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Rosalba Morese, Daniela Rabellino, Fabio Sambataro, Felice Perussia, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Bruno G Bara, Francesca M Bosco
This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior...
2016: PloS One
Gundula Ludwig
The paper is based on the premise that neoliberalism is a political rationality that is not only anti-social but also requires an anti-democratic and violent form of statehood. However, neoliberalism is not solely based on coercion and force, but paradoxically also on consensus. This consensus is not least organized through its flexibilized and pluralized sexual politics. By focussing on sexual politics in Germany's capital Berlin, the paper highlights that the flexibilization of the apparatus of sexuality is not merely a side effect of neoliberalism but a constitutive element of neoliberal governmentality that is deployed to legitimate an anti-democratic and violent neoliberal state...
2016: Sexuality Research & Social Policy: Journal of NSRC: SR & SP
M Taylor, J Sullivan, S M Ring, J Macleod, M Hickman
AIMS: We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1991-present. PARTICIPANTS: 3643 participants who provided hair and self-report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years...
October 15, 2016: Addiction
Jennifer E Copp, Peggy C Giordano, Monica A Longmore, Wendy D Manning
BACKGROUND: Scholars have documented the significant physical health consequences of intimate partner violence. Yet, because existing research draws primarily on clinical samples of adult women, it is unclear whether exposure to dating violence is related to health detriments among young men and women. Furthermore, data limitations largely have precluded consideration of the mechanisms underlying these previously observed associations. AIMS: We sought to examine the direct association between dating violence and self-rated physical health during adolescence and across the transition to adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
Adrienne M Antonson, Emily C Radlowski, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced stress resilience in offspring, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that piglets born from gilts infected with a respiratory virus during late gestation would exhibit aberrant microglia activity, cognitive deficits and reduced sociability. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV; 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of live PRRSV) or saline at gestational day 76...
September 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
J M Cantor, S J Lafaille, J Hannah, A Kucyi, D W Soh, T A Girard, D J Mikulis
INTRODUCTION: Neuroimaging and other studies have changed the common view that pedophilia is a result of childhood sexual abuse and instead is a neurologic phenomenon with prenatal origins. Previous research has identified differences in the structural connectivity of the brain in pedophilia. AIM: To identify analogous differences in functional connectivity. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance images were recorded from three groups of participants while they were at rest: pedophilic men with a history of sexual offenses against children (n = 37) and two control groups: non-pedophilic men who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 28) and non-pedophilic men with no criminal history (n = 39)...
October 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Lisa A Parr, Jenna M Brooks, Trina Jonesteller, Shannon Moss, James O Jordano, Thomas R Heitz
Studies in a variety of species have reported enhanced prosocial effects after an acute administration of the neuromodulating hormone, oxytocin (OT). Although the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, there is broad interest in developing OT into a treatment for social deficits. Only a few studies, however, have examined the effects of OT if given repeatedly during early development, the period when early intervention is likely to have the greatest benefits for reversing the progression towards social impairment...
August 31, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
S Bendahan, L Goette, J Thoresen, L Loued-Khenissi, F Hollis, C Sandi
Decision-making processes can be modulated by stress, and the time elapsed from stress induction seems to be a crucial factor in determining the direction of the effects. Although current approaches consider the first post-stress hour a uniform period, the dynamic pattern of activation of the physiological stress systems (i.e., the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) suggests that its neurobehavioral impact might be heterogeneous. Here we evaluate economic risk preferences on the gain domain (i...
September 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lucy Wainwright, Claire Nee, Aldert Vrij
Fostering positive future selves in mid-adolescence has shown promising results in reducing problematic behaviour, though little work has been done outside the United States or with younger children. We explored the link between future selves and delinquency in a younger sample of boys (Mage = 12, SD = 0.73, N = 126) in the United Kingdom, at the nascent stage of self-identity and anti-social behaviour. Participants, who varied in degree of self-reported delinquency and risk, described their short- and long-term possible selves and strategies to achieve them...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Katherine Magnuson, Greg Duncan, Kenneth T H Lee, Molly Metzger
Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal dataset, this study estimates the association between children's academic skills, anti-social behaviors and attention problems, all averaged across middle childhood, and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of anti-social behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment...
August 2016: American Educational Research Journal
John W Welte, Grace M Barnes, Marie-Cecile O Tidwell, William F Wieczorek
In this article we examine data from a national U.S. adult survey of gambling to determine correlates of problem gambling and discuss them in light of theories of the etiology of problem gambling. These include theories that focus on personality traits, irrational beliefs, anti-social tendencies, neighborhood influences and availability of gambling. Results show that males, persons in the 31-40 age range, blacks, and the least educated had the highest average problem gambling symptoms. Adults who lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods also had the most problem gambling symptoms...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Perry Else
While "outside of society" for much of the last sixty years, adolescents have attracted attention in recent times because of perceptions of their anti-social and, in some cases, violent behaviour. Teenagers face many challenges on their journey to adulthood; growth spurts, hormone developments and changes in the structure of the brain. These biological challenges have been affected since around 1990 by the impact of technology and the subsequent cultural changes. Activities, like the technology-driven, socially-networked pastime, Neknomination, amongst others, meet basic drives that gym-based activities do not...
2014: Children
Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski
Bystanders witness bullying, but are not directly involved as a bully or victim; however, they often engage in negative bystander behavior. This study examines how social capital deprivation and anti-social capital are associated with the likelihood of engaging in negative bystander behavior in a sample (N = 5752) of racially/ethnically diverse rural youth. Data were collected using an online, youth self-report; the current study uses cross sectional data. Following multiple imputation, a binary logistic regression with robust standard errors was run...
June 8, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Ryan D Edwards
Drug-related overdoses appear to be a major factor behind an historic pause or even a reversal in the predominant downward trend over time in U.S. mortality rates, a departure that is especially evident among non-Hispanic white females of middle age. The new geography of accidental poisoning deaths and their covariates suggests that we should reassess traditional policies and perspectives in order to combat this threat to public health.
August 2016: Preventive Medicine
Caroline B R Evans, Katie L Cotter, Roderick A Rose, Paul R Smokowski
BACKGROUND: Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Susan Klostermann, Arin Connell, Beth Stormshak
Various developmental models have attempted to explain the relationship between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms in youth, often proposing intermediary processes such as social and academic functioning. However, few studies have tested these developmental models fully, particularly in mixed gender samples. The current study strives to fill this gap in the literature, examining these processes in an early adolescent sample. Results indicated both direct and indirect paths between antisocial behavior and depression...
March 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Petri J Kajonius, Björn N Persson, Patricia Rosenberg, Danilo Garcia
Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen...
2016: PeerJ
Ben Kenward, Therese Östh
The human tendency to impose costs on those who have behaved antisocially towards third parties (third-party punishment) has a formative influence on societies, yet very few studies of the development of this tendency exist. In most studies where young children have punished, participants have imposed costs on puppets, leaving open the question as to whether young children punish in real third-party situations. Here, five-year-olds were given the opportunity to allocate desirable or unpleasant items to antisocial and neutral adults, who were presented as real and shown on video...
September 2015: Aggressive Behavior
Sarah Babkirk, Lauren V Saunders, Beylul Solomon, Ellen M Kessel, Angela Crossman, Nurper Gokhan, Tracy A Dennis
The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to both of these factors simultaneously. This was the goal of the present study. Executive function, as measured by a working memory task, and temperamental fear, as measured via maternal report were assessed in relation to observed deceptive behavior among 6 - 9-year-old children (N = 43)...
2015: Journal of Moral Education
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