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Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Flavio Pereira, Roger de Moraes, Diogo Van Bavel, Andrea De Lorenzo, Eduardo Tibirica
Introduction: The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of strenuous exercise, related to special military training for riot control, on systemic microvascular endothelial function and skin capillary density. Materials and Methods: Endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity was evaluated in the forearm skin of healthy military trainees (age 23.4 ± 2.3 yr; n = 15) using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with cutaneous acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Matthieu Picher, Kerstin Bücker, Thomas LaGrange, Florian Banhart
We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach...
March 13, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Stephen P Muench, Martin van der Laan
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Roh et al. (2018) present a high-resolution cryo-EM structure of the nanodisc-reconstituted yeast Vo proton channel that provides important new insights into subunit arrangements and the proton translocation pathway in V-type ATPases.
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Ki-Chul Sung, Mi-Yeon Lee, Jong-Young Lee, Sung-Ho Lee, Jang-Young Kim, Sarah H Wild, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is uncertain whether resolution of fatty liver can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, independently of changes in body mass index (BMI). Our aim was to test whether resolution of fatty liver is associated with improvements in components of the lipid profile, independently of changes in BMI, and to quantify and compare the magnitude of benefit of resolution of liver fat, and decreases in BMI on the lipid profile. METHODS: 36,195 subjects with fatty liver were studied...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Renata Ferrari, Ezequiel M Marzinelli, Camila Rezende Ayroza, Alan Jordan, Will F Figueira, Maria Byrne, Hamish A Malcolm, Stefan B Williams, Peter D Steinberg
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs...
2018: PloS One
Elena García-Payá, Marta Fernández, Sergio Padilla, José A García, Catalina Robledano, Victoria Ortiz DE LA Tabla, Félix Gutiérrez, Mar Masiá
OBJECTIVE: The protective effect of ART has not yet been definitively established in men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to characterize the factors associated with persistent HIV-1 RNA rectal shedding. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically-suppressed MSM from an HIV cohort. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed for screening of anal dysplasia, and rectal sampling for HIV-1 RNA quantification and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) investigation through multiplex PCR...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Blake J Bleier, Shelley L Anna, Lynn M Walker
The goal of this work is to develop a simple microfluidic approach to characterizing liquid-liquid phase behavior in complex aqueous mixtures of organics and salts. We take advantage of the permeability of inexpensive microfluidic devices to concentrate aqueous solutions on chip. We demonstrate a technique that allows phase boundaries to be identified with high compositional resolution and small sample volumes. Droplets of single phase samples are produced on-chip and concentrated in the device beyond the phase boundary line to map system phase behavior...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Nick Zwart, Shan Li Nio, Corine J Houtman, Jacob De Boer, Jeroen Kool, Timo Hamers, Marja H Lamoree
Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) is a commonly used approach for effect-based identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals in complex (environmental) mixtures. For routine toxicity assessment of e.g. water samples however, current EDA approaches are considered time consuming and laborious. We achieved faster EDA and identification, by downscaling of sensitive cell-based hormone reporter gene assays and increasing fractionation resolution to allow testing of smaller fractions with reduced complexity. The high-resolution EDA approach is demonstrated by analysis of four environmental passive sampler extracts...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Masha M Rosenberg, Alfred G Redfield, Mary Roberts, Lizbeth Hedstrom
The ability of enzymes to modulate the dynamics of bound substrates and cofactors is a critical feature of catalysis, but the role of dynamics has largely been approached from the perspective of the protein. Here we use an underappreciated NMR technique, subtesla high resolution field cycling31 P NMR relaxometry, to interrogate the dynamics of enzyme bound substrates and cofactors in guanosine-5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR). These experiments reveal distinct binding modes and dynamic profiles associated with the31 P nuclei in the Michaelis complexes for the deamination and hydride transfer steps of the catalytic cycle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemistry
Mark O Wielpütz, Ho Yun Lee, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Shinichiro Seki, Yuji Kishida, Yasuhiro Sakai, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Kazuro Sugimura, Yoshiharu Ohno
OBJECTIVE: Ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI has been shown to deliver high-resolution images comparable to CT images. Here we evaluate the potential of UTE-MRI for precise lung nodule characterization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients (mean [± SD] age, 68.7 ± 10.8 years) with 119 nodules or masses (mean size, 17.4 ± 16.3 mm; range, 4-88 mm) prospectively underwent CT (1-mm slice thickness) and UTE-MRI (TE, 192 μs; 1 mm3 resolution). Two radiologists assessed nodule dimensions and morphologic features (i...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Toru Imai, Junhui Shi, Terence T W Wong, Lei Li, Liren Zhu, Lihong V Wang
Ultraviolet photoacoustic microscopy (UV-PAM) is a promising intraoperative tool for surgical margin assessment (SMA), one that can provide label-free histology-like images with high resolution. In this study, using a microlens array and a one-dimensional (1-D) array ultrasonic transducer, we developed a high-throughput multifocal UV-PAM (MF-UV-PAM). Our new system achieved a 1.6  ±  0.2  μm lateral resolution and produced images 40 times faster than the previously developed point-by-point scanning UV-PAM...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Suhanyaa Nitkunanantharajah, Christoph Hennersperger, Xose Luis Dean-Ben, Daniel Razansky, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Optoacoustic imaging provides high spatial resolution and the possibility to image specific functional parameters in real-time, therefore positioning itself as a promising modality for various applications. However, despite these advantages, the applicability of real-time optoacoustic imaging is generally limited due to a relatively small field of view. METHODS: With this work, we aim at presenting a path towards panoramic optoacoustic tomographic imaging without requiring additional sensors or position trackers...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Jochem Deen, Su Wang, Sven Van Snick, Volker Leen, Kris Janssen, Johan Hofkens, Robert K Neely
The methyltransferase enzymes can be applied to deliver a range of modifications to pre-determined sites on large DNA molecules with exceptional specificity and efficiency. To date, however, a limited number of modifications have been delivered in this way because of the complex chemical synthesis that is needed to produce a cofactor analogue carrying a specific function, such as a fluorophore. Here, we describe a method for the direct transfer of a series of functional compounds (seven fluorescent dyes, biotin and polyethylene glycol) to the DNA duplex...
March 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Fariba Tayyari, G A Nagana Gowda, Olufunmilayo F Olopade, Richard Berg, Howard H Yang, Maxwell P Lee, Wilfred F Ngwa, Suresh K Mittal, Daniel Raftery, Sulma I Mohammed
Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Victoria Sundblad, Amado A Quintar, Luciano G Morosi, Sonia I Niveloni, Ana Cabanne, Edgardo Smecuol, Eduardo Mauriño, Karina V Mariño, Julio C Bai, Cristina A Maldonado, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Galectins, a family of animal lectins characterized by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates, modulate several immune cell processes shaping the course of innate and adaptive immune responses. Through interaction with a wide range of glycosylated receptors bearing complex branched N-glycans and core 2-O-glycans, these endogenous lectins trigger distinct signaling programs thereby controling immune cell activation, differentiation, recruitment and survival. Given the unique features of mucosal inflammation and the differential expression of galectins throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we discuss here key findings on the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease (CeD) patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Danuta Gutowska-Owsiak, Jorge Bernardino de La Serna, Marco Fritzsche, Aishath Naeem, Ewa I Podobas, Michael Leeming, Huw Colin-York, Ryan O'Shaughnessy, Christian Eggeling, Graham S Ogg
Epidermal stratification critically depends on keratinocyte differentiation and programmed death by cornification, leading to formation of a protective skin barrier. Cornification is dynamically controlled by the protein filaggrin, rapidly released from keratohyalin granules (KHGs). However, the mechanisms of cornification largely remain elusive, partly due to limitations of the observation techniques employed to study filaggrin organization in keratinocytes. Moreover, while the abundance of keratins within KHGs has been well described, it is not clear whether actin also contributes to their formation or fate...
March 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Sangmoon Yoon, Hyobin Yoo, Seoung-Hun Kang, Miyoung Kim, Young-Kyun Kwon
We report the existence of latent order during core relaxation in the high-angle grain boundaries (GBs) of GaN films using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and ab initio density functional theory calculations. Core structures in the high-angle GBs are characterized by two pairs of Ga-N bonds located next to each other. The core type correlates strongly with the bond angle differences. We identify an order of core relaxation hidden in the high-angle GBs by further classifying the 5/7 atom cores into a stable 5/7 core (5/7(S)) and a metastable 5/7 core (5/7(M))...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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