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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456966/metabolic-profile-of-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines-relies-on-a-higher-demand-of-lipid-metabolism-in-metastatic-cells
#1
Ana Carolina B Sant'Anna-Silva, Gilson C Santos, Samir P Costa Campos, André Marco Oliveira Gomes, Juan Alberto Pérez-Valencia, Franklin David Rumjanek
Tumor cells are subjected to a broad range of selective pressures. As a result of the imposed stress, subpopulations of surviving cells exhibit individual biochemical phenotypes that reflect metabolic reprograming. The present work aimed at investigating metabolic parameters of cells displaying increasing degrees of metastatic potential. The metabolites present in cell extracts fraction of tongue fibroblasts and of cell lines derived from human tongue squamous cell carcinoma lineages displaying increasing metastatic potential (SCC9 ZsG, LN1 and LN2) were analyzed by1 H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433025/time-dependent-disturbances-of-chloride-salts-on-overall-redox-reaction-and-luminescence-in-vibrio-fischeri
#2
Zhenyang Yu, Jing Zhang, Meifang Hou
The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F-, Cl-, Br- and I-) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate change. Currently, VF were incubated with chloride salts, including KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, and effects were measured in a time-dependent fashion...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432159/nad-supplementation-normalizes-key-alzheimer-s-features-and-dna-damage-responses-in-a-new-ad-mouse-model-with-introduced-dna-repair-deficiency
#3
Yujun Hou, Sofie Lautrup, Stephanie Cordonnier, Yue Wang, Deborah L Croteau, Eduardo Zavala, Yongqing Zhang, Kanako Moritoh, Jennifer F O'Connell, Beverly A Baptiste, Tinna V Stevnsner, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
Emerging findings suggest that compromised cellular bioenergetics and DNA repair contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in disease-defining pathology is unclear. We developed a DNA repair-deficient 3xTgAD/Polβ +/- mouse that exacerbates major features of human AD including phosphorylated Tau (pTau) pathologies, synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and cognitive impairment. Here we report that 3xTgAD/Polβ +/- mice have a reduced cerebral NAD + /NADH ratio indicating impaired cerebral energy metabolism, which is normalized by nicotinamide riboside (NR) treatment...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429342/modular-engineering-intracellular-nadh-regeneration-boosts-extracellular-electron-transfer-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1
#4
Feng Li, Yuanxiu Li, Li-Ming Sun, Xiaoli Chen, Xingjuan An, Changji Yin, Yingxiu Cao, Hui Wu, Hao Song
Efficient extracellular electron transfer (EET) of exoelectrogens is essentially for practical applications of versatile bio-electrochemical systems. Intracellular electrons flow from NADH to extracellular electron accepters via EET pathways. However, it was yet established how the manipulation of intracellular NADH impacted the EET efficiency. Strengthening NADH regeneration from NAD + , as a feasible approach for cofactor engineering, has been used in regulating the intracellular NADH pool and the redox state (NADH/NAD + ratio) of cells...
February 11, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428217/oxidative-stress-caspase-3-activation-and-cleavage-of-rock-1-play-an-essential-role-in-mehg-induced-cell-death-in-primary-astroglial-cells
#5
Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Caridad López-Granero, Marcelo Farina, João B T Rocha, Aaron B Bowman, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury is a toxic environmental contaminant that elicits significant toxicity in humans. The central nervous system is the primary target of toxicity, and is particularly vulnerable during development. Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA and a direct substrate of caspase-3. The activation of ROCK-1 is necessary for membrane blebbing during apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether MeHg could affect the RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes...
February 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409732/application-of-n-dodecane-as-an-oxygen-vector-to-enhance-the-activity-of-fumarase-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli-role-of-intracellular-microenvironment
#6
Sen Zhang, Ping Song, Shuang Li
The effect of the intracellular microenvironment in the presence of an oxygen vector during expression of a fusion protein in Escherichia coli was studied. Three organic solutions at different concentration were chosen as oxygen vectors for fumarase expression. The addition of n-dodecane did not induce a significant change in the expression of fumarase, while the activity of fumarase increased significantly to 124% at 2.5% n-dodecane added after 9h induction. The concentration of ATP increased sharply during the first 6h of induction, to a value 7600% higher than that in the absence of an oxygen-vector...
February 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408602/hepatic-nad-levels-and-nampt-abundance-are-unaffected-during-prolonged-high-fat-diet-consumption-in-c57bl-6jbomtac-mice
#7
Morten Dall, Melanie Penke, Karolina Sulek, Madlen Matz-Soja, Birgitte Holst, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Jonas T Treebak
Dietary supplementation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. In the liver, NAD+ is primarily generated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and hepatic levels of NAMPT and NAD+ have been reported to be dependent on age and body composition. The aim of the present study was to identify time-course-dependent changes in hepatic NAD content and NAD+ salvage capacity in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357933/metabolic-flux-analysis-and-the-nad-p-h-nad-p-ratios-in-chemostat-cultures-of-azotobacter-vinelandii
#8
Andres García, Pau Ferrer, Joan Albiol, Tania Castillo, Daniel Segura, Carlos Peña
BACKGROUND: Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium that produces alginate and polyhydroxybutyrate (P3HB); however, the role of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratios on the metabolic fluxes through biosynthesis pathways of these biopolymers remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) + ratios and the metabolic fluxes involved in alginate and P3HB biosynthesis, under oxygen-limiting and non-limiting oxygen conditions. RESULTS: The results reveal that changes in the oxygen availability have an important effect on the metabolic fluxes and intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratio, showing that at the lowest OTR (2...
January 22, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352398/efficient-biosynthesis-of-l-phenylglycine-by-an-engineered-escherichia-coli-with-a-tunable-multi-enzyme-coordinate-expression-system
#9
Qiaoli Liu, Junping Zhou, Taowei Yang, Xian Zhang, Meijuan Xu, Zhiming Rao
Whole-cell catalysis with co-expression of two or more enzymes in a single host as a simple low-cost biosynthesis method has been widely studied and applied but hardly with regulation of multi-enzyme expression. Here we developed an efficient whole-cell catalyst for biosynthesis of L-phenylglycine (L-Phg) from benzoylformic acid through co-expression of leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus (BcLeuDH) and NAD+-dependent mutant formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDHA10C) in Escherichia coli with tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349500/exogenous-h2s-switches-cardiac-energy-substrate-metabolism-by-regulating-sirt3-expression-in-db-db-mice
#10
Yu Sun, Zhiliang Tian, Ning Liu, Linxue Zhang, Zhaopeng Gao, Xiaojiao Sun, Miao Yu, Jichao Wu, Fan Yang, Yajun Zhao, Huan Ren, He Chen, Dechao Zhao, Yan Wang, Shiyun Dong, Changqing Xu, Fanghao Lu, Weihua Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in diverse physiological functions, such as anti-hypertension, anti-proliferation, regulating ATP synthesis, and reactive oxygen species production. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a NAD + -dependent deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism. The role of H2S in energy metabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) may be related to regulate SIRT3 expression; however, this role remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that exogenous H2S could switch cardiac energy metabolic substrate preference by lysine acetylation through promoting the expression of SIRT3 in cardiac tissue of db/db mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348410/oxidative-stress-via-inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-nrf-2-mediated-anti-oxidative-response-regulate-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-plumbagin
#11
Arvinder Kapur, Thomas Beres, Kavya Rathi, Amruta P Nayak, Austin Czarnecki, Mildred Felder, Amani Gillette, Spencer S Ericksen, Emmanuel Sampene, Melissa C Skala, Lisa Barroilhet, Manish S Patankar
Plumbagin, an anti-cancer agent, is toxic to cells of multiple species. We investigated if plumbagin targets conserved biochemical processes. Plumbagin induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cells of diverse mutational background with comparable potency. A 3-5 fold increase in intracellular oxygen radicals occurred in response to plumbagin. Neutralization of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetylcysteine blocked apoptosis, indicating a central role for oxidative stress in plumbagin-mediated cell death. Plumbagin docks in the ubiquinone binding sites (Q0 and Qi) of mitochondrial complexes I-III, the major sites for oxygen radicals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341594/designing-flavoprotein-gfp-fusion-probes-for-analyte-specific-ratiometric-fluorescence-imaging
#12
Devin A Hudson, Jeffrey L Caplan, Colin Thorpe
The development of genetically encoded fluorescent probes for analyte-specific imaging has revolutionized our understanding of intracellular processes. Current classes of intracellular probes depend on the selection of binding domains that either undergo conformational changes on analyte binding or can be linked to thiol redox chemistry. Here we have designed novel probes by fusing a flavoenzyme, whose fluorescence is quenched on reduction by the analyte of interest, with a GFP domain to allow for rapid and specific ratiometric sensing...
January 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332131/assessment-of-human-corneas-prior-to-transplantation-using-high-resolution-two-photon-imaging
#13
Ana Batista, Hans Georg Breunig, Aisada König, Andreas Schindele, Tobias Hager, Berthold Seitz, António Miguel Morgado, Karsten König
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using two-photon imaging (TPI) to assess the condition of human corneas for transplantation. Methods: Human corneas were imaged after different storage times: short-term (STS), medium-term (MTS), and long-term (LTS) storage. A high-resolution, custom-built 5-dimensional multiphoton microscope with 12-fs pulsed laser excitation was used for image acquisition. Results: Optical discrimination between different corneal layers and sublayers based on their morphologic characteristics revealed by two-photon autofluorescence (AF) is possible...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330792/evaluating-the-metabolic-impact-of-hypoxia-on-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#14
Divya Murthy, Enza Vernucci, Gennifer Goode, Jaime Abrego, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxia is frequently observed in human cancers and induces global metabolic reprogramming that includes an increase in glucose uptake and glycolysis, alterations in NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and intracellular ATP levels, and increased utilization of glutamine as the major precursor for fatty acid synthesis. In this chapter, we describe in detail various physiological assays that have been adopted to study the metabolic shift propagated by exposure to hypoxic conditions in pancreatic cell culture model that includes glucose uptake, glutamine uptake, and lactate release by pancreatic cancer cell lines...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330287/targeted-akt-inhibition-in-prostate-cancer-cells-and-spheroids-reduces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-generation-of-hyperpolarized-1-13c-lactate
#15
Sui Seng Tee, Izabela Suster, Steven Truong, Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Valentina Di Gialleonardo, Julio A Alvarez, Hannah N Aldeborgh, Kayvan Keshari
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) signaling pathway is frequently mutated in prostate cancer. Specific AKT inhibitors are now in advanced clinical trials and this study investigates the effect of MK2206, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor, on the cellular metabolism in the context of prostate cancer. A significant reduction in cell motility and aerobic glycolysis was observed in prostate cancer cells with treatment. These changes were not accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of high-energy phosphates or a change in total protein levels of enzymes (e...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327656/nad-nadh-homeostasis-affects-metabolic-adaptation-to-hypoxia-and-secondary-metabolite-production-in-filamentous-fungi
#16
Motoyuki Shimizu
Filamentous fungi are used to produce fermented foods, organic acids, beneficial secondary metabolites and various enzymes. During such processes, these fungi balance cellular NAD+:NADH ratios to adapt to environmental redox stimuli. Cellular NAD(H) status in fungal cells is a trigger of changes in metabolic pathways including those of glycolysis, fermentation, and the production of organic acids, amino acids and secondary metabolites. Under hypoxic conditions, high NADH:NAD+ ratios lead to the inactivation of various dehydrogenases, and the metabolic flow involving NAD+ is down-regulated compared with normoxic conditions...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311591/segmented-cell-analyses-to-measure-redox-states-of-autofluorescent-nad-p-h-fad-trp-in-cancer-cells-by-flim
#17
Horst Wallrabe, Zdenek Svindrych, Shagufta R Alam, Karsten H Siller, Tianxiong Wang, David Kashatus, Song Hu, Ammasi Periasamy
Multiphoton FLIM microscopy offers many opportunities to investigate processes in live cells, tissue and animal model systems. For redox measurements, FLIM data is mostly published by cell mean values and intensity-based redox ratios. Our method is based entirely on FLIM parameters generated by 3-detector time domain microscopy capturing autofluorescent signals of NAD(P)H, FAD and novel FLIM-FRET application of Tryptophan and NAD(P)H-a2%/FAD-a1% redox ratio. Furthermore, image data is analyzed in segmented cells thresholded by 2 × 2 pixel Regions of Interest (ROIs) to separate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation from cytosolic glycolysis in a prostate cancer cell line...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300922/multiple-mechanisms-for-enhanced-plasmodesmata-density-in-disparate-subtypes-of-c4-grasses
#18
Florence R Danila, William Paul Quick, Rosemary G White, Steven Kelly, Susanne von Caemmerer, Robert T Furbank
Proliferation of plasmodesmata (PD) connections between bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells has been proposed as a key step in the evolution of two-cell C4 photosynthesis; However, a lack of quantitative data has hampered further exploration and validation of this hypothesis. In this study, we quantified leaf anatomical traits associated with metabolite transport in 18 species of BEP and PACMAD grasses encompassing four origins of C4 photosynthesis and all three C4 subtypes (NADP-ME, NAD-ME, and PCK)...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298345/redox-modulation-of-nqo1
#19
David Siegel, Donna D Dehn, Samantha S Bokatzian, Kevin Quinn, Donald S Backos, Andrea Di Francesco, Michel Bernier, Nichole Reisdorph, Rafael de Cabo, David Ross
NQO1 is a FAD containing NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of quinones and related substrates. In cells, NQO1 participates in a number of binding interactions with other proteins and mRNA and these interactions may be influenced by the concentrations of reduced pyridine nucleotides. NAD(P)H can protect NQO1 from proteolytic digestion suggesting that binding of reduced pyridine nucleotides results in a change in NQO1 structure. We have used purified NQO1 to demonstrate the addition of NAD(P)H induces a change in the structure of NQO1; this results in the loss of immunoreactivity to antibodies that bind to the C-terminal domain and to helix 7 of the catalytic core domain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297957/enhanced-1-3-propanediol-production-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-by-a-combined-strategy-of-strengthening-the-tca-cycle-and-weakening-the-glucose-effect
#20
Xinyao Lu, Shunli Ren, Jingzheng Lu, Hong Zong, Jian Song, Bin Zhuge
AIMS: This study aimed to strengthen the reducing equivalent regeneration in Klebsiella pneumoniae for improving 1,3-propanediol (PDO) production. METHODS AND RESULTS: Disruption of the arcA gene activated the transcription levels of the TCA cycle genes and thus increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio by 54.2%, leading to the improved PDO titer and yield per cell from 16.1 g l-1 and 4.0 g gDCW-1 to 18.8 g l-1 and 6.4 g gDCW-1 , respectively. Further ldhA gene deletion eliminated lactate accumulation and promoted the PDO titer to 19...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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