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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771498/autonomy-connectedness-mediates-sex-differences-in-symptoms-of-psychopathology
#1
Marrie H J Bekker, Marcel A L M van Assen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). METHOD: Participants (N = 5,525) from a representative community sample in the Netherlands filled out questionnaires regarding the variables under study. RESULTS: Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, SA; sensitivity to others, SO; capacity for managing new situations, CMNS) fully mediated the sex differences in depression and anxiety, and partly in eating disorder -(drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and anti-social personality disorder characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764678/the-specific-and-combined-role-of-domestic-violence-and-mental-health-disorders-during-pregnancy-on-new-born-health
#2
Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Luis Augusto Rohde, Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Adriana Argeu, Euripides Constantino Miguel, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero Grisi, Bacy Fleitlich-Bilyk
BACKGROUND: Addressing impaired foetal growth is recognized as a public health priority. Certain risk factors for this condition, such as poor nutritional status at birth, have been found to be highly correlated with poverty. However, the role of psychosocial factors, specifically the mother's mental health and exposure to violence during pregnancy, have yet to be further explored. Our objective was to determine if there is a measurable association between combined psychosocial factors, specifically domestic violence and mental disorders, and birth outcomes, specifically birth nutritional status and preterm delivery...
August 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675195/how-to-deal-with-violent-and-aggressive-patients-in-acute-medical-settings
#3
R H Harwood
Dealing with violence and aggression is an area where health professionals often feel uncertain. Standing at the interface between medicine, psychiatry and law, the best actions may not be clear, and guidelines neither consistently applicable nor explicit. An aggressive, violent or abusive patient may be behaving anti-socially or criminally. But in acute medical settings it is more likely that a medical, mental health or emotional problem, or some combination thereof, is the explanation and usually we will not know the relative contribution of each element...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638202/characteristics-of-aggressive-behavior-among-male-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Xiaomin Zhu, Wen Li, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of the aggressive behavior is higher among the patients with severe mental disorder such as schizophrenia than the general population. The study of factors related to aggressive behavior has great meaning in designing prevention and intervention methods with this population of patients. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of assaultive behavior of male patients with schizophrenia who have been hospitalized. METHODS: Using a continuous sampling method, data from 75 male inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was collected at the psychiatric unit of Central South University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575421/evidence-of-the-impact-of-the-truth-finishit-campaign
#5
Vallone Vallone, Cantrell Cantrell, Bennett Bennett, Smith Smith, Jessica Rath, Xiao Xiao, Greenberg Greenberg, Elizabeth C Hair
Introduction: Over the past decade, public education mass media campaigns have been shown to be successful in changing tobacco-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors among youth and young adults. In 2014, the national truth® campaign re-launched a new phase of the campaign targeted at a broad audience of youth and young adults, aged 15-21, to help end the tobacco epidemic. Methods: The study sample for this analysis is drawn from the Truth Longitudinal Cohort (TLC), a probability-based, nationally representative cohort designed to evaluate the relationship between awareness of truth media messages and changes in targeted attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors over time...
June 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535982/altered-gene-expression-in-early-postnatal-monoamine-oxidase-a-knockout-mice
#6
Kevin Chen, Abbey Kardys, Yibu Chen, Stephen Flink, Boris Tabakoff, Jean C Shih
We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here...
August 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446891/moral-attitudes-predict-cheating-and-gamesmanship-behaviors-among-competitive-tennis-players
#7
Fabio Lucidi, Arnaldo Zelli, Luca Mallia, Giampaolo Nicolais, Lambros Lazuras, Martin S Hagger
Background: The present study tested Lee et al.'s (2008) model of moral attitudes and cheating behavior in sports in an Italian sample of young tennis players and extended it to predict behavior in actual match play. In the first phase of the study we proposed that moral, competence and status values would predict prosocial and antisocial moral attitudes directly, and indirectly through athletes' goal orientations. In the second phase, we hypothesized that moral attitudes would directly predict actual cheating behavior observed during match play...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154787/survivors-solidarity-and-attachment-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-the-typhoon-haiyan-philippines
#8
Andrea Bartolucci, Michele Magni
INTRODUCTION: Anti-social behavior and self-preservation are often assumed to be normal responses to threats and disasters; on the contrary, decades of research and empirical studies in social sciences showed that pro-social behaviors are frequently common and that solidarity is the typical response to a variety of threats. The main objective of this study is to investigate and describe survivors' behavior, especially solidarity, according to the presence of familiar persons and to the perception of physical danger, elaborating the framework of Mawson's social attachment theory...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#9
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069991/community-alcohol-partnerships-with-the-alcohol-industry-what-is-their-purpose-and-are-they-effective-in-reducing-alcohol-harms
#10
M Petticrew, N Douglas, P D'Souza, Y M Shi, M A Durand, C Knai, E Eastmure, N Mays
BACKGROUND: Local initiatives to reduce alcohol harms are common. One UK approach, Community Alcohol Partnerships (CAPs), involves partnerships between the alcohol industry and local government, focussing on alcohol misuse and anti-social behaviour (ASB) among young people. This study aimed to assess the evidence of effectiveness of CAPs. METHODS: We searched CAP websites and documents, and databases, and contacted CAPs to identify evaluations and summarize their findings...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068856/effects-of-ethanol-on-social-avoidance-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#11
Cristiane A Favoretto, Giovana C Macedo, Isabel M H Quadros
In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse...
January 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040454/towards-an-animal-model-of-callousness
#12
REVIEW
Julen Hernandez-Lallement, Marijn van Wingerden, Tobias Kalenscher
Callous-unemotional traits - the insensitivity to other's welfare and well-being - are characterized by a lack of empathy. They are characteristic of psychopathy and can be found in other anti-social disorders, such as conduct disorder. Because of the increasing prevalence of anti-social disorders and the rising societal costs of violence and aggression, it is of great importance to elucidate the psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying callousness in the search for pharmacological treatments. One promising avenue is to create a relevant animal model to explore the neural bases of callousness...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835675/group-membership-modulates-the-neural-circuitry-underlying-third-party-punishment
#13
Rosalba Morese, Daniela Rabellino, Fabio Sambataro, Felice Perussia, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Bruno G Bara, Francesca M Bosco
This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829933/desiring-neoliberalism
#14
Gundula Ludwig
The paper is based on the premise that neoliberalism is a political rationality that is not only anti-social but also requires an anti-democratic and violent form of statehood. However, neoliberalism is not solely based on coercion and force, but paradoxically also on consensus. This consensus is not least organized through its flexibilized and pluralized sexual politics. By focussing on sexual politics in Germany's capital Berlin, the paper highlights that the flexibilization of the apparatus of sexuality is not merely a side effect of neoliberalism but a constitutive element of neoliberal governmentality that is deployed to legitimate an anti-democratic and violent neoliberal state...
2016: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743424/assessment-of-rates-of-recanting-and-hair-testing-as-a-biological-measure-of-drug-use-in-a-general-population-sample-of-young-people
#15
Michelle Taylor, John Sullivan, Susan M Ring, John Macleod, Matthew Hickman
AIMS: We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1991-present. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3643 participants who provided hair and self-report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years...
March 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709746/dating-violence-and-physical-health-a-longitudinal-lens-on-the-significance-of-relationship-dynamics-and-anti-social-lifestyle-characteristics
#16
Jennifer E Copp, Peggy C Giordano, Monica A Longmore, Wendy D Manning
BACKGROUND: Scholars have documented the significant physical health consequences of intimate partner violence. Yet, because existing research draws primarily on clinical samples of adult women, it is unclear whether exposure to dating violence is related to health detriments among young men and women. Furthermore, data limitations largely have precluded consideration of the mechanisms underlying these previously observed associations. AIMS: We sought to examine the direct association between dating violence and self-rated physical health during adolescence and across the transition to adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708460/respectability-morality-and-disgust-in-the-night-time-economy-exploring-reactions-to-lap-dance-clubs-in-england-and-wales
#17
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650113/maternal-viral-infection-during-pregnancy-elicits-anti-social-behavior-in-neonatal-piglet-offspring-independent-of-postnatal-microglial-cell-activation
#18
Adrienne M Antonson, Emily C Radlowski, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced stress resilience in offspring, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that piglets born from gilts infected with a respiratory virus during late gestation would exhibit aberrant microglia activity, cognitive deficits and reduced sociability. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV; 5×10(5) TCID50 of live PRRSV) or saline at gestational day 76...
January 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641922/independent-component-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-pedophiles
#19
J M Cantor, S J Lafaille, J Hannah, A Kucyi, D W Soh, T A Girard, D J Mikulis
INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging and other studies have changed the common view that pedophilia is a result of childhood sexual abuse and instead is a neurologic phenomenon with prenatal origins. Previous research has identified differences in the structural connectivity of the brain in pedophilia. AIM: To identify analogous differences in functional connectivity. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance images were recorded from three groups of participants while they were at rest: pedophilic men with a history of sexual offenses against children (n = 37) and two control groups: non-pedophilic men who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 28) and non-pedophilic men with no criminal history (n = 39)...
October 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621197/effects-of-chronic-oxytocin-on-attention-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-in-infant-macaques
#20
Lisa A Parr, Jenna M Brooks, Trina Jonesteller, Shannon Moss, James O Jordano, Thomas R Heitz
Studies in a variety of species have reported enhanced prosocial effects after an acute administration of the neuromodulating hormone, oxytocin (OT). Although the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, there is broad interest in developing OT into a treatment for social deficits. Only a few studies, however, have examined the effects of OT if given repeatedly during early development, the period when early intervention is likely to have the greatest benefits for reversing the progression towards social impairment...
December 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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