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Leila Siciliano-Martina, Jason P Martina
Maternal deprivation can cause long-term behavioral changes in captive mammals. Studies regarding captive ungulates have also indicated behavioral shifts in the presence of the animal keeping staff; however, little is known about these effects in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). To examine this, we observed a population of reticulated giraffes composed of maternally raised and maternally deprived individuals by direct and camera observations at Binder Park Zoo, Battle Creek, Michigan. We conducted observations using a unique ethogram with special regard for behaviors that might indicate stress or anti-social tendencies...
March 12, 2018: Zoo Biology
Gordon S Waddington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Sophie E Walker, Carmen Sandi
Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid (GR) responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress...
February 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Steven J Howard, Elena Vasseleu, Cathrine Neilsen-Hewett, Ken Cliff
BACKGROUND: For children with low self-regulation in the preschool years, the likelihood of poorer intellectual, health, wealth and anti-social outcomes in adulthood is overwhelming. Yet this knowledge has not yielded a framework for understanding self-regulatory change, nor generated particularly successful methods for enacting this change. Reconciling insights from cross-disciplinary theory, research and practice, this study seeks to implement a newly developed program of low-cost and routine practices and activities for supporting early self-regulatory development within preschool contexts and to evaluate its effect on children's self-regulation, executive function and school readiness; and educator perceived knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy related to self-regulation...
January 24, 2018: Trials
Anne Krayer, Catherine A Robinson, Rob Poole
Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour...
January 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Kerry S O'Brien, Walter Forrest, Iain Greenlees, Daniel Rhind, Sophia Jowett, Ilana Pinsky, Albert Espelt, Marina Bosque-Prous, Anders Larrabee Sonderlund, Matteo Vergani, Muhammad Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Emma L Davies, Emma-Ben C Lewis, Sarah E Hennelly
BACKGROUND: Excessive drinking is commonplace at UK Universities. Individuals may misperceive how much they drink compared to others and are less likely to think that they will suffer adverse consequences. Young people often distance themselves and their friends from 'problem drinkers'. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore how student drinkers compared their own drinking behaviors to the drinking behaviors of others. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 416 students aged 18-30 (68...
January 5, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Nicola Boydell, Winifred Nalukenge, Godfrey Siu, Janet Seeley, Daniel Wight
Corporal punishment in the early years is associated with anti-social behaviour and violence, but little is known about its social and cultural context in low income countries. This paper analyses how 12 deprived women in Kampala, Uganda, perceived corporal punishment, drawing on repeated semi-structured interviews. All thought it was sometimes necessary, for three main reasons. First, it was an important strategy to ensure good behaviour and maintain their and their child's, respectability, crucial to self-respect given severe poverty...
November 2017: European Journal of Development Research
Kyung-Suk Lee, Ok-Joo Choi, Joon-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Children who have experienced negative rearing behaviors show a lack of self-confidence due to emotional instability and are reserved in interpersonal relationships. This can lead to failure in social adaptation and a high risk of depression, suicide, criminal acts, and anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of experiencing negative parental rearing behaviors, such as neglect and abuse, on adolescents' social withdrawal and aggression, by utilizing multivariate latent growth models...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Danilo Garcia, Fernando R González Moraga
BACKGROUND: The Big Five traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism: OCEAN) have been suggested to provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Nevertheless, current research consists of mixed and inconsistent associations between the Dark Triad and OCEAN. Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016), a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloninger's biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character...
2017: PeerJ
Palesa Nkomo, Nisha Naicker, Angela Mathee, Jacky Galpin, Linda M Richter, Shane A Norris
Chronic lead exposure is associated with neurological ill-health including anti-social behavior such as aggressive behavior. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure at 13years old and dimensions of aggressive behavior during mid-adolescence. The study sample included 508 males and 578 females in mid-adolescence (age 14 to 15years) from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort in Johannesburg, South Africa. Blood samples collected at age 13years were used to measure blood lead levels...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
James W Roberts, Simon J Bennett, Spencer J Hayes
Social primes (pro-social, anti-social) can modulate mimicry behaviour. To date, these social modulation effects have been explained by the primed incentive to affiliate with another (Social Top-Down Response Modulation; STORM) and the primed active-self-concept leading to behaviour that is either consistent or inconsistent with the prime-construct (Active-Self account). The present study was designed to explore the explanatory power for each of these accounts, and thereby gain a greater understanding of how social modulation unfolds...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Liliana Lorettu, Gian Carlo Nivoli, Paolo Milia, Cristiano Depalmas, Massimo Clerici, Alessandra M A Nivoli
There are here described a number of basic principles underlying an effective clinical interview in psychiatric difficult situations (violent or suicidal patients, victims of serious physical and psychological damages, authors of inadequate or anti-social requests to the therapist). The aim of the present study is to provide the psychiatric operator with useful skills for the optimal management of the interview in difficult situations both at diagnostically and therapeutically level. The methodology was based on examination of the literature and personal experience of the authors...
July 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
Maha Almuneef, Hassan N Saleheen, Nathalie ElChoueiry, Majid A Al-Eissa
Background Bullying is a widespread public health problem among youth with potentially far reaching negative implications. Objective To determine the prevalence of childhood bullying and its association with addictive and anti-social behaviors among adults. Subjects Adults (n = 10,156) aged ≥18 years were invited to participate. Methods A cross-sectional, national study utilizing Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was conducted in Saudi Arabia (SA). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for bullying in relation to the outcome...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Marrie H J Bekker, Marcel A L M van Assen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). METHOD: Participants (N = 5,525) from a representative community sample in the Netherlands filled out questionnaires regarding the variables under study. RESULTS: Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, SA; sensitivity to others, SO; capacity for managing new situations, CMNS) fully mediated the sex differences in depression and anxiety, and partly in eating disorder -(drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and anti-social personality disorder characteristics...
2017: PloS One
Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro, Luis Augusto Rohde, Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Adriana Argeu, Euripides Constantino Miguel, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero Grisi, Bacy Fleitlich-Bilyk
BACKGROUND: Addressing impaired foetal growth is recognized as a public health priority. Certain risk factors for this condition, such as poor nutritional status at birth, have been found to be highly correlated with poverty. However, the role of psychosocial factors, specifically the mother's mental health and exposure to violence during pregnancy, have yet to be further explored. Our objective was to determine if there is a measurable association between combined psychosocial factors, specifically domestic violence and mental disorders, and birth outcomes, specifically birth nutritional status and preterm delivery...
August 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
R H Harwood
Dealing with violence and aggression is an area where health professionals often feel uncertain. Standing at the interface between medicine, psychiatry and law, the best actions may not be clear, and guidelines neither consistently applicable nor explicit. An aggressive, violent or abusive patient may be behaving anti-socially or criminally. But in acute medical settings it is more likely that a medical, mental health or emotional problem, or some combination thereof, is the explanation and usually we will not know the relative contribution of each element...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Xiaomin Zhu, Wen Li, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of the aggressive behavior is higher among the patients with severe mental disorder such as schizophrenia than the general population. The study of factors related to aggressive behavior has great meaning in designing prevention and intervention methods with this population of patients. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of assaultive behavior of male patients with schizophrenia who have been hospitalized. METHODS: Using a continuous sampling method, data from 75 male inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was collected at the psychiatric unit of Central South University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Vallone Vallone, Cantrell Cantrell, Bennett Bennett, Smith Smith, Jessica Rath, Xiao Xiao, Greenberg Greenberg, Elizabeth C Hair
Introduction: Over the past decade, public education mass media campaigns have been shown to be successful in changing tobacco-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors among youth and young adults. In 2014, the national truth® campaign re-launched a new phase of the campaign targeted at a broad audience of youth and young adults, aged 15-21, to help end the tobacco epidemic. Methods: The study sample for this analysis is drawn from the Truth Longitudinal Cohort (TLC), a probability-based, nationally representative cohort designed to evaluate the relationship between awareness of truth media messages and changes in targeted attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors over time...
June 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Kevin Chen, Abbey Kardys, Yibu Chen, Stephen Flink, Boris Tabakoff, Jean C Shih
We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here...
August 15, 2017: Brain Research
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