," and "operational mind-set"; each of which comprised a number of superordinate themes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606058/criminal-careers-among-female-perpetrators-of-family-and-nonfamily-homicide-in-australia
#20
Li Eriksson, Samara McPhedran, Shilan Caman, Paul Mazerolle, Richard Wortley, Holly Johnson
Knowledge of women's pathways to serious offending, including homicide, is limited. This study contributes to a small but growing body of literature examining the criminal careers of serious female offenders by using interview data with females convicted of murder or manslaughter in Australia to examine various dimensions of their criminal careers, specifically, prevalence, frequency, age of onset, duration, and offending variety. In particular, in this study we compared criminal career dimensions across women who had killed a family member (e...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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