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Automatic nervous system review

Rogely W Boyce, Hans J G Gundersen
Estimation of total number of a population of cells that are sparsely distributed in an organ or anatomically-defined region of interest represents a challenge for conventional stereological methods. In these situations, classic fractionator approaches that rely on systematic uniform random sampling are highly inefficient and, in many cases, impractical due to the intense sampling of the organ and tissue sections that is required to obtain sufficient counts for an acceptable level of precision. The proportionator, an estimator based on non-uniform sampling theory, marries automated image analysis with stereological principles and is the only estimator that provides a highly efficient and precise method to address these challenging quantification problems...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Kimberly B Hoang, Isaac R Cassar, Warren M Grill, Dennis A Turner
The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Akiko Kojima, Hiroshi Matsuura
Although various general anaesthetics affect the heart rate in clinical settings, their precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Because the heart rate is determined by automaticity of the cardiac pacemaker sinoatrial node and its regulation by autonomic nervous system, it is important to clarify the effect of anaesthetics on sinoatrial node automaticity. The spontaneous electrical activity of sinoatrial node is generated by a complex but coordinated interaction of multiple ionic currents, such as the hyperpolarisation-activated cation current (If), T-type and L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa,T and ICa,L), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX), and rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) currents (IKr and IKs)...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Elena L Rotariu, Mioara D Manole
Lightning strike injuries, although less common than electrical injuries, have a higher morbidity rate because of critical alterations of the circulatory system, respiratory system, and central nervous system. Most lightning-related deaths occur immediately after injury because of arrhythmia or respiratory failure. We describe the case of a pediatric patient who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to a lightning strike, where the Advanced Cardiac Life Support and Basic Life Support chain of survival was well executed, leading to return of spontaneous circulation and intact neurological survival...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Aiyatullah Shah, Nawab John Dar, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan, Muzamil Ahmad
Neurodegeneration is progressive loss of functional and structural integrity of the central nervous system. Neurodegenerative disorders are yet without any reliable therapy because the neurons of the central nervous system have limited ability to regenerate. Current therapeutic approaches rely mainly on abrogation of symptoms and leave the dying neurons to their fate. Protective and/or rescuing treatments need to be explored fully to suppress neuronal death that will automatically alleviate the symptoms. Adequate precedent exists in literature regarding the neuroprotective activity of endophytes...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jiyeon Kim, Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Woojun Kim, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL) in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG) and a poor response group (PRG) were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jens Blechert, Peter Peyk, Michael Liedlgruber, Frank H Wilhelm
Psychophysiological science employs a large variety of signals from the human body that index the activity of the peripheral nervous system. This allows for studying interactions of psychological and physiological processes that are relevant for understanding cognition, emotion, and psychopathology. The multidimensional nature of the data and the interactions between different physiological signals represent a methodological and computational challenge. Analysis software in this domain is often limited in its coverage of the signals from different physiological systems, and therefore only partially addresses these challenges...
December 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Theertham P Rao, Motoko Ozeki, Lekh R Juneja
Sleep deprivation is associated with an elevated risk of various diseases and leads to a poor quality of life and negative socioeconomic consequences. Sleep inducers such as drugs and herbal medicines may often lead to dependence and other side effects. L-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), an amino acid naturally found abundant in tea leaves, has anxiolytic effects via the induction of α brain waves without additive and other side effects associated with conventional sleep inducers. Anxiolysis is required for the initiation of high-quality sleep...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Pietro Mesirca, Angelo G Torrente, Matteo E Mangoni
Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Jess Hartcher-O'Brien, Malika Auvray
When we interact with objects in our environment, as a general rule we are not aware of the proximal stimulation they provide, but we directly experience the external object. This process of assigning an external cause is known as distal attribution. It is extremely difficult to measure how distal attribution emerges because it arises so early in life and appears to be automatic. Sensory substitution systems give us the possibility to measure the process as it occurs online. With these devices, objects in our environment produce novel proximal stimulation patterns and individuals have to establish the link between the proximal stimulation and the distal object...
2014: Multisensory Research
Jean-Louis Honeine, Marco Schieppati
Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Xiaoling Hu, Yiwen Wang, Ting Zhao, Aysegul Gunduz
Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation...
2014: BioMed Research International
W Geoffrey Wright
Technological advances that involve human sensorimotor processes can have both intended and unintended effects on the central nervous system (CNS). This mini review focuses on the use of virtual environments (VE) to augment brain functions by enhancing perception, eliciting automatic motor behavior, and inducing sensorimotor adaptation. VE technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical rehabilitation, training simulators, gaming, and entertainment. Although these VE applications have often been shown to optimize outcomes, whether it be to speed recovery, reduce training time, or enhance immersion and enjoyment, there are inherent drawbacks to environments that can potentially change sensorimotor calibration...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Christian Eick, Konstantinos D Rizas, Christine S Zuern, Axel Bauer
BACKGROUND: Assessment of heart rate variability by means of deceleration capacity (DC) provides a noninvasive probe of cardiac autonomic activity. However, clinical use of DC is limited by the need of manual review of the ECG signals to eliminate artifacts, noise, and nonstationarities. OBJECTIVE: To validate a novel approach to fully automatically assess DC from noisy, nonstationary signals METHODS: We analyzed 100 randomly selected ECG tracings recorded for 10 minutes by routine monitor devices (GE DASH 4000, sample size 100 Hz) in a medical emergency department...
March 2014: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Robert E Gross, Margaret E McDougal
Technological innovations have driven the advancement of the surgical treatment of movement disorders, from the invention of the stereotactic frame to the adaptation of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Along these lines, this review will describe recent advances in inserting neuromodulation modalities, including DBS, to the target, and in the delivery of therapy at the target. Recent radiological advances are altering the way that DBS leads are targeted and inserted, by refining the ability to visualize the subcortical targets using high-field strength magnetic resonance imaging and other innovations, such as diffusion tensor imaging, and the development of novel targeting devices enabling purely anatomical implantations without the need for neurophysiological monitoring...
August 2013: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Mary R Welch, Antonio Omuro, Lisa M Deangelis
Up to 20% of all primary CNS lymphoma (PCNLS) patients are aged 80 years or older, yet data are limited on how best to treat this rapidly growing population. Despite demographic pressures and the proven efficacy of methotrexate (MTX)-based regimens, automatic de-escalation of care based on age is standard practice outside of tertiary care centers. We performed a retrospective review of all PCNSL patients aged 80 years or older treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1993 to 2011. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as predictors of survival by multivariate analysis...
October 2012: Neuro-oncology
Alfonso Fasano, Meir Plotnik, Francesco Bove, Alfredo Berardelli
Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new definitions have been formulated. Among them, the definition of "idiopathic faller" (i.e. no overt cause for falling in a given subject) represented a milestone in building the "science of falling"...
December 2012: Neurological Sciences
Vadim V Fedorov, Alexey V Glukhov, Roger Chang
Since Keith and Flack's anatomical discovery of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary pacemaker of the heart, the question of how such a small SAN structure can pace the entire heart has remained for a large part unanswered. Recent advances in optical mapping technology have made it possible to unambiguously resolve the origin of excitation and conduction within the animal and human SAN. The combination of high-resolution optical mapping and histological structural analysis reveals that the canine and human SANs are functionally insulated from the surrounding atrial myocardium, except for several critical conduction pathways...
May 1, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Gregory F Grether
Territorial animals can be expected to distinguish among the types of competitors and noncompetitors that they encounter on a regular basis, including prospective mates and rivals of their own species, but they may not correctly classify individuals of other species. Closely related species often have similar phenotypes and this can cause confusion when formerly allopatric populations first come into contact. Errors in recognizing competitors can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. I review what is known about the mechanisms of competitor recognition in animals generally, focusing on cases in which the targets of recognition include other species...
November 2011: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Jean Paul Bounhoure, Michel Galinier, Serge Boveda, Jean-Paul Albenque
Despite therapeutic advances, the mortality rate associated with congestive heart failure remains as high as 20% per year. Among patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction, more than 60% of deaths result from ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, 20% from bradyarrhythmias (including advanced atrio-ventricular block or asystole), and 20% from terminal ventricular pump failure. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death result from an interaction between a trigger and a substrate with neurohumoral factors (enhanced activity of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems, electrolyte disturbances, etc...
June 2010: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
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