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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055053/expression-patterns-of-ion-channels-and-structural-proteins-in-a-multimodal-cell-type-of-the-avian-optic-tectum
#1
Katharina Lischka, Simone Ladel, Harald Luksch, Stefan Weigel
The midbrain is an important subcortical area involved in distinct functions such as multimodal integration, movement initiation, bottom-up and top-down attention. Our group is particularly interested in cellular computation of multisensory integration. We focus on the visual part of the avian midbrain, the optic tectum (TeO, counterpart to mammalian superior colliculus). This area has a layered structure with the great advantage of distinct in- and output regions. In chicken, the TeO is organized in 15 layers where visual input targets the superficial layers while auditory input terminates in deeper layers...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055024/serum-lipid-vitamin-d-levels-and-obesity-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women-in-non-manual-employment
#2
Jarosław Pinkas, Iwona Bojar, Mariusz Gujski, Joanna Bartosińska, Alfred Owoc, Dorota Raczkiewicz
BACKGROUND Increasing age, increased body mass index (BMI), and abnormal lipid profiles contribute to an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Women who have a perimenopausal and postmenopausal reduction in estrogen levels are a high-risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The aims of this study were to compare the serum vitamin D levels, lipid profile, and BMI between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in non-manual employment, and to determine whether there were any interdependent factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three hundred women in non-manual employment, aged between 44-66 years, were divided into three groups: early perimenopausal; late perimenopausal; and postmenopausal...
October 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054880/common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons-and-neural-drive-to-targeted-reinnervated-muscles
#3
D Farina, A M Castronovo, I Vujaklija, A Sturma, S Salminger, C Hofer, O C Aszmann
We compared the behaviour of motor neurons innervating their physiological muscle targets with motor neurons from the same spinal segment whose axons were surgically redirected to remnant muscles (targeted muscle reinnervation). The objective was to assess whether motor neurons with non-physiological innervation receive similar synaptic input and could be voluntary controlled as motor neurons with natural innervation. For this purpose, we acquired high-density EMG signals from the biceps brachii in 5 male trans-humeral amputees who underwent targeted reinnervation of this muscle by the ulnar nerve and from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 5 healthy individuals to investigate the natural innervation of the ulnar nerve...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054558/serum-lipid-lipoprotein-and-apolipoprotein-profiles-in-workers-exposed-to-low-arsenic-levels-lipid-profiles-and-occupational-arsenic-exposure
#4
Caterina Ledda, Ivo Iavicoli, Massimo Bracci, Roberto Avola, Paola Senia, Lory Santarelli, Cristoforo Pomara, Venerando Rapisarda
Epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to arsenic (As) is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial heart disease) and mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare serum lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in workers exposed to As. The subjects of this study included 57 workers exposed to As and 57 controls. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Exposure to As was assessed in indoor air of a workplace and determined using the creatinine values in the urine...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053933/chronic-administration-of-ellagic-acid-improved-the-cognition-in-male-middle-aged-overweight
#5
Ying Liu, Shuyi Yu, Fen Wang, Haitao Yu, Xueli Li, Wanru Dong, Ruichao Lin, Qingshan Liu
This study aims to investigate whether ellagic acid has beneficial effects on cognitive deficits in middle-aged overweight individuals and the possible mechanism. A total of 150 middle-aged male participants, including 76 normal weight and 74 overweight, aged between 45 to 55 years were recruited for this study. Both normal weight and overweight participants were administered either 50 mg ellagic acid or placebo cellulose daily for 12 weeks. Blood lipids, peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and saliva cortisol were assessed on the last day of the procedure to investigate the effects induced by ellagic acid...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053810/associations-between-cellular-aging-markers-and-metabolic-syndrome-findings-from-the-cardia-study
#6
Dóra Révész, Josine E Verhoeven, Martin Picard, Jue Lin, Stephen Sidney, Elissa S Epel, Brenda W J H Penninx, Eli Puterman
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is thought to promote biological aging, which might lead to cardiovascular and aging-related complications. This large-scale study investigated longitudinal relationships between MetS, its components, and cellular aging markers: leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length (TL). Methods: We included 989 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. MtDNAcn (CARDIA Years 15, 25) and TL (Y15, Y20, Y25) were measured using quantitative PCR...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053671/cell-free-biochemical-fluorometric-enzymatic-assay-for-high-throughput-measurement-of-lipid-peroxidation-in-high-density-lipoprotein
#7
Shubhendu Sen Roy, Huy Cong Xuan Nguyen, Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Diana Huynh, Anthony Jaworowski, Theodoros Kelesidis
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are one of the most powerful independent negative predictors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The structure and function of HDL rather than HDL-C may more accurately predict atherosclerosis. Several HDL protein and lipid compositional changes that impair HDL function occur in inflammatory states such as atherosclerosis. HDL function is usually determined by cell based assays such as cholesterol efflux assay but these assays have numerous drawbacks lack of standardization...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053623/transfer-efficient-face-routing-using-the-planar-graphs-of-neighbors-in-high-density-wsns
#8
Eun-Seok Cho, Yongbin Yim, Sang-Ha Kim
Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization and the resulting planar graph is composed of short edges, and messages are forwarded along multiple nodes connected by them even though they can be forwarded directly. To solve this, face routing using information on all nodes within 2-hop range was adopted to forward messages directly to the farthest node within radio range...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053246/driving-chemical-reactions-in-plasmonic-nanogaps-with-electrohydrodynamic-flow
#9
William John Thrift, Cuong Quoc Nguyen, Mahsa Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Siavash Zare, Nicholas Sharac, Robert Noboru Sanderson, Torin J Dupper, Allon I Hochbaum, Filippo Capolino, Mohammad Javad Abdolhosseini Qomi, Regina Ragan
Nanoparticles from colloidal solution - with controlled composition, size, and shape - serve as excellent building blocks for plasmonic devices and metasurfaces. However, understanding hierarchical driving forces affecting geometry of oligomers and interparticle gap spacings is still needed to fabricate high density architectures over large areas. Here, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow is used as a long-range driving force to enable carbodiimide crosslinking between nanospheres and produces oligomers exhibiting sub-nanometer gap spacing over mm(2) areas...
October 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052769/terpenoid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-attacked-by-caterpillars-and-aphids-effects-of-aphid-density-on-the-attraction-of-a-caterpillar-parasitoid
#10
Anneke Kroes, Berhane T Weldegergis, Francesco Cappai, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack...
October 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052328/increased-sperm-cell-production-in-ageing-roosters-by-an-oral-treatment-with-an-aromatase-inhibitor-and-a-natural-herbal-extract-designed-for-improving-fertility
#11
H Adeldust, A Farzinpour, A Farshad, J Rostamzadeh, M Lopez-Bejar
Rooster fertility peaks between 30 and 40 weeks of age and declines rapidly from 50 weeks of age. This is linked to a reduction in the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate due to high density of spermatids in the seminiferous tubules of low-fertility roosters. In this study, we assessed the effects over spermatogenesis of both letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, and a commercial herbal extract designed for improving fertility composed by Tribulus, Cinnamomum, Zingiber and Sativus. Forty-two-week-old Ross 308 roosters (n = 24) were distributed into four groups: control, letrozole (0...
October 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052075/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-maintains-motor-coordination-and-balance-in-rats
#12
Alberto Avila-Luna, Arturo Gálvez-Rosas, Alfredo Durand-Rivera, Laura-Elisa Ramos-Languren, Camilo Ríos, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño, Antonio Bueno-Nava
Dopamine (DA) modulates motor coordination, and its depletion, as in Parkinson's disease, produces motor impairment. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex are interconnected, have functional roles in motor coordination, and possess dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), which are expressed at a particularly high density in the basal ganglia. In this study, we examined whether the activation of D1Rs modulates motor coordination and balance in the rat using a beam-walking test that has previously been used to detect motor coordination deficits...
October 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052034/high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-levels-in-healthy-community-dwelling-elderly-japanese-volunteers-a-5-year-prospective-observational-study
#13
Hiromasa Otsuka, Mitsuru Yanai, Hiroki Kobayashi, Akira Haketa, Motohiko Hara, Kaoru Sugama, Kimitoshi Kato, Masayoshi Soma
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin levels are associated with frailty and cardiovascular diseases. Longitudinal changes in adiponectin levels might enhance our understanding of age-related conditions and diseases. AIMS: This prospective observational study aimed to: (1) elucidate age-related changes in high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels; and (2) identify variables predictive of elevated HMW adiponectin levels and the association with well-known adiponectin single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in healthy, elderly Japanese participants...
October 19, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051970/construction-of-an-ultra-high-density-consensus-genetic-map-and-enhancement-of-the-physical-map-from-genome-sequencing-in-lupinus-angustifolius
#14
Gaofeng Zhou, Jianbo Jian, Penghao Wang, Chengdao Li, Ye Tao, Xuan Li, Daniel Renshaw, Jonathan Clements, Mark Sweetingham, Huaan Yang
An ultra-high density genetic map containing 34,574 sequence-defined markers was developed in Lupinus angustifolius. Markers closely linked to nine genes of agronomic traits were identified. A physical map was improved to cover 560.5 Mb genome sequence. Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a recently domesticated legume grain crop. In this study, we applied the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) method to genotype an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a wild type × domesticated cultivar (W × D) cross...
October 19, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051962/structural-disorder-filament-growth-and-self-poisoning-in-short-rods-confined-onto-a-flat-wall
#15
Yongxiang Gao, Violet Farkas, Roel P A Dullens, Dirk G A L Aarts
Confocal microscopy was used to directly observe the structural coarsening of the first layer of short colloidal rods sedimented onto a flat wall. Based on an image analysis algorithm we devised, quantitative information on the location, orientation and length of each particle can be extracted with high precision. At high density the system undergoes structural arrest, and becomes trapped in a disordered state of randomly arranged filaments that are composed of side-by-side aligned rods. The frustration of structural order is signalled by a new peak that emerges in the radial distribution function...
October 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051578/associations-of-blood-pressure-with-the-factors-among-adults-in-jilin-province-a-cross-sectional-study-using-quantile-regression-analysis
#16
Junsen Ye, Zhongmin Li, Yaogai Lv, Lan An, Jianxing Yu, Xin Guo, Yan Yao, Yaqin Yu, Lina Jin
Hypertension has become a major public health challenge. However, numerous research results reported in the literature focus primarily on risk factors of hypertension, little is known about how the whole continuum of blood pressure (BP) is associated with risk factors of hypertension. This study aims to reveal quantile-specific associations of BP with its risk factors. A cross-sectional survey based on a sample of 23,050 adults aged 18 to 79 years was conducted in Jilin Province in 2012, and some subjects were excluded due to missing values in BP or having BP control according to the purpose of this study...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051568/synchrotron-radiation-circular-dichroism-spectroscopy-reveals-structural-divergences-in-hdl-bound-apoa-i-variants
#17
Rita Del Giudice, Oktawia Nilsson, Joan Domingo-Espín, Jens O Lagerstedt
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) provides cardiovascular protection. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy was used to analyze the dynamic solution structure of the apoA-I protein in the apo- and HDL-states and the protein structure conversion in HDL formation. Wild-type apoA-I protein was compared to human variants that either are protective (R173C, Milano) or lead to increased risk for ischaemic heart disease (A164S). Comparable secondary structure distributions in the HDL particles, including significant levels of beta strand/turn, were observed...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051557/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-associated-genes-smad2-and-tgfbr2-are-implicated-in-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-taiwanese-population
#18
Eugene Lin, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Yu-Li Liu, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway and its relevant genes have been correlated with an increased risk of developing various hallmarks of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, we assessed whether the TGF-β signaling pathway-associated genes of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2), SMAD3, SMAD4, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), TGFB2, TGFB3, transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1), and TGFBR2 are associated with MetS and its individual components independently, through complex interactions, or both in a Taiwanese population...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051348/ultraslow-waves-on-the-nanoscale
#19
REVIEW
Kosmas L Tsakmakidis, Ortwin Hess, Robert W Boyd, Xiang Zhang
There has recently been a surge of interest in the physics and applications of broadband ultraslow waves in nanoscale structures operating below the diffraction limit. They range from light waves or surface plasmons in nanoplasmonic devices to sound waves in acoustic-metamaterial waveguides, as well as fermions and phonon polaritons in graphene and van der Waals crystals and heterostructures. We review the underlying physics of these structures, which upend traditional wave-slowing approaches based on resonances or on periodic configurations above the diffraction limit...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050980/association-of-low-density-lipoprotein-pattern-with-mortality-after-myocardial-infarction-insights-from-the-triumph-study
#20
Yashashwi Pokharel, Yuanyuan Tang, Bhaskar Bhardwaj, Krishna K Patel, Mohammed Qintar, James H O'Keefe, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, Peter H Jones, Seth S Martin, Salim S Virani, John A Spertus
BACKGROUND: Studies of incident coronary heart disease risk within low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass (small, dense vs large, buoyant) have shown mixed results. No prospective cohort study has examined the association of small, dense, or large, buoyant LDL with mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine association of LDL pattern after MI and death. METHODS: In 2476 patients hospitalized for MI, LDL pattern (A [large, buoyant], A/B [mixed], and B [small, dense]) was established by ultracentrifugation using Vertical Auto Profile...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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