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NAD Ratio

Tong Zhang, Chunqiang Zhang, Xiaomei Fan, Ruilan Li, Jiaxin Zhang
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been considered as a physiological meiotic inhibitor that stimulates the cGMP production by cumulus cell natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), which inhibits oocyte phosphodiesterase type 3 activity and increases cAMP. In this study, we explored the effect of CNP pretreatment on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes by examining changes in cleavage rate, blastocyst formation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, glutathione (GSH) content, and redox state...
October 19, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Igor Florez-Sarasa, Ko Noguchi, Wagner Araujo, Ana Garcia-Nogales, Alisdair R Fernie, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast acting as an energy balance mechanism. Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in CEF-PSI mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high light (HL) conditions. However, in vivo measurements of AOX activity are still required to confirm the exact role of AOX on dissipating the excess of reductant power from the chloroplast...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
Dan Y Gui, Lucas B Sullivan, Alba Luengo, Aaron M Hosios, Lauren N Bush, Nadege Gitego, Shawn M Davidson, Elizaveta Freinkman, Craig J Thomas, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Metformin use is associated with reduced cancer mortality, but how metformin impacts cancer outcomes is controversial. Although metformin can act on cells autonomously to inhibit tumor growth, the doses of metformin that inhibit proliferation in tissue culture are much higher than what has been described in vivo. Here, we show that the environment drastically alters sensitivity to metformin and other complex I inhibitors. We find that complex I supports proliferation by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, and metformin's anti-proliferative effect is due to loss of NAD+/NADH homeostasis and inhibition of aspartate biosynthesis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Krisztina Marosi, Sang Woo Kim, Keelin Moehl, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Aiwu Cheng, Roy Cutler, Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
During fasting and vigorous exercise, a shift of brain cell energy substrate utilization from glucose to the ketone 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) occurs. Studies have shown that 3OHB can protect neurons against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Neurons maintained in the presence of 3OHB exhibited increased oxygen consumption and ATP production, and an elevated NAD+/NADH ratio. We found that 3OHB metabolism increases mitochondrial respiration which drives changes in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cultured cerebral cortical neurons...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Reiko Sanokawa-Akakura, Shin Akakura, Siamak Tabibzadeh
Recent evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cytoprotective and anti-aging effects. However, the mechanisms for such properties are not fully understood. Here, we show that the expression of the main H2S producing enzyme, CBS, and production of H2S are coordinately diminished in replicative senescent adult human dermal fibroblasts. The reduced production of H2S falls within the same time-frame that the hallmarks of replicative senescence appear including accumulation of SA-β-Gal, enhanced expression of p16, p21, and RRM2B while the expression of RRM2, hTERT, SIRT1, NAMPT, and NAD/NADH ratio all fall...
2016: PloS One
Hongyun Nie, Maiqian Nie, Ting Xiao, Yan Wang, Xiaoting Tian
For further understanding of the roles of small organic acids commonly produced during alkane degradation, glutaric acid was found to be effective for promoting hexadecane degradation by P. aeruginosa NY3. Our results demonstrated that the synchronous metabolism of glutaric acid could increase both the growth rates and hexadecane degradation ability of P. aeruginosa NY3. Glutaric acid was proved to be able to increase the ratios of the concentrations of NAD(+) and NADH inside strain NY3 cells, and subsequently accelerated cell growth rates through improving electron respiration rates...
October 4, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jorgelindo da Veiga Moreira, Minoo Hamraz, Mohammad Abolhassani, Erwan Bigan, Sabine Pérès, Loïc Paulevé, Marcel Levy Nogueira, Jean-Marc Steyaert, Laurent Schwartz
To better understand the energetic status of proliferating cells, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) and concentrations of key metabolites, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in normal and cancer cells, extracted from fresh human colon tissues. Cells were sorted by elutriation and segregated in different phases of the cell cycle (G0/G1/S/G2/M) in order to study their redox (NAD, NADP) and bioenergetic (ATP, pHi) status...
October 3, 2016: Metabolites
Liang Tian, Jonathan Lo, Xiongjun Shao, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G Olson, Lee R Lynd
: Ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase (NADH-FNOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NAD(+) This enzyme has been hypothesized to be the main enzyme responsible for ferredoxin oxidization in the NADH-based ethanol pathway in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, however, the corresponding gene has not yet been identified. Here, we identified the Tsac_1705 protein as a candidate FNOR based on the homology of its functional domains. We then confirmed its activity in vitro with a ferredoxin-based FNOR assay...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rachel Cinco, Michelle A Digman, Enrico Gratton, Ulrike Luderer
Previous work characterizing ovarian bioenergetics has defined follicular metabolism by measuring metabolic byproducts in culture media. However, culture conditions perturb the native state of the follicle, and these methods do not distinguish between metabolism occurring within oocytes or granulosa cells. We applied the phasor approach to fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (Phasor FLIM) at 740 nm 2-photon excitation to examine the spatial distribution of free and protein-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) during primordial through preovulatory stages of follicular development in fresh ex vivo murine neonatal and gonadotropin stimulated pre-pubertal ovaries...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Sang-Young Kim, Bruce M Cohen, Xi Chen, Scott E Lukas, Ann K Shinn, A Cagri Yuksel, Tao Li, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
Balance between the redox pair of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (oxidized NAD+ and reduced NADH), reflects the oxidative state of cells and the ability of biological systems to carry out energy production. A growing body of evidence suggests that an "immuno-oxidative" pathway including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and cell-mediated immune response may contribute to disruptions in brain activity in schizophrenia (SZ). The aim of this study is to assess possible redox imbalance in SZ patients by using a novel in vivo (31)P MRS technique...
September 24, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki, Regina Celi Trindade Camargo, Tatiana Emy Koike, Thiago Alves Garcia, Robson Chacon Castoldi, João Domingos Augusto Dos Santos Pereira, Carlos José Leopoldo Constantino, José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho
Treatment of muscle injuries usually results in the interruption of sports practice; thus, studies aimed at accelerating the return to activity, with proper tissue repair, are important. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM), associated or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), on the treatment of muscle injury. Thirty-five animals were used and divided into five groups (n = 7): control (C), control lesion (CL), lesion treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (LLt), lesion treated with PRP (LP), and lesion treated with both techniques, LLLT and PRP (LLtP)...
September 20, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Gabriele Nübel, Frieda A Sorgenfrei, Andres Jäschke
RNA modifications are widely distributed in Nature, and their thorough analysis helps answering fundamental biological questions. Nowadays, mass spectrometry or deep-sequencing methods are often used for the analysis. With the raising number of newly discovered RNA modifications, such as the 5'-NAD cap in Escherichia coli, there is an important need for new, less complex and fast analytical tools to analyze the occurrence, amount, and distribution of modified RNAs in cells. To accomplish this task, we have revisited the previously developed affinity gel electrophoresis principles and copolymerized acryloylaminophenyl boronic acid (APB) in standard denaturing polyacrylamide gels to retard the NAD- or FAD-modified RNAs compared to the unmodified RNAs in the gels...
September 16, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Qian Sun, Wenliang Zhang, Wei Zhong, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), however effective pharmacological treatment for oxidative injury is still lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity could reverse alcohol-induced liver injury via protecting mitochondrial functions. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diet for four week with or without administration with 30mg/kg/d GKT137831, a NOX4 inhibitor for the last two weeks...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fang Yang, Hong Yang, Aramandla Ramesh, J Shawn Goodwin, Emmanuel U Okoro, ZhongMao Guo
UNLABELLED: We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells...
2016: PloS One
Sen Yin, Jian-Qiang Kong
The present study first identified the involvement of OcUAXS2 and OcUXS1-3 in anticancer polysaccharides biosynthesis in O. caudatum. UDP-xylose synthase (UXS) and UDP-D-apiose/UDP-D-xylose synthase (UAXS), both capable of converting UDP-D-glucuronic acid to UDP-D-xylose, are believed to transfer xylosyl residue to anticancer polysaccharides biosynthesis in Ornithogalum caudatum Ait. However, the cDNA isolation and functional characterization of genes encoding the two enzymes from O. caudatum has never been documented...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Min Li, Suzette Riddle, Hui Zhang, Angelo D'Alessandro, Amanda Flockton, Natalie J Serkova, Kirk C Hansen, Radu Moldvan, B Alexandre McKeon, Maria Frid, Sushil Kumar, Hong Li, Hongbing Liu, Angela Caánovas, Juan F Medrano, Milton G Thomas, Dijana Iloska, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek, Soni Pullamsetti, Mehdi A Fini, Karim C El Kasmi, QingHong Zhang, Kurt R Stenmark
BACKGROUND: Changes in metabolism have been suggested to contribute to the aberrant phenotype of vascular wall cells, including fibroblasts, in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, we test the hypothesis that metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis is a critical adaptation of fibroblasts in the hypertensive vessel wall that drives proliferative and proinflammatory activation through a mechanism involving increased activity of the NADH-sensitive transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1)...
October 11, 2016: Circulation
Andrew Jm Lewis, Jack Jj Miller, Chloe McCallum, Oliver J Rider, Stefan Neubauer, Lisa C Heather, Damian J Tyler
Metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes, but its exact mechanisms of action remain controversial. We used hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the effects of metformin treatment upon heart and liver pyruvate metabolism in rats in vivo Both oral treatment for four weeks and a single intravenous metformin infusion significantly increased the cardiac [1-(13)C]lactate:[1-(13)C]pyruvate ratio, but had no effect on the [1-(13)C]bicarbonate + (13)CO2:[1-(13)C]pyruvate ratio, an index of pyruvate dehydrogenase flux...
August 25, 2016: Diabetes
Gangarao Davuluri, Allawy Allawy, Samjhana Thapaliya, Julie H Rennison, Dharmvir Singh, Avinash Kumar, Yana Sandlers, David R Van Wagoner, Chris A Flask, Charles Hoppel, Takhar Kasumov, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Ammonia is a cytotoxic metabolite that is removed primarily by hepatic ureagenesis in humans. Hyperammonemia occurs in advanced hepatic, cardiac, pulmonary disease, and in urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. Increased skeletal muscle ammonia uptake and metabolism are the major mechanism of non-hepatic ammonia disposal. Non-hepatic ammonia disposal occurs in the mitochondria via glutamate synthesis from α-ketoglutarate resulting in cataplerosis. We show skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction during hyperammonemia in a comprehensive array of human, rodent and cellular models...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Tiande Zou, Bing Yu, Jie Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jun He, Zhiqing Huang, Yue Liu, Daiwen Chen
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are of major importance in oocyte and early embryo, playing a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Epidemiological findings indicate that maternal undernutrition-induced mitochondrial dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of moderately decreased maternal energy intake during pregnancy on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in fetal offspring with pig as a model...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
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