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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656338/morphology-of-living-cells-cultured-on-nanowire-arrays-with-varying-nanowire-densities-and-diameters
#1
Zhen Li, Henrik Persson, Karl Adolfsson, Stina Oredsson, Christelle N Prinz
Vertical nanowire arrays are increasingly investigated for their applications in steering cell behavior. The geometry of the array is an important parameter, which influences the morphology and adhesion of cells. Here, we investigate the effects of array geometry on the morphology of MCF7 cancer cells and MCF10A normal-like epithelial cells. Different gallium phosphide nanowire array-geometries were produced by varying the nanowire density and diameter. Our results show that the cell size is smaller on nanowires compared to flat gallium phosphide...
April 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655971/predictive-validity-and-gender-differences-in-a-biopsychosocial-model-of-violence-risk-assessment-in-acute-psychiatry
#2
Bjørn Magne S Eriksen, Ann Færden, Øyvind Lockertsen, Stål Bjørkly, John Olav Roaldset
Current violence risk assessment methods seem to have reached an upper limit of accuracy. More comprehensive biopsychosocial models may improve on existing methods. Research on gender differences concerning risk factors of violence is scarce and inconclusive. In this prospective study from an acute psychiatric ward, all patients admitted from March 2012 to March 2013 were included. Predictive validity and potential gender differences in a biopsychosocial model of violence risk assessment consisting of a psychosocial checklist (Violence risk screening-10, V-RISK-10), a patient's self-report risk scale (SRS), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were examined in an inpatient (N = 348) and a 3-months follow-up (N = 101) sample...
April 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655936/dynamic-causal-modelling-on-infant-fnirs-data-a-validation-study-on-a-simultaneously-recorded-fnirs-fmri-dataset
#3
Chiara Bulgarelli, Anna Blasi, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell, Carina de Klerk, Victoria Southgate, Sabrina Brigadoi, William Penny, Sungho Tak, Antonia Hamilton
Tracking the connectivity of the developing brain from infancy through childhood is an area of increasing research interest, and fNIRS provides an ideal method for studying the infant brain as it is compact, safe and robust to motion. However, data analysis methods for fNIRS are still underdeveloped compared to those available for fMRI. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is an advanced connectivity technique developed for fMRI data, that aims to estimate the coupling between brain regions and how this might be modulated by changes in experimental conditions...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655898/efficient-biocatalytic-synthesis-of-nicotinic-acid-by-recombinant-nitrilase-via-high-density-culture
#4
Jin-Song Gong, Qiang Zhang, Bing-Chen Gu, Ting-Ting Dong, Heng Li, Hui Li, Zhen-Ming Lu, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
The constitutively expression system for P. putida nitrilase was firstly constructed to improve the nicotinic acid production and reduce the production costs. High density culture strategy was employed to enhance the biomass and nitrilase production of recombinant strain. The total nitrilase activity reached up to 654 U·mL-1 without the induction. 541 g·L-1 nicotinic acid was accumulated via fed batch mode of substrate feeding through 290 min of conversion.
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653402/long-term-exposure-to-airborne-particulate-matter-and-no-2-and-prevalent-and-incident-metabolic-syndrome-results-from-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#5
Clara Matthiessen, Sarah Lucht, Frauke Hennig, Simone Ohlwein, Hermann Jakobs, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: Recently, epidemiological studies have found a link between air pollution (AP) and individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition predisposing to cardiometabolic diseases. However, very few studies have explored a possible association between air pollution and MetS. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter and NO2 on prevalence and incidence of MetS. METHODS: We used data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (baseline 2000-2003) to investigate the association(s) between AP exposure and MetS prevalence at baseline (n = 4457) and MetS incidence at first follow-up visit (n = 3074; average follow-up: 5...
April 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653287/detecting-the-functional-complexities-between-high-density-lipoprotein-mimetics
#6
Yoshitaka J Sei, Jungho Ahn, Taeyoung Kim, Eunjung Shin, Angel J Santiago-Lopez, Seung Soon Jang, Noo Li Jeon, Young C Jang, YongTae Kim
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis through its native roles like reverse cholesterol transport. The reconstitution of this natural nanoparticle (NP) has become a nexus between nanomedicine and multi-disease therapies, for which a major portion of HDL functionality is attributed to its primary scaffolding protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). ApoA1-mimetic peptides were formulated as cost-effective alternatives to apoA1-based therapies; reverse-4F (r4F) is one such peptide used as part of a nanoparticle platform...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652840/verifying-safety-messages-using-relative-time-and-zone-priority-in-vehicular-ad-hoc-networks
#7
Sam Banani, Steven Gordon, Surapa Thiemjarus, Somsak Kittipiyakul
In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs)...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652671/exploring-proximity-e%C3%AF-ects-and-large-depth-of-%C3%AF-eld-in-helium-ion-beam-lithography-large-area-dense-patterns-and-tilted-surface-exposure
#8
Ranveig Flatabø, Akshay Agarwal, Richard Hobbs, Martin Møeller Greve, Bodil Holst, Karl K Berggren
Helium ion beam lithography (HIL) is an emerging nanofabrication technique. It benefits from a reduced interaction volume compared to that of an electron beam of similar energy, and hence reduced long-range scattering (proximity effect), higher resist sensitivity and potentially higher resolution. Furthermore, the small angular spread of the helium ion beam gives rise to a large depth of field. This should enable patterning on tilted and curved surfaces without the need of any additional adjustments, such as laser-auto focus...
April 13, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652327/dual-reference-digital-holographic-interferometry-for-analyzing-high-density-gradients-in-fluid-mechanics
#9
Jean-Michel Desse, François Olchewsky
This Letter proposes a dual-reference digital holographic interferometer for analyzing the high refractive index encountered in transonic and supersonic flows. For that, a Wollaston prism is inserted in the reference arm in order to simultaneously generate two orthogonally polarized reference waves. As a consequence, recorded interferograms contain two crossed and perpendicular interference patterns that give two orders fully separated in the Fourier spectrum. It is then possible to analyze a transparent object regardless of the orientation of the refractive index gradient using the two phase maps reconstructed with each of the two first interference orders...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651834/efficacy-of-anthropometric-measures-for-identifying-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-adolescents-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Michael Lichtenauer, Sean D Wheatley, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Michael J Duncan, Fernanda Cobayashi, Gabriela Berg, Carla Musso, Mabel Graffigna, Jimena Soutelo, Pascal Bovet, Anastasios Kollias, George S Stergiou, Evangelos Grammatikos, Claire Griffiths, Lee Ingle, Christian Jung
BACKGROUND: To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). RESULTS: 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651759/investigating-the-support-networks-for-mothers-of-a-high-density-public-housing-community-and-the-effects-of-housing-closures-on-these-support-systems
#11
Jennifer Smith, Soyang Kwon, Maryann Mason, Karen Sheehan
Over the past few decades, public housing initiatives have focused on the decentralization of poverty by replacing high-density public housing (HDPH) models with lower-density, mixed-income models. This action has resulted in the displacement of families who had lived in these developments for generations. In past studies, public housing residents have been shown to have stronger social ties than those living in other types of assisted housing. Research on the dismemberment of US public housing has demonstrated a "root shock" or disruption in the support infrastructure in these resource-limited communities...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650998/a-mega-analysis-of-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-eqtl-provides-insight-into-the-regulatory-architecture-of-gene-expression-variation-in-liver
#12
Tobias Strunz, Felix Grassmann, Javier Gayán, Satu Nahkuri, Debora Souza-Costa, Cyrille Maugeais, Sascha Fauser, Everson Nogoceke, Bernhard H F Weber
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic variants in the human genome associated with diseases and traits. Nevertheless, for most loci the causative variant is still unknown. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in disease relevant tissues is an excellent approach to correlate genetic association with gene expression. While liver is the primary site of gene transcription for two pathways relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), namely the complement system and cholesterol metabolism, we explored the contribution of AMD associated variants to modulate liver gene expression...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650674/germinal-center-antibody-mutation-trajectories-are-determined-by-rapid-self-foreign-discrimination
#13
Deborah L Burnett, David B Langley, Peter Schofield, Jana R Hermes, Tyani D Chan, Jennifer Jackson, Katherine Bourne, Joanne H Reed, Kate Patterson, Benjamin T Porebski, Robert Brink, Daniel Christ, Christopher C Goodnow
Antibodies have the specificity to differentiate foreign antigens that mimic self antigens, but it remains unclear how such specificity is acquired. In a mouse model, we generated B cells displaying an antibody that cross-reacts with two related protein antigens expressed on self versus foreign cells. B cell anergy was imposed by self antigen but reversed upon challenge with high-density foreign antigen, leading to germinal center recruitment and antibody gene hypermutation. Single-cell analysis detected rapid selection for mutations that decrease self affinity and slower selection for epistatic mutations that specifically increase foreign affinity...
April 13, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649995/the-prevalence-and-systemic-risk-factors-of-diabetic-macular-edema-a-cross-sectional-study-from-turkey
#14
Durgul Acan, Mehmet Calan, Duygu Er, Tugba Arkan, Nilufer Kocak, Firat Bayraktar, Suleyman Kaynak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic macular edema (DME) utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the effects of the systemic findings and risk factors on the development of DME. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology at the Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine in Izmir, Turkey. The demographics, type and duration of diabetes mellitus, treatment modality, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, as well as the systemic blood pressure, renal functional tests, hemoglobulin A1c level, serum lipid profile, and 24-h urine albumin level were noted and statistically analyzed...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649884/the-pharmacologic-role-and-clinical-utility-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#15
C Michael White
In addition to monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), vaccines against PCSK9 and smaller molecule inhibitors as well as RNA inhibitors of PCSK9 production have been created. The monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 and the PCSK9 RNA inhibitors can reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by over 50%, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing HDL. Although effective in several homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patient types, PCSK9 inhibitors does not work in all patient types...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649572/associations-of-sarcopenic-obesity-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance-over-five-years-in-older-men-the-concord-health-and-ageing-in-men-project
#16
David Scott, Robert Cumming, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Markus Seibel, Louise M Waite, Vasant Hirani
PURPOSE: Previous cross-sectional studies investigating associations of sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance have not utilised consensus definitions of sarcopenia. We aimed to determine associations of sarcopenic obesity with MetS and insulin resistance over five years in community-dwelling older men. METHODS: 1231 men aged ≥70 years had appendicular lean mass (ALM) and body fat percentage assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and hand grip strength and gait speed tests...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649363/a-targeted-differential-top-down-proteomic-methodology-for-comparison-of-apoa-i-proteoforms-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-hdl-efflux-capacity
#17
Henrique Dos Santos Seckler, Luca Fornelli, R Kannan Mutharasan, C Shad Thaxton, Ryan T Fellers, Martha Daviglus, Allan Sniderman, Daniel Rader, Neil L Kelleher, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Philip D Compton, John T Wilkins
Top-down proteomics (TDP) allows precise determination/characterization of the different proteoforms derived from the expression of a single gene. In this study, we targeted apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a mediator of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol efflux (HDL-E), which is inversely associated with coronary heart disease risk. Absolute ApoA-I concentration and allelic variation only partially explain inter-individual HDL-E variation. Therefore, we hypothesize that differences in HDL-E are associated with the abundances of different ApoA-I proteoforms...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649275/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-plasma-lipids-and-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#18
Lu-Chen Weng, Nicholas S Roetker, Pamela L Lutsey, Alvaro Alonso, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Aaron R Folsom, Lyn M Steffen, Nathan Pankratz, Weihong Tang
Studies have reported that higher circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lower of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol may be associated with increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Whether dyslipidemia causes AAA is still unclear and is potentially testable using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. We investigated the associations between blood lipids and AAA using two-sample MR analysis with SNP-lipids association estimates from a published genome-wide association study of blood lipids (n = 188,577) and SNP-AAA association estimates from European Americans (EAs) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 8,793)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649163/physio-microstructural-properties-of-aerated-cement-slurry-for-lightweight-structures
#19
Areej T Almalkawi, Talal Salem, Sameer Hamadna, A G N D Darsanasiri, Parviz Soroushian, Anagi Balchandra, Ghassan Al-Chaar
Cementitious composites, including ferrocement and continuous fiber reinforced cement, are increasingly considered for building construction and repair. One alternative in processing of these composites is to infiltrate the reinforcement (continuous fibers or chicken mesh) with a flowable cementitious slurry. The relatively high density of cementitious binders, when compared with polymeric binders, are a setback in efforts to introduce cementitious composites as lower-cost, fire-resistant, and durable alternatives to polymer composites...
April 12, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648906/the-effects-of-a-community-based-lifestyle-intervention-on-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-in-adolescents-findings-of-a-decade-follow-up
#20
Parisa Amiri, Sara Jalali-Farahani, Hasti Masihay Akbar, Leila Cheraghi, Davood Khalili, Amirabbas Momenan, Parvin Mirmiran, Arash Ghanbarian, Mehdi Hedayati, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood makes lifestyle interventions imperative during adolescence. This study aimed to assess the effects of a community-based lifestyle intervention on MetS and its components in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents, based on their residential area were categorized into three groups: complete intervention (residing in the intervention area at baseline and during all follow-ups), incomplete intervention (residing in either the intervention or control areas and were in transition between these two areas), and control group (residing in the control area at baseline and throughout all follow-ups)...
April 12, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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