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Browning polyphenols

Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
This study investigated the impact of a polyphenol-rich seaweed extract on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults, and, as a secondary outcome, the influence of ethnicity on these outcomes. Thirty-eight volunteers (26 non-Asian, 12 Asian) aged 19 to 56 years participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over trial. Participants each consumed a low (500 mg), and high (2000 mg) dose of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus ) extract, as well as a cellulose placebo (2000 mg), 30 min prior to 50 g of available carbohydrate from white bread...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Edwina Romanens, Rebecca Näf, Tobias Lobmaier, Vasilisa Pedan, Susette Freimüller Leischtfeld, Leo Meile, Susanne Miescher Schwenninger
Lab-scale systems modelling the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process are useful tools to research the influence of process parameters on the fermentation and the final bean quality. In this study in Honduras, a 1-kg lab-scale fermentation (LS-F) was compared to a 300-kg on-farm fermentation (OF-F) in a multiphasic approach, analysing microbial counts, microbial species diversity, physico-chemical parameters, and final dried bean quality. Yeast and total aerobic counts of up to 8 log CFU/g during the LS-F were comparable to the OF-F, while counts for lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were up to 3 log CFU/g lower during the LS-F than during the OF-F...
February 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kyoung Mi Moon, Bonggi Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Bong-Seon Lee, Choon Young Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
Enzymatic browning is a major issue that needs to be solved in the food industry. Although swertiajaponin is a flavonoid rich in the whole herb of Swertia japonica that has been clinically used, its biological functions and applicat​ion in the foods have not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that swertiajaponin efficiently blocked enzymatic browning in potatoes possibly by direct binding to and inactivating polyphenol oxidase. Furthermore, swertiajaponin showed potent antioxidant activity proven by markedly suppressed reactive oxygen species...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fubang Wang, Jixian Gong, Yanfei Ren, Jianfei Zhang
Biomass pigments have been regarded as promising alternatives to conventional synthetic dyestuffs for the development of sustainable and clean dyeing. This investigation focused on in situ dyeing of fabrics with biopigments derived from tea polyphenols via non-enzymatic browning reaction. The average particle size of dyed residual liquor with natural tea polyphenol was 717.0 nm (ranging from 615.5 to 811.2 nm), and the Integ value of dyed wool fabrics was the greatest compared to those of counterparts. In addition, the Integ values of dyed fabrics with residual liquor were much bigger than those with the first reaction solutions when dyed by identical dyeing liquor...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Zhuolun Song, Xavier Revelo, Weijuan Shao, Lili Tian, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Hong-Shuo Sun, Minna Woo, Daniel Winer, Tianru Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether dietary curcumin intervention targets both white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated energy expenditure. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a low-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD plus curcumin. In addition to assessing the effect of curcumin intervention on metabolic profiles, this study assessed WAT macrophage infiltration and composition and inflammatory cytokine production...
February 6, 2018: Obesity
X C Wang, X H Wang, J Wang, H Wang, H J Zhang, S G Wu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenols and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation, and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Pilar Escalante-Minakata, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Victoria García-Ibáñez, José J Virgen-Ortíz, Apolinar González-Potes, Jaime D Pérez-Martínez, Mario Orozco-Santos
This work presents a novel method to associate the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the peroxidase (POD) activities with the ripening-mediated color changes in banana peel and pulp by computational image analysis. The method was used to follow up the de-greening of peel and browning of homogenized pulp from 'Giant Dwarf' (GD: Musa AAA, subgroup Cavendish) and FHIA-23 (tetraploid hybrid, AAAA) banana cultivars. In both cultivars, the color changes of peel during the ripening process clearly showed four stages, which were used to group the fruit into ripening stages...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Nazikussabah Zaharudin, Armando Asunción Salmeán, Lars Ove Dragsted
Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition was assessed in comparison with acarbose. The methanol extract of Laminaria digitata and the acetone extract of Undaria pinnatifida showed inhibitory activity against α-amylase, IC50 0.74 ± 0.02 mg/ml and 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
T A Kuznetsova, L A Ivanushko, E V Persiyanova, A L Shutikova, S P Ermakova, M Yu Khotimchenko, N N Besednova
The use of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Fucus evanescens as adjuvants (native fucoidan in combination with polyphenols, fucoidan without polyphenols, a product of enzymatic hydrolysis of fucoidan) stimulated the formation of specific antibodies to the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBs-AG). Immunization of mice with vaccine compositions containing HBs-AG and fucoidan samples resulted in increasing the serum level of the pro-inflammatory (TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-2) cytokines. Increased production of these cytokines was detected in the culture of splenocytes additionally stimulated in vitro by fucoidans or phytohemagglutinin...
November 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Ah-Na Kim, Kyo-Yeon Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jiyeon Chun, William L Kerr, Sung-Gil Choi
This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N2 and CO2 ) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Patricio Olmedo, Adrián A Moreno, Dayan Sanhueza, Iván Balic, Christian Silva-Sanzana, Baltasar Zepeda, Julian C Verdonk, César Arriagada, Claudio Meneses, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
January 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Prashant Kaushik, Pietro Gramazio, Santiago Vilanova, María D Raigón, Jaime Prohens, Mariola Plazas
Increasing the content in bioactive phenolics in the eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is of interest, but may result in enhanced browning. We evaluated six varieties of S. melongena, 22 accessions of wild related species and 42 interspecific hybrids between cultivated eggplant and wild relatives for phenolics content, fruit flesh colour, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and fruit flesh browning. Wild relatives generally had a higher content in phenolics and a broader range of variation than cultivated eggplant...
December 2017: Food Research International
Mubarak Iminjan, Xue-Mei Cheng, Nazuk Abudu, Abdurahman Nurulla, Zhi-Hong Ji, Halmurat Upur
The main objective was to research the process of gallnut suppository preparation with its water extract as the main drug, and evaluate its irritation to rectal mucosa. gallnut extract was obtained by decocting method, and its suppository preparation was obtained by fusion method with semi-synthetic aliphatic esters and rose flower oil as the matrix. Weight difference and in vitro melting time limit of the suppository were assayed and UV-Vis was used to determine the contents of polyphenols, tannin and saccharide...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jin Li, Kang Sun, Qingping Ma, Jin Chen, Le Wang, Dingjun Yang, Xuan Chen, Xinghui Li
When the homogenate of fresh tea tree leaves was fermented to produce black tea beverage, the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (main pathogen or endophyte of Camellia sinensis ) may be mixed into the fermentation liquor. However, it was unclear whether C. gloeosporioides- contaminated tea beverage would damage human health. Therefore, we investigated the changes of functional components and the influences on mice. C. gloeosporioides was added to the green tea infusion. After cultivation of 48 h, tea polyphenols, caffeine, and L-theanine decreased by 31...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, David W Morton
High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with DPPH free radical method and α-amylase bioassay was used to compare antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from 10 marine macroalgae species (3 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta and 3 Rhodophyta) from Blue Lagoon beach (Malaysia). Samples were also evaluated for their phenolic and stigmasterol content. On average, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the ethyl acetate extracts (55.1mg/100g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) compared to 35...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Aydan H Yatmaz, Tetsuaki Kinoshita, Akio Miyazato, Masahiro Takagi, Yoshio Tsujino, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
Vinegar is a widely used condiment in the world, and is produced from ethanol by acetic acid fermentation. Different fruits, vegetables, cereals, and wines can be used as ingredients for vinegar production. It is known that vinegar has many nutrient components such as organic acids, polyphenols, and aromatic compounds. Because of these bioactive components, it has many health benefits. China has a long history of producing vinegar and has been using it for health products and as medicine. Chinese aromatic Zhenjiang vinegar (Kozu) is produced from sticky rice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Sabrina Zimdars, Julia Hitschler, Andreas Schieber, Fabian Weber
Processing of Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes leads to enhanced enzymatic browning reactions mainly caused by the enzyme laccase which is able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic compounds. The extent of color deterioration depends on the activity of the enzymes secreted by the fungus. The present study revealed significant differences in the oxidative properties of secretomes of several B. cinerea strains isolated from five grape varieties. The presumed laccase-containing secretomes varied in their catalytic activity toward six phenolic compounds present in grapes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michael T Empl, Hong Cai, Shan Wang, Johannes Junginger, Tina Kostka, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Karen Brown, Andreas J Gescher, Pablo Steinberg
SCOPE: Evidence suggests that the dietary consumption of plant extracts containing polyphenols might help prevent the onset of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the chemopreventive and antiproliferative efficacy of a grapevine shoot extract (Vineatrol(®) 30) containing resveratrol and resveratrol oligomers was investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vivo study was performed using Apc(Min) mice on a high-fat diet, which represents a model of human adenomatous polyposis, while the potential of the extract as well as some of its isolated constituents to inhibit intestinal adenoma cell proliferation in vitro was investigated using APC10...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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