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Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325145/anxiety-dependent-modulation-of-motor-responses-to-pain-expectancy
#1
Carlotta Fossataro, Giulia Bucchioni, Federico D'Agata, Valentina Bruno, Rosalba Morese, Pierre Krystkowiak, Francesca Garbarini
The relationship between pain expectancy and motor system plays a crucial role in the human defensive system. Here, we took advantage of the inhibitory modulation of the motor pathway to the muscle of the hand receiving painful stimuli, by recording motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). We employed a classical conditioning paradigm in which neutral (visual and auditory) stimuli were conditioned by pairing either painful or not-painful stimuli (electric shocks) in separated groups...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305911/tms-uncovers-details-about-sub-regional-language-specific-processing-networks-in-early-bilinguals
#2
Sini Hämäläinen, Niko Mäkelä, Viljami Sairanen, Minna Lehtonen, Teija Kujala, Alina Leminen
Despite numerous functional neuroimaging and intraoperative electrical cortical mapping studies aimed at investigating the cortical organisation of native (L1) and second (L2) language processing, the neural underpinnings of bilingualism remain elusive. We investigated whether the neural network engaged in speech production over the bilateral posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is the same (i.e., shared) or different (i.e., language-specific) for the two languages of bilingual speakers. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left and right posterior inferior gyrus (pIFG), while early simultaneous bilinguals performed a picture naming task with their native languages...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300001/redesigning-existing-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-coils-to-reduce-energy-application-to-low-field-magnetic-stimulation
#3
Boshuo Wang, Michael R Shen, Zhi-De Deng, James Evan Smith, Joseph James Tharayil, Clement J Gurrey, Luis J Gomez, Angel V Peterchev
To present a systematic framework and exemplar for the development of a compact and energy-efficient coil that replicates the electric field (E-field) distribution induced by an existing transcranial magnetic stimulation coil. Approach. The E-field generated by a conventional low field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) coil was measured for a spherical head model and simulated in both spherical and realistic head models. Then, using a spherical head model and spatial harmonic decomposition, a spherical-shaped cap coil was synthesized such that its windings conformed to a spherical surface and replicated the E-field on the cortical surface while requiring less energy...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298217/sex-differences-in-mechanisms-of-recovery-after-isometric-and-dynamic-fatiguing-tasks
#4
Jonathon Senefeld, Hugo M Pereira, Nicholas Elliott, Tejin Yoon, Sandra K Hunter
PURPOSE: Determine whether supraspinal mechanisms contribute to the sex difference in fatigability during and recovery from a dynamic and isometric fatiguing task with the knee extensors. METHODS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical stimulation were used to determine voluntary activation and contractile properties of the knee extensors in 14 men and 17 women (20.8±1.9 years) after a: 1) 60-s sustained, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and 2) dynamic fatiguing task involving 120 maximal voluntary concentric contractions with a 20% MVIC load...
January 3, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288869/human-in-vivo-brain-magnetic-resonance-current-density-imaging-mrcdi
#5
Cihan Göksu, Lars G Hanson, Hartwig R Siebner, Philipp Ehses, Klaus Scheffler, Axel Thielscher
Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and MR electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) are two emerging modalities, which combine weak time-varying currents injected via surface electrodes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to acquire information about the current flow and ohmic conductivity distribution at high spatial resolution. The injected current flow creates a magnetic field in the head, and the component of the induced magnetic field ΔBz,c parallel to the main scanner field causes small shifts in the precession frequency of the magnetization...
December 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285814/altered-motor-plasticity-in-an-acute-relapse-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Isabelle Wirsching, Mathias Buttmann, Thorsten Odorfer, Jens Volkmann, Joseph Classen, Daniel Zeller
In relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) the symptoms of a clinical relapse subside over time. Neuroplasticity is believed to play an important compensatory role. In this study we assessed excitability-decreasing plasticity during an acute relapse of MS and 12 weeks afterwards. Motor plasticity was examined in 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or RRMS during a steroid-treated relapse (t1) and 12 weeks afterwards (t2) using paired-associative stimulation (PAS10). This method combines repetitive electric nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex to model long-term synaptic depression in the human cortex...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282470/efficacy-and-safety-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-as-an-add-on-treatment-for-bipolar-depression-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Bernardo Sampaio-Junior, Gabriel Tortella, Lucas Borrione, Adriano H Moffa, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Eric Cretaz, Adriano Fernandes da Silva, Renério Fraguas, Luana V Aparício, Izio Klein, Beny Lafer, Stephan Goerigk, Isabela Martins Benseñor, Paulo Andrade Lotufo, Wagner F Gattaz, André Russowsky Brunoni
Importance: More effective, tolerable interventions for bipolar depression treatment are needed. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel therapeutic modality with few severe adverse events that showed promising results for unipolar depression. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of tDCS as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial (the Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial [BETTER]) was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 30, 2016, at an outpatient, single-center academic setting...
December 27, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258928/predictive-value-of-intraoperative-facial-motor-evoked-potentials-in-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery-under-two-anesthesia-protocols
#8
Miao Ling, Xiaorong Tao, Siyuan Ma, Xiaocui Yang, Li Liu, Xing Fan, Guijun Jia, Hui Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To validate the feasibility of facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) in facial nerve (FN) monitoring during vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery under two anesthesia protocols, and to examine its value for postoperative prognosis. METHODS: This prospective study included 106 patients with VS, who underwent microsurgical excision between May 2014 and November 2016 at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. All patients were investigated for FMEP elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation in the contralateral facial motor cortex...
December 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258808/incomplete-evidence-that-increasing-current-intensity-of-tdcs-boosts-outcomes
#9
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Paola Marangolo, Benjamin M Hampstead, Sven Bestmann, Elisabeth Galletta, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function by applying a fixed low-intensity direct current to scalp. OBJECTIVES: We critically discuss evidence for a monotonic response in effect size with increasing current intensity, with a specific focus on a question if increasing applied current enhance the efficacy of tDCS. METHODS: We analyzed tDCS intensity does-response from different perspectives including biophysical modeling, animal modeling, human neurophysiology, neuroimaging and behavioral/clinical measures...
December 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248858/cathodal-electrical-stimulation-of-frontoparietal-cortex-disrupts-statistical-learning-of-visual-configural-information
#10
Abbey S Nydam, David K Sewell, Paul E Dux
Attentional performance is facilitated by exploiting regularities and redundancies in the environment by way of incidental statistical learning. For example, during visual search, response times to a target are reduced by repeating distractor configurations-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing (Chun & Jiang, 1998). A range of neuroscientific methods have provided evidence that incidental statistical learning relies on subcortical neural structures associated with long-term memory, such as the hippocampus...
November 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246436/prefrontal-cortex-stimulation-enhances-fear-extinction-memory-in-humans
#11
Tommi Raij, Aapo Nummenmaa, Marie-France Marin, Daria Porter, Sharon Furtak, Kawin Setsompop, Mohammed R Milad
BACKGROUND: Animal fear conditioning studies have illuminated neuronal mechanisms of learned associations between sensory stimuli and fear responses. In rats, brief electrical stimulation of the infralimbic cortex has been shown to reduce conditioned freezing during recall of extinction memory. Here, we translated this finding to humans with magnetic resonance imaging-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Subjects (N = 28) were aversively conditioned to two different cues (day 1)...
November 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235618/-direct-current-electrical-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-aphasia
#12
REVIEW
I R Montenegro, J A Alvarez-Montesinos, A J Estudillo, J Garcia-Orza
INTRODUCTION: Ictus is a medical condition with a high prevalence in Spanish population. One of its most common consequences is aphasia. Nowadays, aphasia is treated with both neuropsychological and pharmacological therapy. However, in recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation has been presented as a complement to classical therapies. AIMS: To familiarize the reader with transcranial direct current stimulation and to critically review the evidence on the benefits of this technique in aphasia rehabilitation...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226175/longitudinal-transcranial-measurement-of-functional-activation-in-the-rat-brain-by-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#14
Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Tanja Dragojević, Clara Castellvi, Turgut Durduran, Carles Justicia
Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214399/preservation-of-motor-maps-with-increased-motor-evoked-potential-amplitude-threshold-in-rmt-determination
#15
Giuseppe Lucente, Steven Lam, Heike Schneider, Thomas Picht
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive pre-surgical mapping of eloquent brain areas with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a useful technique linked to the improvement of surgical planning and patient outcomes. The stimulator output intensity and subsequent resting motor threshold determination (rMT) are based on the motor-evoked potential (MEP) elicited in the target muscle with an amplitude above a predetermined threshold of 50 μV. However, a subset of patients is unable to achieve complete relaxation in the target muscles, resulting in false positives that jeopardize mapping validity with conventional MEP determination protocols...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207262/transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#16
Sven Bestmann, Vincent Walsh
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a neuromodulatory technique in which low voltage constant or alternating currents are applied to the human brain via scalp electrodes. The basic idea of tES is that the application of weak currents can interact with neural processing, modify plasticity and entrain brain networks, and that this in turn can modify behaviour. The technique is now widely employed in basic and translational research, and increasingly is also used privately in sport, the military and recreation...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196322/a-new-high-efficacy-non-invasive-transcranial-electric-stimulation-tuned-to-local-neurodynamics
#17
Carlo Cottone, Andrea Cancelli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Camillo Porcaro, Carlo Salustri, Franca Tecchio
In this paper, we pose the following working hypothesis: in humans, transcranial electric stimulation (tES) with a time course that mimics the endogenous activity of its target is capable of altering the target's excitability. In our case, the target was the primary motor cortex (M1). We identified the endogenous neurodynamics of hand M1's subgroups of pyramidal neuronal pools in each of our subjects by applying Functional Source Separation (FSS) to their electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. We then tested whether the cortico-spinal excitability of the hand representation under the above described stimulation, which we named transcranial Individual neuroDynamics Stimulation (tIDS), was higher than in the absence of stimulation (baseline)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187553/ih-interacts-with-somato-dendritic-structure-to-determine-frequency-response-to-weak-alternating-electric-field-stimulation
#18
Enrique H S Toloza, Ehsan Negahbani, Flavio Frohlich
Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) modulates brain dynamics using weak electric fields. Given the pathological changes in brain network oscillations in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, using alternating electric field waveforms that engage rhythmic activity has been proposed as a targeted, network-level treatment approach. Previous studies have investigated the effects of electric fields at the neuronal level. However, the biophysical basis of the cellular response to electric fields has remained limited...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180006/modulation-of-electric-brain-responses-evoked-by-pitch-deviants-through-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#19
Isabelle Royal, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Marie-Ève Desjardins, Nicolas Robitaille, Isabelle Peretz
Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a difficulty detecting pitch deviation that is related to abnormal electrical brain responses. Abnormalities found along the right fronto-temporal pathway between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the auditory cortex (AC) are the likely neural mechanism responsible for amusia. To investigate the causal role of these regions during the detection of pitch deviants, we applied cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right frontal and right temporal regions during separate testing sessions...
November 24, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172007/frequency-specific-effects-of-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-on-primary-astrocyte-cultures
#20
Darren Clarke, Marissa A Penrose, Tamasin Penstone, Paula I Fuller-Carter, Livia C Hool, Alan R Harvey, Jennifer Rodger, Kristyn A Bates
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that uses magnetic pulses over the cranium to induce electrical currents in underlying cortical tissue. Although rTMS has shown clinical utility for a number of neurological conditions, we have only limited understanding of how rTMS influences cellular function and cell-cell interactions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate whether repeated magnetic stimulation (rMS) can influence astrocyte biology in vitro...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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