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Diabetes epigenetics polyphenols

Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Isabel Cordero-Herrera, Xinpu Chen, Sonia Ramos, Sridevi Devaraj
PURPOSE: Diabetes is a pro-inflammatory state associated with increased monocyte activity. NF-κB is the master switch of inflammation and is activated during diabetes. (-)-Epicatechin (EC), the main cocoa flavonol, displays anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects under high glucose conditions. Recently, it has been suggested that dietary polyphenols might modulate chromatin remodelling by epigenetic changes and regulate monocyte NF-κB activation and cytokine expression under diabetic conditions...
December 24, 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Stefania Rigacci, Caterina Miceli, Chiara Nediani, Andrea Berti, Roberta Cascella, Daniela Pantano, Pamela Nardiello, Ilaria Luccarini, Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
The healthy effects of plant polyphenols, some of which characterize the so-called Mediterranean diet, have been shown to arise from epigenetic and biological modifications resulting, among others, in autophagy stimulation. Our previous work highlighted the beneficial effects of oleuropein aglycone (OLE), the main polyphenol found in the extra virgin olive oil, against neurodegeneration both in cultured cells and in model organisms, focusing, in particular, autophagy activation. In this study we investigated more in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of autophagy induction by OLE using cultured neuroblastoma cells and an OLE-fed mouse model of amylod beta (Aβ) deposition...
November 3, 2015: Oncotarget
Sarandeep S S Boyanapalli, Ah-Ng Tony Kong
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenolic compound, is a component of Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric. It is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-lipidemic agent and has recently been shown to modulate several diseases via epigenetic regulation. Many recent studies have demonstrated the role of epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes that regulate human pathologies, such as neurocognitive disorders, inflammation, obesity, and cancers. Epigenetic changes involve changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, or altered microRNA expression patterns which are known to be interconnected and play a key role in tumor progression and failure of conventional chemotherapy...
April 2015: Current Pharmacology Reports
Vincent B Owona Ayissi, Azadeh Ebrahimi, Hermann Schluesenner
Polyphenols are a class of natural compounds widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, and plants. They have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in prevention and alleviation of various diseases like cancer, neuroinflammation, diabetes, and aging. Polyphenols are effective against chronic diseases and recent reports indicated strong epigenetic effects of polyphenols. Most of the studies investigating epigenetic effects of natural polyphenols have focused on their beneficial effects in cancer treatment...
January 2014: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Samo Ribarič
Nutrition has important long-term consequences for health that are not only limited to the individual but can be passed on to the next generation. It can contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases thus effecting life span. Caloric restriction (CR) can extend the average and maximum life span and delay the onset of age-associated changes in many organisms. CR elicits coordinated and adaptive stress responses at the cellular and whole-organism level by modulating epigenetic mechanisms (e...
2012: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Seiji Ohno, Hongfang Yu, Douglas Dickinson, Tin-Chun Chu, Kalu Ogbureke, Scott Derossi, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Stephen Hsu
The autoimmune disorder primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is associated with xerostomia and xerophthalmia. SS pathogenesis involves both genetic/epigenetic and environmental factors. A major potential contributor is oxidative stress associated with damage to cellular components, including DNA. We reported previously that the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) normalizes the elevated levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key component of DNA repair, in the NOD mouse model for SS and type 1 diabetes...
November 2012: Autoimmunity
Autar K Mattoo, Vijaya Shukla, Tahira Fatima, Avtar K Handa, Surender K Yachha
Nutrition studies have provided unambiguous evidence that a number of human health maladies including chronic coronary artery, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer and age- and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with the diet. Several favorable and a few deleterious natural dietary ingredients have been identified that predispose human populations to various genetic and epigenetic based disorders. Media dissemination of this information has greatly raised public awareness of the beneficial effects due to increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals-foods rich in phytonutrients, protein and fiber...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jung-Mi Yun, Ishwarlal Jialal, Sridevi Devaraj
Diabetes is a proinflammatory state. We have previously shown increased monocyte proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. High glucose induces proinflammatory cytokines via epigenetic changes. Curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the spice turmeric, is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Recent studies indicate that it may regulate chromatin remodeling by inhibiting histone acetylation. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of curcumin on histone acetylation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion under high-glucose conditions in human monocytes...
May 2011: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Clarissa Gerhauser
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004)...
October 2008: Planta Medica
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