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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213318/targeted-redox-and-energy-cofactor-metabolomics-in-clostridium-thermocellum-and-thermoanaerobacterium-saccharolyticum
#1
Kyle Sander, Keiji G Asano, Deepak Bhandari, Gary J Van Berkel, Steven D Brown, Brian Davison, Timothy J Tschaplinski
Background: Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are prominent candidate biocatalysts that, together, can enable the direct biotic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. The imbalance and suboptimal turnover rates of redox cofactors are currently hindering engineering efforts to achieve higher bioproductivity in both organisms. Measuring relevant intracellular cofactor concentrations will help understand redox state of these cofactors and help identify a strategy to overcome these limitations; however, metabolomic determinations of these labile metabolites have historically proved challenging...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211728/an-open-label-non-randomized-study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-the-nutritional-supplement-nicotinamide-riboside-nr-and-its-effects-on-blood-nad-levels-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
Sophia E Airhart, Laura M Shireman, Linda J Risler, Gail D Anderson, G A Nagana Gowda, Daniel Raftery, Rong Tian, Danny D Shen, Kevin D O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. BACKGROUND: Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204750/protective-effects-of-fisetin-against-6-ohda-induced-apoptosis-by-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#3
Ryoko Watanabe, Takumi Kurose, Yuta Morishige, Ko Fujimori
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. 3,3',4',7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin), a plant flavonoid has a variety of physiological effects such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner...
December 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200830/notoginsenoside-r1-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-damage-in-rat-retinal-capillary-endothelial-cells-by-modulating-the-intracellular-redox-state
#4
Chunlan Fan, Yuan Qiao, Minke Tang
The aim of this study was to examine whether Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) attenuates high glucose-induced cell damage in rat retinal capillary endothelial cells (RCECs) and to explore the mechanisms involved. The exposure of rat RCECs to high concentration of glucose (30 mM) for 72 h led to significant cytotoxicity, including decreased cell viability, reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number, increased lactate dehydrogenase release and elevated apoptosis. NR1, when present in the culture medium, markedly attenuated the high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in rat RCECs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190547/low-folate-stress-reprograms-cancer-stem-cell-like-potentials-and-bioenergetics-metabolism-through-activation-of-mtor-signaling-pathway-to-promote-in-vitro-invasion-and-in-vivo-tumorigenicity-of-lung-cancers
#5
Wan-Jing Chen, Rwei-Fen S Huang
Low-folate (LF) nutritional status is associated with increased risks of lung cancer. It has unexplored effects on lung cancer malignancy, a cancer stem cell (CSC) disease. We hypothesized that LF may reprogram CSC-like potential and bioenergetics metabolism to increase metastasis potential of lung cancers. Cultivation of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells (H23) in an LF medium enhanced CSC-like properties signified by increased expressions of the CSC surface marker CD44 and pluripotency markers Sox2, Oct4 and ALDH1A1, and promoted self-renewal ability of anchorage-independent oncospheroid formation...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189956/changes-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-during-odontogenic-differentiation-of-rat-dental-papilla-cells
#6
Fuping Zhang, Liulin Jiang, Yifan He, Wenguo Fan, Xiaoyan Guan, Qianyi Deng, Fang Huang, Hongwen He
Dental papilla cells (DPCs) belong to precursor cells differentiating to odontoblasts and play an important role in dentin formation and reproduction. This study aimed to explore the changes and and involvement of mitochondrial respiratory function during odontogenic differentiation. Primary DPCs were obtained from first molar dental papilla of neonatal rats and cultured in odontogenic medium for 7, 14, 21 days. DPCs, which expressed mesenchymal surface markers CD29, CD44 and CD90, had the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184484/ketone-based-metabolic-therapy-is-increased-nad-a-primary-mechanism
#7
Marwa Elamin, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino, Paola Sacchetti
The ketogenic diet's (KD) anticonvulsant effects have been well-documented for nearly a century, including in randomized controlled trials. Some patients become seizure-free and some remain so after diet cessation. Many recent studies have explored its expanded therapeutic potential in diverse neurological disorders, yet no mechanism(s) of action have been established. The diet's high fat, low carbohydrate composition reduces glucose utilization and promotes the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a more efficient energy source than glucose and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183814/sulfur-mustard-resistant-keratinocytes-obtained-elevated-glutathione-levels-and-other-changes-in-the-antioxidative-defense-mechanism
#8
Simone Rothmiller, Sarah Schröder, Romano Strobelt, Markus Wolf, Jin Wang, Xiqian Jiang, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz, Horst Thiermann, Annette Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. METHODS: The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162105/changing-oxidoreduction-potential-to-improve-water-soluble-yellow-pigment-production-with-monascus-ruber-cgmcc-10910
#9
Tao Huang, Hailing Tan, Fangju Lu, Gong Chen, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H2O2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#10
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144773/cancer-chemopreventive-antiproliferative-and-superoxide-anion-scavenging-properties-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-cell-wall-components
#11
Olivier Fortin, Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga, Khanh Dang Vu, Stephane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive, the antiradical, and the antiproliferative properties of polysaccharides extracts from cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. β-glucan, mannan, and chitin were also quantified to identify the most important extract responsible for these biological properties. Soluble and insoluble glucans as well as mannoprotein were extracted from cell wall using single hot-alkaline method. Superoxide anion scavenging (antiradical capacity), NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1...
November 16, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137424/septicemia-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-dementia-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#12
Chung-Hsing Chou, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Chun-Chieh Lin, Yueh-Feng Sung, Che-Chen Lin, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fu-Chi Yang, Chi-Pang Wen, I-Kuan Wang, Chia-Hung Kao, Chung Y Hsu, Chun-Hung Tseng
Background: Systemic infection has been linked to cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that patients with septicemia are predisposed to increased risks for developing dementia in a long-term setting. Methods: This observational, retrospective, longitudinal, nation-wide population-based study was conducted using the data deduced from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan. All patients with septicemia hospitalized for the first time from 2001 to 2011 without prior dementia were included...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#13
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123192/targeted-mitochondrial-therapy-using-mitoq-shows-equivalent-renoprotection-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-but-no-combined-synergy-in-diabetes
#14
Micheal S Ward, Nicole B Flemming, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Domenica A McCarthy, Aowen Zhuang, Peter H Tang, Danielle J Borg, Hannah Shaw, Benjamin Harvie, David R Briskey, Llion A Roberts, Manuel R Plan, Michael P Murphy, Mark P Hodson, Josephine M Forbes
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115468/curcumin-alleviates-liver-oxidative-stress-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#15
Zhenglu Xie, Binbin Wu, Guozhi Shen, Xiaqing Li, Qianying Wu
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on antioxidants using a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Seven‑week‑old male Sprague‑Dawley rats were injected with Streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally to induce this model, and then treated with 1.0% curcumin (weight ratio) mixed in their diet for 21 days. The present study included three groups: Control group (NC), diabetic rat model group (DC) and a curcumin treated group (Diab‑Cur). The results demonstrated that curcumin treatment markedly decreased the blood glucose levels, plasma malondialdehyde concentration and plasma activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px) and catalase (CAT); however, it increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and insulin levels...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108775/facilitation-of-9-10-phenanthrenequinone-elicited-neuroblastoma-cell-apoptosis-by-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1
#16
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Kyoko Kamase, Hiroaki Takasawa, Yukiko Yamaji, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles, is considered to provoke damage of respiratory and vascular cells through highly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but little is known about its pathophysiological role in neuronal cell damage. In this study, we found that incubation with 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone and PQ, major quinone components in diesel exhausts, provokes apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SH cell treatment with a lethal concentration of PQ facilitated ROS production within 6 h...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106036/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-improves-glucose-metabolism-independently-of-ampk-activation
#17
Wo-Lin Hou, Jun Yin, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xue-Ying Yu, Li-Gen Ai, Yu-Qian Bao, Fang Liu, Wei-Ping Jia
Accumulating evidences showed metformin and berberine, well-known glucose-lowering agents, were able to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I. In this study, we aimed to explore the antihyperglycaemic effect of complex I inhibition. Rotenone, amobarbital and gene silence of NDUFA13 were used to inhibit complex I. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed in db/db mice. Lactate release and glucose consumption were measured to investigate glucose metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104634/endogenous-nampt-upregulation-is-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-sirt1-pathway-nmn-alleviates-diabetic-nephropathy-inflammatory-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-endogenous-nampt
#18
Ye Chen, Yuzhen Liang, Tingting Hu, Riming Wei, Congjie Cai, Ping Wang, Lingyu Wang, Wei Qiao, Leping Feng
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a key enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous extra cellular Nampt has been reported to increase the synthesis of pro-fibrotic molecules in various types of renal cells. However, the role of endogenous Namptenzymatic activity in diabetic renal cells, particularly those associated with inflammation and fibrosis through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) pathway is still unknown. In the present study, a possible mechanism by which endogenous Nampt upregulation affects the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in vivo and in vitro, is reported...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099858/effects-of-glucose-availability-in-lactobacillus-sakei-metabolic-change-and-regulation-of-the-proteome-and-transcriptome
#19
Anette McLeod, Ellen F Mosleth, Ida Rud, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Lars Snipen, Kristian Hovde Liland, Lars Axelsson
Effects of glucose availability were investigated in Lactobacillus sakei strains 23K and LS25 cultivated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats set at high (D = 0.357 h-1) and low (D = 0.045 h-1) dilution rates. We observed for both strains a shift from homolactic towards more mixed acid fermentation when comparing high to low growth rates. However, this change was more pronounced for LS25 than for 23K, where dominating products were lactate>formate>acetate≥ethanol at both conditions. A multivariate approach was used for analyzing proteome and transcriptome data from the bacterial cultures, where the predictive power of the omics data was used for identifying features that can explain the differences in the end-product profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095437/metformin-ameliorates-arsenic-trioxide-hepatotoxicity-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-complex-i
#20
Sunbin Ling, Qiaonan Shan, Peng Liu, Tingting Feng, Xuanyu Zhang, Penghui Xiang, Kangchen Chen, Haiyang Xie, Penghong Song, Lin Zhou, Jimin Liu, Shusen Zheng, Xiao Xu
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a well-accepted chemotherapy agent in managing promyelocytic leukemia. ATO often causes severe health hazards such as hepatotoxicity, dermatosis, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The production of reactive oxygen species, (ROS) play a significant role in ATO-induced hepatotoxicity. The oral hypoglycemic drug, metformin, is considered to be a potential novel agent for chemoprevention in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, metformin has also been shown to have hepatoprotective effects...
November 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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