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Boudewijn T H M Sleutjes, Judith Drenthen, Ernest Boskovic, Leonard J van Schelven, Maria O Kovalchuk, Paul G E Lumens, Leonard H van den Berg, Hessel Franssen
OBJECTIVE: To study excitability of single motor units (MUs) using high-density surface-EMG. METHODS: Motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were evoked by submaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist and recorded with a 9 × 14 electrode grid on the skin overlying the thenar muscles. For excitability tests of single MUs, the most optimal specific single-channel surface-EMG signal was selected based on the spatiotemporal profile of single MUs. RESULTS: Axonal excitability measures were successfully obtained from 14 single MUs derived from ten healthy subjects...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Manar D Samad, Alvaro Ulloa, Gregory J Wehner, Linyuan Jing, Dustin Hartzel, Christopher W Good, Brent A Williams, Christopher M Haggerty, Brandon K Fornwalt
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to use machine learning to more accurately predict survival after echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Predicting patient outcomes (e.g., survival) following echocardiography is primarily based on ejection fraction (EF) and comorbidities. However, there may be significant predictive information within additional echocardiography-derived measurements combined with clinical electronic health record data. METHODS: Mortality was studied in 171,510 unselected patients who underwent 331,317 echocardiograms in a large regional health system...
June 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Eric J Brunner, Martin J Shipley, Sara Ahmadi-Abhari, Carlos Valencia Hernandez, Jessica G Abell, Archana Singh-Manoux, Ichiro Kawachi, Mika Kivimaki
BACKGROUND: Health inequalities persist into old age. We aimed to investigate risk factors for socioeconomic differences in frailty that could potentially be modified through policy measures. METHODS: In this multi-wave longitudinal cohort study (Whitehall II study), we assessed participants' socioeconomic status, behavioural and biomedical risk factors, and disease status at age 45-55 years, and frailty (defined according to the Fried phenotype) at baseline and at one or more of three clinic visits about 18 years later (mean age 69 years [SD 5·9])...
June 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kiriko Kaneko, Yoshiko Kubota, Kazumi Nomura, Haruka Hayashimoto, Taisei Chida, Naoto Yoshino, Marina Wayama, Katsutoshi Ogasawara, Yukio Nakamura, Ikuo Tooyama, Kazumichi Furuyama
ALAS2 gene mutations cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia. The presence of ring sideroblasts in a patient's bone marrow is the hallmark of sideroblastic anemia, but the precise mechanisms underlying sideroblast formation are largely unknown. Using a genome editing system, a mutation was introduced in the erythroid-specific enhancer of the ALAS2 gene in HUDEP2 cells, which were derived from human umbilical stem cells and can produce erythrocytes. The established cell line, termed HA2low, expressed less ALAS2 mRNA than did wild-type cells, even after erythroid differentiation...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Anna Damanaki, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Kanishka Hiththetiya, Svenja Memmert, Jinlong Gao, Ky-Anh Nguyen, Werner Götz, Andreas Jäger, Gerhard Wahl, James Deschner
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be unraveled. The present investigation was to evaluate a common rat model, in which obesity is induced by high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFSD), for its applicability in periodontal research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten male Wistar rats were fed a 3-month HFSD along with a matching control group. Afterwards, the body weight, adipocyte morphology, leptin and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, gingiva, and serum as well as the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Erin E Higgins, Wayne E Clarke, Elaine C Howell, Susan J Armstrong, Isobel A P Parkin
The heavy selection pressure due to intensive breeding of Brassica napus has created a narrow gene pool, limiting the ability to produce improved varieties through crosses between B. napus cultivars. One mechanism that has contributed to the adaptation of important agronomic traits in the allotetraploid B. napus has been chromosomal rearrangements resulting from homoeologous recombination between the constituent A and C diploid genomes. Determining the rate and distribution of such events in natural B. napus will assist efforts to understand and potentially manipulate this phenomenon...
June 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Junji Moriya
There is accumulating evidence that vascular inflammation plays critical roles in pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. It is widely accepted that both innate and adaptive immune responses are important for initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, which mainly consist of monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes. Moreover, inflammatory biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 are known to predict future cardiovascular events, as well as conventional low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Yashuang Hei, Xiqian Li, Xiao Zhou, Jingju Liu, Mehboob Hassan, Siyi Zhang, Yu Yang, Xiangjie Bo, Hsing-Lin Wang, Ming Zhou
In this work, the three-dimensional nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbons with hierarchical architectures (3D-NNCsHAs) with high density of defective sites, high surface area and pluralities of pore size distributions was prepared through the pyrolysis of sea-tangle (Laminaria japonica), an inexpensive, eco-friendly and abundant precursor. Benefitting from their structural uniqueness, a selective and sensitive ascorbic acid (AA) sensor based on 3D-NNCsHAs was developed. Compared to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the carbon nanotubes modified GCE (CNTs/GCE), the 3D-NNCsHAs modified GCE (3D-NNCsHAs/GCE) presents higher performance towards the electrocatalysis and detection of AA, such as lower detection limit (1 μM), wider linear range (10-4410 μM) and lower electrooxidation peak potential (-0...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
G Camisasca, M De Marzio, M Rovere, P Gallo
We investigate using molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical and structural properties of LiCl:6H2 O aqueous solution upon supercooling. This ionic solution is a glass forming liquid of relevant interest in connection with the study of the anomalies of supercooled water. The LiCl:6H2 O solution is easily supercooled and the liquid state can be maintained over a large decreasing temperature range. We performed simulations from ambient to 200 K in order to investigate how the presence of the salt modifies the behavior of supercooled water...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Péter Gurin, Szabolcs Varga, Yuri Martínez-Ratón, Enrique Velasco
The phase behavior and structural properties of a monolayer of hard particles is examined in such a confinement where the adsorbed particles are constrained to the surface of a narrow hard cylindrical pore. The diameter of the pore is chosen such that only first- and second-neighbor interactions occur between the hard particles. The transfer operator method of [Percus and Zhang, Mol. Phys. 69, 347 (1990)MOPHAM0026-897610.1080/00268979000100241] is reformulated to obtain information about the structure of the monolayer...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Peter Mausbach, Andreas Köster, Jadran Vrabec
Aspects of isomorph theory, Rosenfeld-Tarazona temperature scaling, and thermodynamic geometry are comparatively discussed on the basis of the Lennard-Jones potential. The first two approaches approximate the high-density fluid state well when the repulsive interparticle interactions become dominant, which is typically the case close to the freezing line. However, previous studies of Rosenfeld-Tarazona scaling for the isochoric heat capacity and its relation to isomorph theory reveal deviations for the temperature dependence...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
P N Timonin
High-density (HD) percolation describes the percolation of specific κ-clusters, which are the compact sets of sites each connected to κ nearest filled sites at least. It takes place in the classical patterns of independently distributed sites or bonds in which the ordinary percolation transition also exists. Hence, the study of series of κ-type HD percolations amounts to the description of classical clusters' structure for which κ-clusters constitute κ-cores nested one into another. Such data are needed for description of a number of physical, biological, and information properties of complex systems on random lattices, graphs, and networks...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Lucas T Alameda, Parivash Moradifar, Zachary Metzger, Nasim Alem, Raymond E Schaak
The synthesis of refractory materials usually relies on high-temperature conditions to drive diffusion-limited solid-state reac-tions. These reactions result in thermodynamically-stable products that are rarely amenable to low-temperature topochemical transformations that post-synthetically modify subtle structural features. Here, we show that topochemical deintercalation of Al from MoAlB single crystals, achieved by room-temperature reaction with NaOH, occurs in a stepwise manner to produce several metastable Mo-Al-B intergrowth phases and a two-dimensional MoB (MBene) monolayer, which is a boride analog to graphene-like MXene carbides and nitrides...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alexis C Crawford, Colin C Young, Marc D Porter
This paper examines how the difference in the spatial orientation of the capture substrate influences the analytical sensitivity and limits of detection for immunoassays that use gold nanoparticle labels (AuNPs) and rely on diffusion in quiet solution in the antigen capture and labeling steps. Ideally, the accumulation of both reactants should follow a dependence governed by the rate in which diffusion delivers reactants to the capture surface. In other words, the accumulation of reactants should increase with the square root of the incubation time, i...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dragana Dragoljevic, Michael J Kraakman, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Devi Ngo, Waled Shihata, Helene L Kammoun, Alexandra Whillas, Man Kit Sam Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Gerard Pernes, Michelle C Flynn, Graeme I Lancaster, Mark A Febbraio, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Beatriz Y Hanaoka, Ian P Wicks, Andrew J Murphy
Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
I Snekvik, T I L Nilsen, P R Romundstad, M Saunes
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been associated with psoriasis in cross-sectional studies, but data from prospective studies are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine whether metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with risk of incident psoriasis in a large population-based study using objective measurements of cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We used data from two consecutive surveys of the HUNT Study, Norway (HUNT2, 1995-1997, and HUNT3, 2006-08)...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
There is growing interest in understanding how specific neural events that occur during sleep, including characteristic spindle oscillations between 10 and 16 Hz (Hz), are related to learning and memory. Neural events can be recorded during sleep using the well-known method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). While publicly available sleep EEG datasets exist, most consist of only a few channels collected in specific patient groups being evaluated overnight for sleep disorders in clinical settings. The dataset described in this Data in Brief includes 22 participants who each participated in EEG recordings on two separate days...
June 2018: Data in Brief
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