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Browning polyphenols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#1
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195547/phenolic-compounds-from-citrus-leaves-antioxidant-activity-and-enzymatic-browning-inhibition
#2
Bachra Khettal, Nabil Kadri, Karim Tighilet, Ahmed Adjebli, Farid Dahmoune, Fadila Maiza-Benabdeslam
Background Phenolic compounds from Citrus are known to be a topic of many studies due to their biological properties including antioxidant activity. Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts were isolated from Citrus leaves of different species (C. clementina, C. limon, C. hamlin, C. navel, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium and C. grandis) harvested in Algeria. Results The results showed that aqueous extracts of all species are rich in total phenolic compounds and flavonoids (from 68.23 to 125.28 mg GAE/g DM) and (from 11...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178372/antimicrobial-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-derived-from-seed-coats-of-selected-soybean-varieties
#3
Rajaa Abutheraa, Navam Hettiarachchy, Geetha Kumar-Phillips, Ronny Horax, Pengyin Chen, Ruben Morawicki, Young Min Kwon
Soybean hulls or seed coats consist of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and polyphenols such as anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones. The polyphenolics in the seed coats give them various colors such as black, brown, green, yellow, or even a mottled appearance. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of phenolic extracts from the seed coats of different colored soybeans (yellow, dark brown, brown, and black) were evaluated against foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni in broth-cultures as well as on chicken skin...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134448/nutritional-value-and-antioxidant-content-of-seed-containing-and-seedless-eggplant-fruits-of-two-cultivars-grown-under-protected-cultivation-during-autumn-winter-and-spring-summer
#4
Despoina I Makrogianni, Anastasia Tsistraki, Ioannis C Karapanos, Harold C Passam
BACKGROUND: Due to their low carbohydrate and high antioxidant content, eggplants are beneficial for the human diet. At <15 °C, pollen production and fertility are reduced and plant-growth regulators may be used to set seedless fruit. Because only the agronomic effects of hormone are well-documented, we investigated the composition and metabolism during the development/maturation of seed-containing and seedless fruits of two cultivars grown over two seasons. RESULTS: The respiration rate of both seedless and seed-containing fruit decreased with development and maturation...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132190/biosynthesis-of-metal-nanoparticles-using-three-marine-plant-species-anti-algal-efficiencies-against-oscillatoria-simplicissima
#5
Hala Y El-Kassas, Mary G Ghobrial
This study aims at controlling of the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria simplicissima, those that produce neurotoxins and have negative impacts on the aquatic organisms, using biosynthesized metal nanoparticles (NPs). Silver-NPs (Ag-NPs) have been successfully biosynthesized using Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis tetrathele cultures. Also, Ag-NPs and iron oxide-NPs (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized by Halophila stipulacea aqueous extract. The structural composition of the different biosynthesized NPs was studied...
January 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111769/suitability-of-combination-of-calcium-propionate-and-chitosan-for-preserving-minimally-processed-banana-quality
#6
Amin Mirshekari, Babak Madani, John B Golding
BACKGROUND: Marketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However there is no scientific literature on the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on quality attributes of fresh cut banana and therefore the aim of this research was to investigate these effects. RESULTS: This study showed that the application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) treatment retained higher firmness, ascorbic acid content (AA) content, total antioxidant activity (TAA) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) with lower browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activities and microbial growth compared with the control banana slices after five days of cold storage...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042834/phlorotannins-towards-new-pharmacological-interventions-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#7
REVIEW
Graciliana Lopes, Paula B Andrade, Patrícia Valentão
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia, and predicted by the World Health Organization as the expected 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) comprises the majority of diabetic individuals around the world (90%-95%). Pathophysiologically, this disorder results from a deregulation of glucose homeostasis, worsened by overweight and by a sedentary lifestyle, culminating in life-threatening cardiovascular events. The currently available anti-diabetic drugs are not devoid of undesirable side effects, sometimes responsible for poor therapeutic compliance...
December 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982026/mechanism-of-internal-browning-of-pineapple-the-role-of-gibberellins-catabolism-gene-acga2ox-and-gas
#8
Qin Zhang, Xiuwen Rao, Lubin Zhang, Congcong He, Fang Yang, Shijiang Zhu
Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918447/enhanced-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activity-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-synthesised-using-sargassum-incisifolium-aqueous-extracts
#9
Mokone Mmola, Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, John J Bolton, Nicole Sibuyi, Mervin E Meyer, Denzil R Beukes, Edith Antunes
A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium. The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889229/brown-propolis-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-oxidative-damage-via-affecting-antioxidant-enzyme-system-in-mice
#10
Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki, Ali Shamsizadeh, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Elham Hakimizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the enzymes underlying the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms affected by stroke and are considered as oxidative stress biomarkers. Brown propolis (BP) is a bioactive natural product with a set of biological activities that in turn may differ depending on the area from which the substance is originated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-extracted brown propolis (WEBPs), from two regions of Iran, against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative injury in a mouse model of stroke...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874268/a-combination-of-resveratrol-and-quercetin-induces-browning-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-rats-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#11
Noemí Arias, Catalina Picó, M Teresa Macarulla, Paula Oliver, Jonatan Miranda, Andreu Palou, María P Portillo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether a combination of quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (RSV) would induce a white adipose tissue (WAT) browning effect. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were fed an obesogenic diet and divided into four groups: control, treated with RSV (15 mg/kg body weight/day; RSV group), treated with Q (30 mg/kg body weight/day; Q group), or treated with both polyphenols (RSV + Q group). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, body and WAT weights were significantly reduced in the RSV + Q group...
January 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872930/the-inhibition-effect-of-starch-nanoparticles-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-its-mechanism
#12
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865158/increasing-camp-levels-of-preadipocytes-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-treatment-induces-the-formation-of-beige-phenotypes-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#13
Toshiya Matsukawa, Myra O Villareal, Hideko Motojima, Hiroko Isoda
Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834493/an-emerging-trend-in-functional-foods-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetes-marine-algal-polyphenols
#14
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
Marine macroalgae are gaining recognition among the scientific community as a significant source of functional food ingredients. Due to the harsh environments in which macroalgae survive, they produce unique bioactive compounds that are not found in terrestrial plants. Polyphenols are the predominant bioactive compound in brown algae and are accountable for the majority of its biological activity. Phlorotannins are a type of polyphenol that are unique to marine sources and have exhibited protective effects against hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications, in cell culture, animal studies and some human studies...
November 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818296/low-molecular-weight-chitosan-is-an-effective-antifungal-agent-against-botryosphaeria-sp-and-preservative-agent-for-pear-pyrus-fruits
#15
Yunguang Wang, Bin Li, Xuedan Zhang, Nan Peng, Yuxia Mei, Yunxiang Liang
Antifungal activity and preservative effect of a low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) sample, derived from chitosan by enzymatic hydrolysis, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. A pathogenic fungal strain was isolated from decayed pear (Pyrus bretschneideri cv. "Huangguan") fruit and identified as Botryosphaeria sp. W-01. LMWC was shown to strongly inhibit W-01 growth based on studies of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial biomass and radial growth of the fungus. LMWC treatment of W-01 cells reduced ergosterol synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔY), early events of apoptosis...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809509/the-oxidative-activity-of-ellagitannins-dictates-their-tendency-to-form-highly-stabilized-complexes-with-bovine-serum-albumin-at-increased-ph
#16
Marica T Engström, Xiaowei Sun, Matthew P Suber, Min Li, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Ann E Hagerman
Many food and forage plants contain tannins, high molecular weight polyphenols that characteristically interact strongly with protein, forming complexes that affect taste, nutritional quality, and the health of the consumer. In the present study, the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and each of seven hydrolyzable tannins or epigallocatechin gallate was examined. The objective was to define the effect of tannin oxidation, measured as oxidative activity (browning) or as oxidizability (degradation monitored by HPLC), on the formation on highly stabilized tannin-protein complexes and to determine how the reaction depended on the pH conditions...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790222/transcriptome-analysis-of-a-new-peanut-seed-coat-mutant-for-the-physiological-regulatory-mechanism-involved-in-seed-coat-cracking-and-pigmentation
#17
Liyun Wan, Bei Li, Manish K Pandey, Yanshan Wu, Yong Lei, Liying Yan, Xiaofeng Dai, Huifang Jiang, Juncheng Zhang, Guo Wei, Rajeev K Varshney, Boshou Liao
Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa) was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as "peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb)." The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly shorter than wild type...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765969/postharvest-treatment-of-antioxidant-reduces-lenticel-browning-and-improves-cosmetic-appeal-of-mango-mangifera-indica-l-fruits-without-impairing-quality
#18
K Prasad, R R Sharma, Manish Srivastav
The present study reports the usefulness of ascorbic acid for reducing lenticels browning (LB) in mango, which impairs the cosmetic appeal and thereby the export. Postharvest dip treatment of ascorbic acid at different concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ppm) was given to four varieties of mango (Indian-'Dashehari', 'Langra'; Exotic-'Sensation', 'Eldon'). After treatment, fruits were stored at ambient conditions (35 ± 4 °C and 65 ± 5 % RH) for 10 days. At the end of storage period, observations were recorded on several parameters...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754466/natural-products-for-the-treatment-of-chlamydiaceae-infections
#19
REVIEW
Mika A Brown, Michael G Potroz, Seoh-Wei Teh, Nam-Joon Cho
Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources...
October 16, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750423/effect-of-plant-age-on-the-quantity-and-quality-of-proteins-extracted-from-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-leaves
#20
Alexandra Kiskini, Anne Vissers, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen, Peter Alexander Wierenga
Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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