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Browning polyphenols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899482/enzymatic-synthesis-of-chlorogenic-acid-glucoside-using-dextransucrase-and-its-physical-and-functional-properties
#1
Seung-Hee Nam, Jin-A Ko, Woojin Jun, Young-Jung Wee, Marie K Walsh, Kwang-Yeol Yang, Jin-Ho Choi, Jon-Bang Eun, Jeong Choi, Young-Min Kim, Songhee Han, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Doman Kim
Chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol in edible plants, possesses strong antioxidant activity, anti-lipid peroxidation and anticancer effects. It used for industrial applications; however, this is limited by its instability to heat or light. In this study, we for the first time synthesized chlorogenic acid glucoside (CHG) via transglycosylation using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and sucrose. CHG was purified and its structure determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy...
December 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888889/biofabrication-of-polyphenols-coated-nano-palladium-and-its-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-against-human-leukemia-cell-lines-k562
#2
Yingchun Li, Huihan Wang, Rong Zhang, Guojun Zhang, Ying Yang, Zhuogang Liu
The biofabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Pelargonium graveolens is reported herein. The polyphenols present in the Pelargonium graveolens extract are mainly responsible for reduction and subsequent stabilization of formed PdNPs. UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) absorption and reaction color change from yellow to brown indicated the formation of PdNPs. The as synthesized PdNPs were studied by using characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta potential measurements and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873535/effect-of-ascorbic-acid-postharvest-treatment-on-enzymatic-browning-phenolics-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-stored-mung-bean-sprouts
#3
Małgorzata Sikora, Michał Świeca
Enzymatic browning limits the postharvest life of minimally processed foods, thus the study selected the optimal inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and evaluated their effect on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2mM and 20mM ascorbic acid had a lowered PPO activity; compared to the control by 51% and 60%, respectively. The inhibition was reflected in a significant decrease in enzymatic browning. The sprouts treated with 20mM ascorbic acid had 22% and 23% higher phenolic content after 3 and 7days of storage, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863365/a-polyphenolic-extract-from-green-tea-leaves-activates-fat-browning-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Audrey M Neyrinck, Laure B Bindels, Lucie Geurts, Matthias Van Hul, Patrice D Cani, Nathalie M Delzenne
Fat browning has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Its activation leads to increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity, thus contributing to a better energy homeostasis. Green tea extracts (GTEs) were shown to attenuate obesity and low-grade inflammation and to induce the lipolytic pathway in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antiobesity effect of an extract from green tea leaves was associated with the activation of browning in the WAT and/or the inhibition of whitening in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) in HF-diet induced obese mice...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843018/browning-in-apples-exploring-the-biochemical-basis-of-an-easily-observable-phenotype
#5
Charles E Deutch
Many fruits and vegetables undergo browning when they are cut and the tissue is exposed to the air. This is due to the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) with endogenous substrates. In this laboratory experiment, students prepare slices of different varieties of apples and assess the rate of browning. They make a simple extract of the apple tissue and measure the activity of PPO using 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) as substrate. They determine the protein concentration of the extract with the Bradford Coomassie Blue reagent and calculate the specific activity of PPO...
August 26, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835121/comparative-analysis-of-thermal-assisted-high-pressure-and-thermally-processed-mango-pulp-influence-of-processing-packaging-and-storage
#6
Neelima Kaushik, P Srinivasa Rao, H N Mishra
Storage stability and shelf-life of mango pulp packed in three different packaging films and processed using an optimized thermal-assisted high pressure processing treatment 'HPP' (600 MPa/52 ℃/10 min) was analyzed during refrigerated (5 ℃) and accelerated (37 ℃) storage and compared with the conventional thermal treatment 'TT' (0.1 MPa/95 ℃/15 min). After processing, HPP resulted in relatively lower total color difference (3.5), retained higher ascorbic acid (95%), total phenolics (106%), total flavonoids content (118%) in mango pulp compared to TT, with values of 5...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821733/three-recombinantly-expressed-apple-tyrosinases-suggest-the-amino-acids-responsible-for-mono-versus-diphenolase-activity-in-plant-polyphenol-oxidases
#7
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family, which is mainly responsible for the browning of fruits. Three cDNAs encoding PPO pro-enzymes have been cloned from leaves of Malus domestica (apple, MdPPO). The three pro-enzymes MdPPO1-3 were heterologously expressed in E. coli yielding substantial amounts of protein and have been characterized with regard to their optimum of activity resulting from SDS, acidic and proteolytic activation. Significant differences were found in the kinetic characterization of MdPPO1-3 when applying different mono- and diphenolic substrates...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818380/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-duplicated-polyphenol-oxidase-genes-reveal-their-functional-differentiations-in-sorghum
#8
Song Yan, Sujuan Li, Guowei Zhai, Ping Lu, Hui Deng, Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Jianfeng Shao, Yuezhi Tao, Guihua Zou
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758980/effects-of-pla-film-incorporated-with-zno-nanoparticle-on-the-quality-attributes-of-fresh-cut-apple
#9
Wenhui Li, Lin Li, Yun Cao, Tianqing Lan, Haiyan Chen, Yuyue Qin
A novel nanopackaging film was synthesized by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a poly-lactic acid (PLA) matrix, and its effect on the quality of fresh-cut apple during the period of preservation was investigated at 4 ± 1 °C for 14 days. Six wt % cinnamaldehyde was added into the nano-blend film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a rougher cross-section of the nano-blend films and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out to determine the structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. Compared to the pure PLA film, the nano-blend film had a higher water vapor permeability (WVP) and lower oxygen permeability...
July 31, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751073/efficacy-of-new-natural-biomodification-agents-from-anacardiaceae-extracts-on-dentin-collagen-cross-linking
#10
M A Moreira, N O Souza, R S Sousa, D Q Freitas, M V Lemos, D M De Paula, F J N Maia, D Lomonaco, S E Mazzetto, V P Feitosa
OBJECTIVES: Several polyphenols from renewable sources were surveyed for dentin biomodification. However, phenols from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, Anacardium occidentale) and from Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva) extract have never been evaluated. The present investigation aimed to compare the dentin collagen crosslinking (biomodification) effectiveness of polyphenols from Aroeira stem bark extract, proanthocyanidins (PACs) from grape-seed extract (Vitis vinifera), cardol and cardanol from CNSL after clinically relevant treatment for one minute...
July 24, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718977/effect-of-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-fermentation-on-polyphenolic-content-and-bioactivity-of-brown-seaweed-phlorotannin-rich-extracts
#11
Giulia Corona, Maria Magdalena Coman, Yuxuan Guo, Sarah Hotchkiss, Chris Gill, Parveen Yaqoob, Jeremy P E Spencer, Ian Rowland
SCOPE: Unlike other classes of polyphenols, there is a lack of knowledge regarding brown seaweed phlorotannins and their bioactivity. We investigated the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation on the bioactivity of a seaweed phlorotannin extract from Ascophyllum nodosum and its high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The highest phlorotannin and total polyphenol (TP) concentration was observed in the HMW fraction...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695776/chemical-characterization-and-determination-of-the-anti-oxidant-capacity-of-two-brown-algae-with-respect-to-sampling-season-and-morphological-structures-using-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-analyses
#12
Angelo Beratto, Cristian Agurto, Juanita Freer, Carlos Peña-Farfal, Nicolás Troncoso, Andrés Agurto, Rosario Del P Castillo
Brown algae biomass has been shown to be a highly important industrial source for the production of alginates and different nutraceutical products. The characterization of this biomass is necessary in order to allocate its use to specific applications according to the chemical and biological characteristics of this highly variable resource. The methods commonly used for algae characterization require a long time for the analysis and rigorous pretreatments of samples. In this work, nondestructive and fast analyses of different morphological structures from Lessonia spicata and Macrocystis pyrifera, which were collected during different seasons, were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques in combination with chemometric methods...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681699/expression-analysis-of-polyphenol-oxidase-isozymes-by-active-staining-method-and-tissue-browning-of-head-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#13
Takahiro Noda, Kazuhiko Iimure, Shunsuke Okamoto, Akira Saito
Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675968/effects-of-a-high-o2-dynamic-controlled-atmosphere-technology-on-the-browning-of-postharvest-white-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-in-relation-to-energy-metabolism
#14
Ling Li, Han Sun, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Xiangyou Wang
Browning is one of the main problems in senescence of mushrooms, and it is also one of the most important attributes accounting for the loss of the quality and reduction in market value. In order to study the relationship between the energy metabolism and the browning of white mushroom under high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere (HO-DCA), mushrooms were stored in 100% O2 (SCA1), 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (SCA2), 100% O2 for three days and then transferred into the treatment of 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (HO-DCA) at 2 ± 1 ℃ and air as control...
July 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659734/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-thermogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-brown-adipose-tissues-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Yangha Kim
Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea and has been considered a natural agent that can help to reduce the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were provided a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, following which they were divided into two groups: one on a high-fat control diet and the other on a 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652621/silicon-amendment-is-involved-in-the-induction-of-plant-defense-responses-to-a-phloem-feeder
#16
Lang Yang, Yongqiang Han, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Maolin Hou
Plant resistance to herbivores is a key component in integrated pest management. In most cases, silicon (Si) amendment to plants enhances resistance to herbivorous insects. The increase of plant physical barrier and altered insect behaviors are proposed as mechanisms for the enhanced resistance in Si-amended plants, but our understanding of the induced mechanisms involved in Si-enhanced plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects remains unclear. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants impacts multiple plant defense responses induced by a phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH)...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635654/the-identification-of-a-sirt6-activator-from-brown-algae-fucus-distichus
#17
Minna K Rahnasto-Rilla, Padraig McLoughlin, Tomasz Kulikowicz, Maire Doyle, Vilhelm A Bohr, Maija Lahtela-Kakkonen, Luigi Ferrucci, Maria Hayes, Ruin Moaddel
Brown seaweeds contain many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, fucosterol, and fucoxantin. These compounds have several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic activity, although in most cases their mechanisms of action are not understood. In this study, extracts generated from five brown algae (Fucus dichitus, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Cytoseira tamariscofolia, Cytoseira nodacaulis, Alaria esculenta) were tested for their ability to activate SIRT6 resulting in H3K9 deacetylation...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635652/fucaceae-a-source-of-bioactive-phlorotannins
#18
REVIEW
Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612024/the-potential-of-a-brown-microalga-cultivated-in-high-salt-medium-for-the-production-of-high-value-compounds
#19
Saoussan Boukhris, Khaled Athmouni, Ibtissem Hamza-Mnif, Rayda Siala-Elleuch, Habib Ayadi, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami-Kamoun
Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605976/anti-mutagenic-potential-of-algal-extracts-on-chromosomal-aberrations-in-allium-cepa-l
#20
Hoda Anwer Mansour, Hala Mahfouz, Nesma Maher
In the present study, sodium azide (SA) toxicity and the anti-mutagenic effects of different algal extracts at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were studied on the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal and nuclear aberrations using Allium cepa L. root assay. Moreover, phytochemical screening of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants compounds, total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging activity, polysaccharides, and phenolic contents were done for two red seaweeds (Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux and Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey) and for one brown seaweed (Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux)...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
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