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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#1
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913086/punctate-white-matter-lesions-in-full-term-infants-with-neonatal-seizures-associated-with-slc13a5-mutations
#2
Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Kees P Braun, Evelien Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Gajja S Salomons, Bobby P Koeleman, Koen L van Gassen, Henrica L van Straaten, Dana Craiu, Linda S de Vries
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and developmental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. METHODS: Observational study describing the neuro-imaging findings in eight patients (five families) with mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Seven infants had an MRI in the neonatal period, two had a follow-up MRI at the age of 6 and 18 months and one only at 13 months...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912171/the-topographical-distribution-of-epileptic-spikes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-with-and-without-photosensitivity
#3
P R Bauer, K Gorgels, W Spetgens, N E C van Klink, F S S Leijten, J W Sander, G H Visser, M Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) have photoparoxysmal responses (PPR). Recent studies report on structural and pathophysiological differences between people with JME with (JME+PPR) and without PPR (JME-PPR). We investigated whether electrophysiological features outside photic stimulation differ between these subtypes. METHODS: We analysed EEG recordings of people with JME at a tertiary epilepsy centre and an academic hospital...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910087/menstrual-migraine-and-treatment-options-review
#4
REVIEW
Kasra Maasumi, Stewart J Tepper, Jennifer S Kriegler
OBJECTIVE: A review of treatment options for menstrual migraine. BACKGROUND: Migraine affects ∼30 million people in the US. A subset of female migraineurs have migraines that are mainly associated with menstruation. Menstrual migraine (MM) is divided into pure MM and menstrually related migraine. Pure MM attacks occur only with menstruation and have a prevalence of 1%. Menstrually related migraine has a prevalence of 6-7%, and occurs both during menstruation as well as during the rest of the cycle...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#5
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#6
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908324/-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#7
Dröfn Hilmarsdóttir, Steffen Birk, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are seizures which clinically resemble epileptic seizures but are without concurrent abnormal electrical charges. Though PNES can be just as serious and disabling as epileptic seizures, specific treatment guidelines are lacking, and different types of treatments are used. In this article we address the current research on psychotherapeutic treatment for PNES by discussing recent reviews and six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the subject. In conclusion, larger well-designed RCTs are needed in order to support the evidence for psychological interventions for this patient group...
November 28, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908011/principal-dynamic-mode-analysis-of-neural-mass-model-for-the-identification-of-epileptic-states
#8
Yuzhen Cao, Liu Jin, Fei Su, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng
The detection of epileptic seizures in Electroencephalography (EEG) signals is significant for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. In this paper, in order to obtain characteristics of various epileptiform EEGs that may differentiate different states of epilepsy, the concept of Principal Dynamic Modes (PDMs) was incorporated to an autoregressive model framework. First, the neural mass model was used to simulate the required intracerebral EEG signals of various epileptiform activities. Then, the PDMs estimated from the nonlinear autoregressive Volterra models, as well as the corresponding Associated Nonlinear Functions (ANFs), were used for the modeling of epileptic EEGs...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907002/chemical-composition-an-antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-microbiological-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-aeollanthus-suaveolens-mart-ex-spreng
#9
Rosany Lopes Martins, Ranggel Carvalho Simões, Érica de Menezes Rabelo, Ana Luzia Ferreira Farias, Alex Bruno Lobato Rodrigues, Ryan da Silva Ramos, João Batista Fernandes, Lourivaldo da Silva Santos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeida
Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905566/early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-reduced-sensitivity-of-kv7-2-potassium-channels-to-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate
#10
Maria Virginia Soldovieri, Paolo Ambrosino, Ilaria Mosca, Michela De Maria, Edoardo Moretto, Francesco Miceli, Alessandro Alaimo, Nunzio Iraci, Laura Manocchio, Alessandro Medoro, Maria Passafaro, Maurizio Taglialatela
Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits underlie the M-current, a neuronal K(+) current characterized by an absolute functional requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Kv7.2 gene mutations cause early-onset neonatal seizures with heterogeneous clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting benign familial neonatal seizures to severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (Kv7.2-EE). In this study, the biochemical and functional consequences prompted by a recurrent variant (R325G) found independently in four individuals with severe forms of neonatal-onset EE have been investigated...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905012/microbial-proteins-as-novel-industrial-biotechnology-hosts-to-treat-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Zareen Amtul, Amal A Aziz
Epilepsy is characterized by the hyperexcitability of various neuronal circuits that results due to the imbalance between glutamate-mediated excitation of voltage-gated cation channels and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition of anion channels leading to aberrant, sporadic oscillations or fluctuations in neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy with a risk of mortality and around 65 million sufferers of all ages all over the world is limited therapeutically with high rates of adverse reactions, lack of complete seizure control, and over 30% patients with refractory epilepsy...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903734/deviations-from-critical-dynamics-in-interictal-epileptiform-activity
#12
Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903016/predicting-tissue-breaking-strengths-in-the-epileptic-brain-with-t2-relaxometry-application-of-pulsed-water-jet-dissection-system-for-epilepsy-surgery
#13
Yoko Takahashi, Masaki Iwasaki, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Shiho Sato, Nobukazu Nakasato, Teiji Tominaga
Background The piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. Using the ADPJ system in epilepsy surgery requires prediction of the tissue breaking strength of the epileptic brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry could predict the breaking strength. Methods A total of 12 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy who received surgical treatment were included in the study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901260/aliocha-dostoevski-s-death-during-an-epileptic-seizure
#14
Edson José Amâncio, Pedro André Kowacs, Bruno Toshio Takeshita, Fábio Augusto Nascimento, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Mortality due to epilepsy is of great concern worldwide. Individuals with epilepsy have a two- or three-fold risk of death when compared to the general population. Based on biographical data and Anna Grigoriévna Dostoevskaia's memories, the authors concluded that a prolonged episode of status epilepticus was the culprit in the death of young Aliocha, youngest son of Fyodor Mikhailovich and Anna Dostoevski. At the time of Aliocha's death, very limited knowledge about epilepsy or therapeutic resources was available...
November 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900944/amoxicillin-a-potential-epileptogenic-drug
#15
João Raposo, Rute Teotónio, Conceição Bento, Francisco Sales
Beta-lactams are known to cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic manifestations including epileptic seizures. The neurotoxicity of penicillin was first reported in 1945 by Johnson and Walker and is believed to exert an inhibitory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission of cortical pyramidal cells, due to its beta-lactam ring structure. Epileptogenicity is also a feature of the semisynthetic beta-lactams including aminopenicillins. In this report, we present a patient with a recurrent history of discrete body twitching/jerks of epileptic nature in the context of amoxicillin exposure...
November 29, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900402/effects-of-ugt1a9-genetic-polymorphisms-on-monohydroxylated-derivative-of-oxcarbazepine-concentrations-and-oxcarbazepine-monotherapeutic-efficacy-in-chinese-patients-with-epilepsy
#16
Yao Lu, Youxin Fang, Xunyi Wu, Chunlai Ma, Yue Wang, Lan Xu
AIM: The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase which is genetically polymorphic catalyzes glucuronidations of various drugs. The interactions among UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15 genetic polymorphisms, monohydroxylated derivative (MHD) of oxcarbazepine (OXC) plasma concentrations, and OXC monotherapeutic efficacy were explored in 124 Chinese patients with epilepsy receiving OXC monotherapy. METHOD: MHD is the major active metabolite of OXC, and its plasma concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography when patients reached their maintenance dose of OXC...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900360/scn8a-mutation-in-a-child-presenting-with-seizures-and-developmental-delays
#17
Janet Malcolmson, Robert Kleyner, David Tegay, Whit Adams, Kenneth Ward, Justine Coppinger, Lesa Nelson, Miriam H Meisler, Kai Wang, Reid Robison, Gholson J Lyon
The SCN8A gene encodes the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 8. Mutations in this gene have been associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 13. With the use of whole-exome sequencing, a de novo missense mutation in SCN8A was identified in a 4-yr-old female who initially exhibited symptoms of epilepsy at the age of 5 mo that progressed to a severe condition with very little movement, including being unable to sit or walk on her own.
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899394/stress-activated-kinase-mkk7-governs-epigenetics-of-cardiac-repolarization-for-arrhythmia-prevention
#18
Sanjoy K Chowdhury, Wei Liu, Min Zi, Yatong Li, Shunyao Wang, Hoyee Tsui, Sukhpal Prehar, Simon J Castro, Henggui Zhang, Yong Ji, Xiuqin Zhang, Rui-Ping Xiao, Rongli Zhang, Ming Lei, Lukas Cyganek, Kaomei Guan, Catherine B Millar, Xudong Liao, Mukesh K Jain, Mark R Boyett, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Holly A Shiels, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: -Ventricular arrhythmia is a leading cause of cardiac mortality. Most antiarrhythmics present paradoxical pro-arrhythmic side effects, culminating in a greater risk of sudden death. METHODS: -We describe a new regulatory mechanism linking mitogen-activated kinase kinase-7 (MKK7) deficiency with increased arrhythmia vulnerability in hypertrophied and failing hearts using mouse models harbouring MKK7 knockout or overexpression. The human relevance of this arrhythmogenic mechanism is evaluated in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs)...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899261/a-prestimulation-evaluation-protocol-for-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#19
Sofie Carrette, Paul Boon, Kristl Vonck
Neurostimulation is making its way into the therapeutic armamentarium of the epileptologists, with several invasive neurostimulation modalities available today and several less invasive modalities under investigation. Clinicians will soon face a choice that should not be made randomly. We introduce the concept of a prestimulation evaluation protocol, consisting of a series of rationally chosen investigations that evaluate the presence of biomarkers for response to various neurostimulation therapies. These biomarkers should reflect the susceptibility of the individual's epileptic network to a given neurostimulation technique...
November 19, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898362/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizure-in-patients-with-intellectual-disability-with-special-focus-on-choice-of-therapeutic-intervention
#20
Kousuke Kanemoto, Hiroko Goji, Yukari Tadokoro, Etsushi Kato, Tomohiro Oshima
PURPOSE: There have been a number of studies exploring treatments for psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) but largely neglecting the sizable subgroup of patients with intellectual disability (ID). In the present study, we attempted to demonstrate effects and preferred modes of therapeutic intervention in PNES patients with ID being treated at a Japanese municipal center with a short referral chain. METHODS: We examined 46 PNES patients with ID (ID group) and 106 PNES patients without ID (non-ID group) retrospectively in case charts...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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