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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227710/changing-the-treatment-direction-for-opiate-addiction-dr-dole-s-research
#1
Herman Joseph, Joycelyn Sue Woods
Under the leadership of Drs. Vincent P. Dole, Marie Nyswander, and Mary Jeanne Kreek, in collaboration with the psychologist, Norman Gordon and sociologist, Herman Joseph at The Rockefeller University beginning in the 1960s, the first medical treatment for heroin addiction was developed. Drs. Dole, Nyswander and Kreek also developed the first hypothesis of opiate addiction as a metabolic disease. This biological revolution challenged beliefs about addiction, spurred further research and challenged legal positions of the judiciary and the broader criminal justice system (Dole & Nyswander, 1967 )...
December 11, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217313/characteristics-and-health-needs-of-veterans-in-jails-and-prisons-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-about-incarcerated-women-veterans
#2
Janice D McCall, Jack Tsai
PURPOSE: The majority of U.S. veterans in prisons and local jails are men, but incarcerated women veterans remain an important and understudied group. METHODS: This study reported differences in sociodemographic, health, and criminal justice characteristics using Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data on a national sample of 30,964 incarcerated veterans (30,440 men and 524 women) who received outreach from the VA Health Care for Reentry Veterans program between 2007 and 2011...
December 4, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214499/microbial-degradation-of-forensic-samples-of-biological-origin-potential-threat-to-human-dna-typing
#3
REVIEW
Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das
Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214435/exploring-lifetime-accumulation-of-criminal-justice-involvement-and-associated-health-and-social-outcomes-in-a-community-based-sample-of-women-who-use-drugs
#4
Jennifer Lorvick, Megan Comfort, Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin
Among people who use illegal drugs, engagement with the criminal justice (CJ) system often involves an ongoing, intermittent series of arrests, incarcerations, and periods of community supervision. The potential associations between the lifetime accumulation of CJ involvement and social and health outcomes is largely unexplored. In a cross-sectional sample of women who use crack, heroin, and/ or methamphetamine recruited from communities in Oakland, CA (N = 624), we developed an approach to characterize CJ accumulation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205471/gender-and-mental-health-an-examination-of-procedural-justice-in-a-specialized-court-context
#5
Logan J Somers, Kristy Holtfreter
The procedural justice framework has been applied in the criminal justice contexts of policing, corrections, and courts. According to this perspective, fair treatment, respectful dialogue and being given a proper voice will contribute to citizens' positive views of authority figures. While this literature has grown immensely, several questions remain unanswered. Do males and females perceive similar levels of procedural justice? Does mental health status influence perceptions of fair treatment? Whether procedural justice is a general perspective that can be applied across social groupings has important implications for correctional treatment in that programs that truly "work" for all are more cost-effective...
December 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204845/six-month-emergency-department-use-among-older-adults-following-jail-incarceration
#6
Jessi Humphreys, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Eric Widera, Brie Williams
Although the number of older adults who are arrested and subject to incarceration in jail is rising dramatically, little is known about their emergency department (ED) use or the factors associated with that use. This lack of knowledge impairs the ability to design evidence-based approaches to care that would meet the needs of this population. This 6-month longitudinal study aimed to determine the frequency of 6-month ED use among 101 adults aged 55 or older enrolled while in jail and to identify factors associated with that use...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200395/-the-future-of-forensic-dna-analysis-for-criminal-justice
#7
François-Xavier Laurent, Geoffrey Vibrac, Aurélien Rubio, Marie-Thérèse Thévenot, Laurent Pène
In the criminal framework, the analysis of approximately 20 DNA microsatellites enables the establishment of a genetic profile with a high statistical power of discrimination. This technique gives us the possibility to establish or exclude a match between a biological trace detected at a crime scene and a suspect whose DNA was collected via an oral swab. However, conventional techniques do tend to complexify the interpretation of complex DNA samples, such as degraded DNA and mixture DNA. The aim of this review is to highlight the powerness of new forensic DNA methods (including high-throughput sequencing or single-cell sequencing) to facilitate the interpretation of the expert with full compliance with existing french legislation...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200340/only-one-in-twenty-justice-referred-adults-in-specialty-treatment-for-opioid-use-receive-methadone-or-buprenorphine
#8
Noa Krawczyk, Caroline E Picher, Kenneth A Feder, Brendan Saloner
People in the US criminal justice system experience high rates of opioid use disorder, overdose, and other adverse outcomes. Expanding treatment is a key strategy for addressing the opioid epidemic, but little is known about whether the criminal justice system refers people to the highest standard of treatment: the use of the opioid agonist therapies methadone or buprenorphine. We used 2014 data from the national Treatment Episode Data Set to examine the use of agonist treatment among justice-involved people referred to specialty treatment for opioid use disorder...
December 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199926/-from-defensive-paranoia-to%C3%A2-%C3%A2-openness-to-outside-scrutiny-prison-medical-officers-in-england-and-wales-1979-86
#9
Nicholas Duvall
This article examines how a branch of medicine based within the criminal justice system responded to a society which by the 1970s and 1980s was increasingly critical of the prison system and medical authority. The Prison Medical Service, responsible for the health care of prisoners in England and Wales, was criticised by prison campaigners and doctors alike for being unethical, isolated, secretive, and beholden to the interests of the Home Office rather than those of their patients. While prison doctors responded defensively to criticisms in the 1970s and 1980s, comparing their own standards of practice favourably with those found in the NHS, and arguing that doctors from outside would struggle to cope in the prison environment, by 1985 their attitudes had changed...
January 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197100/the-high-societal-costs-of-childhood-conduct-problems-evidence-from-administrative-records-up-to-age-38-in-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort
#10
Joshua G Rivenbark, Candice L Odgers, Avshalom Caspi, HonaLee Harrington, Sean Hogan, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
BACKGROUND: Children with conduct problems that persist into adulthood are at increased risk for future behavioral, health, and social problems. However, the longer term public service usage among these children has not been fully documented. To aid public health and intervention planning, adult service usage across criminal justice, health care, and social welfare domains is compared among all individuals from a representative cohort who followed different conduct problem trajectories from childhood into adulthood...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193438/routine-practice-in-staffed-community-accommodation-approved-premises-in-england-and-wales-quantitative-benchmarking-from-the-first-year-of-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Jason Davies, Aisling O'Meara
BACKGROUND: In England and Wales, 'approved premises' offer 24-hour staffed accommodation for high-risk offenders, most of whom are returning to the community from prison. With a move towards a standardised operating model, it is essential to be able to measure outcomes. AIMS: Our aim is to collate and evaluate 'benchmarks' for approved premises. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to establish the impact of existing practice in all four approved premises in Wales...
November 29, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176518/lessons-learned-from-icare-a-postexamination-text-messaging-based-program-with-sexual-assault-patients
#12
Danielle L Hicks, Debra Patterson, Stella Resko
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial, few sexual assault patients seek follow-up healthcare or counseling after a medical forensic examination. Mobile technology interventions may help patients engage in postcare, but there is a dearth of research on patients' utilization of these interventions. The current study examines patients' engagement with a 4-week postassault text message program (iCare), which assessed patients' safety and well-being, if they needed assistance with accessing nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis, or scheduling appointments for follow-up pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection testing, and their experience with the criminal justice system...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172877/frequent-drug-use-and-negative-employment-outcomes-among-the-criminally-active
#13
Paul E Bellair, Mike Vuolo, Eric G LaPlant
BACKGROUND: Employment is a central component of economic independence and is widely viewed as an essential element of social control. Whether frequent drug use reduces the likelihood of employment or obstructs hours worked, wages, and job commitment is therefore an important question about which there remains uncertainty. METHODS: We improve on shortcomings of prior research through a monthly within-person analysis of a population at high-risk of both drug use and poor employment outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172557/expanding-the-early-and-late-starter-model-of-criminal-justice-involvement-for-forensic-mental-health-clients
#14
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
November 27, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171895/how-the-criminalization-of-pregnancy-robs-women-of-reproductive-autonomy
#15
Michele Goodwin
In 2003, the South Carolina Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Regina McKnight, an African American woman who was convicted at the age of twenty-two for committing "homicide by child abuse." She became the first woman in the United States to be arrested, prosecuted, and convicted for experiencing a stillbirth. Rather than an outlier case in the annals of American jurisprudence that stretched law beyond reason while restraining compassion and justice, McKnight's conviction inspired similar prosecutions of other poor black women and then of other women...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171886/reproductive-rights-without-resources-or-recourse
#16
Kimberly Mutcherson
The U.S. Supreme Court declared procreation to be a fundamental right in the early twentieth century in a case involving Oklahoma's Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act, an act that permitted unconsented sterilization of individuals convicted of certain crimes. The right that the Court articulated in that case is a negative right: it requires that the government not place unjustified roadblocks in the way of people seeking to procreate, but it does not require the government to take positive steps to help people procreate if they wish to...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161456/integrated-care-with-indigenous-populations-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Melissa E Lewis, Laurelle L Myhra
INTRODUCTION: The integration of behavioral health into medical care is related to positive results including improved patient health outcomes, provider satisfaction, and cost-offset. Indigenous people suffer from the highest health disparities in the nation and disproportionately experience barriers to health care; yet it is unknown if integrated care is effective for this population. METHODS: A systematic literature review was completed on the state of integrated care at Indigenous-serving health care sites in 2014 and was updated in 2016...
2017: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#18
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159398/cost-effectiveness-of-publicly-funded-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-california
#19
Emanuel Krebs, Benjamin Enns, Elizabeth Evans, Darren Urada, M Douglas Anglin, Richard A Rawson, Yih-Ing Hser, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Only 1 in 5 of the nearly 2.4 million Americans with an opioid use disorder received treatment in 2015. Fewer than half of Californians who received treatment in 2014 received opioid agonist treatment (OAT), and regulations for admission to OAT in California are more stringent than federal regulations. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of OAT for all treatment recipients compared with the observed standard of care for patients presenting with opioid use disorder to California's publicly funded treatment facilities...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157975/crime-perceived-safety-and-physical-activity-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Erika Rees-Punia, Elizabeth D Hathaway, Jennifer L Gay
Perceived safety from crime and objectively-measured crime rates may be associated with physical inactivity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odds of accumulating high levels of physical activity (PA) when the perception of safety from crime is high and when objectively-measured crime is high. Peer-reviewed studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Criminal Justice, and ScienceDirect from earliest record through 2016. Included studies measured total PA, leisure-time PA, or walking in addition to perceived safety from crime or objective measures of crime...
November 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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