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Browning polyphenols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718977/effect-of-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-fermentation-on-polyphenolic-content-and-bioactivity-of-brown-seaweed-phlorotannin-rich-extracts
#1
Giulia Corona, Maria Magdalena Coman, Yuxuan Guo, Sarah Hotchkiss, Chris Gill, Parveen Yaqoob, Jeremy P E Spencer, Ian Rowland
SCOPE: Unlike other classes of polyphenols, there is a lack of knowledge regarding brown seaweed phlorotannins and their bioactivity. We investigated the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation on the bioactivity of a seaweed phlorotannin extract from Ascophyllum nodosum and its high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The highest phlorotannin and total polyphenol (TP) concentration was observed in the HMW fraction...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695776/chemical-characterization-and-determination-of-the-anti-oxidant-capacity-of-two-brown-algae-with-respect-to-sampling-season-and-morphological-structures-using-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-analyses
#2
Angelo Beratto, Cristian Agurto, Juanita Freer, Carlos Peña-Farfal, Nicolás Troncoso, Andrés Agurto, Rosario Del P Castillo
Brown algae biomass has been shown to be a highly important industrial source for the production of alginates and different nutraceutical products. The characterization of this biomass is necessary in order to allocate its use to specific applications according to the chemical and biological characteristics of this highly variable resource. The methods commonly used for algae characterization require a long time for the analysis and rigorous pretreatments of samples. In this work, nondestructive and fast analyses of different morphological structures from Lessonia spicata and Macrocystis pyrifera, which were collected during different seasons, were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques in combination with chemometric methods...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681699/expression-analysis-of-polyphenol-oxidase-isozymes-by-active-staining-method-and-tissue-browning-of-head-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#3
Takahiro Noda, Kazuhiko Iimure, Shunsuke Okamoto, Akira Saito
Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675968/effects-of-a-high-o2-dynamic-controlled-atmosphere-technology-on-the-browning-of-postharvest-white-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-in-relation-to-energy-metabolism
#4
Ling Li, Han Sun, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Xiangyou Wang
Browning is one of the main problems in senescence of mushrooms, and it is also one of the most important attributes accounting for the loss of the quality and reduction in market value. In order to study the relationship between the energy metabolism and the browning of white mushroom under high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere (HO-DCA), mushrooms were stored in 100% O2 (SCA1), 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (SCA2), 100% O2 for three days and then transferred into the treatment of 80% O2 + 20% CO2 (HO-DCA) at 2 ± 1 ℃ and air as control...
July 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659734/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-thermogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-brown-adipose-tissues-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Yangha Kim
Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea and has been considered a natural agent that can help to reduce the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were provided a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, following which they were divided into two groups: one on a high-fat control diet and the other on a 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652621/silicon-amendment-is-involved-in-the-induction-of-plant-defense-responses-to-a-phloem-feeder
#6
Lang Yang, Yongqiang Han, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Maolin Hou
Plant resistance to herbivores is a key component in integrated pest management. In most cases, silicon (Si) amendment to plants enhances resistance to herbivorous insects. The increase of plant physical barrier and altered insect behaviors are proposed as mechanisms for the enhanced resistance in Si-amended plants, but our understanding of the induced mechanisms involved in Si-enhanced plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects remains unclear. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants impacts multiple plant defense responses induced by a phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH)...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635654/the-identification-of-a-sirt6-activator-from-brown-algae-fucus-distichus
#7
Minna K Rahnasto-Rilla, Padraig McLoughlin, Tomasz Kulikowicz, Maire Doyle, Vilhelm A Bohr, Maija Lahtela-Kakkonen, Luigi Ferrucci, Maria Hayes, Ruin Moaddel
Brown seaweeds contain many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, fucosterol, and fucoxantin. These compounds have several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic activity, although in most cases their mechanisms of action are not understood. In this study, extracts generated from five brown algae (Fucus dichitus, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Cytoseira tamariscofolia, Cytoseira nodacaulis, Alaria esculenta) were tested for their ability to activate SIRT6 resulting in H3K9 deacetylation...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635652/fucaceae-a-source-of-bioactive-phlorotannins
#8
REVIEW
Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612024/the-potential-of-a-brown-microalga-cultivated-in-high-salt-medium-for-the-production-of-high-value-compounds
#9
Saoussan Boukhris, Khaled Athmouni, Ibtissem Hamza-Mnif, Rayda Siala-Elleuch, Habib Ayadi, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami-Kamoun
Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605976/anti-mutagenic-potential-of-algal-extracts-on-chromosomal-aberrations-in-allium-cepa-l
#10
Hoda Anwer Mansour, Hala Mahfouz, Nesma Maher
In the present study, sodium azide (SA) toxicity and the anti-mutagenic effects of different algal extracts at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations were studied on the mitotic index (MI), chromosomal and nuclear aberrations using Allium cepa L. root assay. Moreover, phytochemical screening of photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants compounds, total antioxidant, DPPH scavenging activity, polysaccharides, and phenolic contents were done for two red seaweeds (Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux and Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey) and for one brown seaweed (Dictyopteris delicatula Lamouroux)...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510700/enhanced-biological-activities-of-gamma-irradiated-persimmon-leaf-extract
#11
Byoung-Ok Cho, Denis Nchang Che, Hong-Hua Yin, Seon-Il Jang
The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436036/oxidative-behavior-of-catechin-in-the-presence-of-inactive-dry-yeasts-a-comparison-with-sulfur-dioxide-ascorbic-acid-and-glutathione
#12
Piergiorgio Comuzzo, Rosanna Toniolo, Franco Battistutta, Marion Lizee, Rossella Svigelj, Roberto Zironi
BACKGROUND: The antioxidant capacity of an inactive dry yeast preparation (YD) was investigated by conventional analytical methods (spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography) as well as by cyclic voltammetry in a (+)-catechin model wine and compared with that of some of the most common antioxidants found in wine: sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione. RESULTS: Sulfur dioxide was the highest-performing substance in protecting (+)-catechin against browning, followed by ascorbic acid and the YD preparation...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397013/modulatory-efficacy-of-dieckol-on-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-cell-proliferation-apoptosis-invasion-and-angiogenesis-during-ndea-induced-rat-hepatocarcinogenesis
#13
Velayutham Sadeeshkumar, Arul Duraikannu, Samuthrapandian Ravichandran, Paulrasu Kodisundaram, Wilson Sylvester Fredrick, Rajagopal Gobalakrishnan
Dieckol (DEK) is a major polyphenol of marine brown seaweed Ecklonia cava which is a potential candidate for cancer therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of DEK as an anticancer drug remains to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive efficacy of DEK in N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis rats by analyzing markers of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Rats administered NDEA developed hepatocarcinogenesis that displayed apoptosis avoidance coupled to upregulation of pro-inflammatory, invasion, and angiogenesis markers...
April 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357791/role-of-brassinosteroids-in-alleviating-toxin-induced-stress-of-verticillium-dahliae-on-cotton-callus-growth
#14
Noreen Bibi, Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed, Kai Fan, Muhammad Dawood, Feng Li, Shuna Yuan, Xuede Wang
Brassinosteroids are well known to mitigate biotic stresses; however, their role to induce tolerance against Verticillium dahliae is unknown. The current study employed V. dahliae (Vd) toxin as pathogen-free model system to induce stress on cotton callus growth, and its amelioration was investigated using 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). Results revealed that EBR has ameliorative effects against Vd toxin with greater seen effect when callus was treated with EBR prior to its exposure to Vd toxin (pre-EBR treatment) than EBR applied along with Vd toxin simultaneously (co-EBR treatment)...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337785/transcriptomic-and-metabolic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-chilling-injury-in-peach-fruit
#15
Ke Wang, Xue-Ren Yin, Bo Zhang, Don Grierson, Chang-Jie Xu, Kun-Song Chen
Low temperature conditioning (LTC) alleviates peach fruit chilling injury but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. Here, changes in transcriptome, ethylene production, flesh softening, internal browning and membrane lipids were compared in fruit maintained in constant 0 °C and LTC (pre-storage at 8 °C for 5 d before storage at 0 °C). Low temperature conditioning resulted in a higher rate of ethylene production and a more rapid flesh softening as a result of higher expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and a series of cell wall hydrolases...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274409/unraveling-the-inhibition-mechanism-of-cyanidin-3-sophoroside-on-polyphenol-oxidase-and-its-effect-on-enzymatic-browning-of-apples
#16
Hridya Hemachandran, Amrita Anantharaman, Sankari Mohan, Gopalakrishnan Mohan, D Thirumal Kumar, Diksha Dey, Drishty Kumar, Priyanka Dey, Amrita Choudhury, C George Priya Doss, Siva Ramamoorthy
The hunt for anti-browning agents in the food and agricultural industries aims to minimize nutritional loss and prolong post harvest storage. In the present study, the effect of cyanidin-3-sophoroside (CS) from Garcinia mangostana rind, on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was investigated. The non-competitive inhibition mode of CS was determined by Lineweaver Burk plot. CS forms a ground-state complex by quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of PPO. The static quenching was temperature-dependent with an activation energy of 4...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272304/induction-of-low-level-hydrogen-peroxide-generation-by-unbleached-cotton-nonwovens-as-potential-wound-dressing-materials
#17
J Vincent Edwards, Nicolette T Prevost, Sunghyun Nam, Doug Hinchliffe, Brian Condon, Dorne Yager
Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) generation during cotton fiber development. Traditionally, the processing of cotton into gauze involves scouring and bleaching processes that remove the components in the cuticle and primary cell wall. The use of unbleached, greige cotton fibers in dressings, has been relatively unexplored...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242941/antioxidant-screening-and-phenolic-content-of-ethanol-extracts-of-selected-baja-california-peninsula-macroalgae
#18
Paola A Tenorio-Rodriguez, Jesús I Murillo-Álvarez, Ángel I Campa-Cordova, Carlos Angulo
The Baja California Peninsula in México has about 670 species of macroalgae along its coast. Species richness increases the probability of finding native macroalgae with potential as sources of bioactive compounds suitable for health, pharmacological, and cosmetic ingredients. To understand the biotechnological value of macroalgae from the peninsula, ethanol extracts from 17 macroalgae (four Chlorophyta, six Rhodophyta, seven Ochrophyta) were screened for antioxidant potential. To determine the antioxidant capacity of macroalgal extracts, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, and nitric oxide radical scavenging as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were measured...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242923/control-of-browning-of-minimally-processed-mangoes-subjected-to-ultraviolet-radiation-pulses
#19
Aline Ellen Duarte de Sousa, Kelem Silva Fonseca, Wilny Karen da Silva Gomes, Ana Priscila Monteiro da Silva, Ebenézer de Oliveira Silva, Rolf Puschmann
The pulsed ultraviolet radiation (UVP) has been used as an alternative strategy for the control of microorganisms in food. However, its application causes the browning of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. In order to control the browning of the 'Tommy Atkins' minimally processed mango and treated with UVP (5.7 J cm(-2)) it was used 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.5 μL L(-1)), an ethylene action blocker in separate stages, comprising five treatments: control, UVP (U), 1-MCP + UVP (M + U), UVP + 1-MCP (U + M) e 1-MCP + UVP + 1-MCP (M + U + M)...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#20
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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