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Immunology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926962/anti-nkg2d-mab-a-new-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Kasper Vadstrup, Flemming Bendtsen
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immunologically-mediated, debilitating conditions resulting from destructive inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of IBD is incompletely understood, but is considered to be the result of an abnormal immune response with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#2
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926559/novelties-in-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-is-standard-virological-suppression-enough-for-measuring-antiretroviral-treatment-success
#3
Valentina Svicher, Giulia Marchetti, Adrianna Ammassari, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Loredana Sarmati
The high potency and tolerability of the currently available antiretroviral drugs has modified HIV-1 infection from a life-threatening disease to a chronic illness. Nevertheless, some issues still remain open to optimize the management of HIV-1 infected patients in term of maintenance of virological suppression over time, identifying patients that could benefit from simplification therapy, and reducing co-mordibities driven by chronic inflammation. The availability of robust and affordable virological and immunological markers can help in solving these issues by providing information on the burden of HIV-1 reservoir in all the anatomical compartments in which the virus replicates as well as on persistent inflammation, immune activation and senescence despite successful virological suppression...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#4
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923982/emerging-concepts-in-tcr-specificity-rationalizing-and-maybe-predicting-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Nishant K Singh, Timothy P Riley, Sarah Catherine B Baker, Tyler Borrman, Zhiping Weng, Brian M Baker
T cell specificity emerges from a myriad of processes, ranging from the biological pathways that control T cell signaling to the structural and physical mechanisms that influence how TCRs bind peptides and MHC proteins. Of these processes, the binding specificity of the TCR is a key component. However, TCR specificity is enigmatic: TCRs are at once specific but also cross-reactive. Although long appreciated, this duality continues to puzzle immunologists and has implications for the development of TCR-based therapeutics...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923762/translating-basic-research-into-clinical-practice-vitamin-d-in-asthma-mechanisms-of-action-and-considerations-for-clinical-trials
#6
REVIEW
Paul E Pfeffer, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
There is increasing interest in the therapeutic utility of vitamin D in asthma, supported by a significant body of evidence on epidemiological associations between vitamin D insufficiency and worse asthma control. In support of a causal relationship, vitamin D beneficially modulates diverse immunological pathways in heterogeneous asthma endotypes, regulating the actions of lymphocytes, mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and structural cells to dampen excessive inflammatory responses. Allergic asthma is characterised by a failure of immune tolerance, and development of pathological responses to inhaled aeroallergens, and vitamin D has been extensively shown to support immune regulation...
September 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921585/allergooncology-opposite-outcomes-of-immune-tolerance-in-allergy-and-cancer
#7
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, S Crescioli, T R Daniels-Wells, D Dombrowicz, E Fiebiger, H J Gould, S Irshad, J Janda, D H Josephs, F Levi-Schaffer, L O Mahony, G Pellizzari, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, F Roth-Walter, J Singer, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
While desired for the cure of allergy, regulatory immune cell subsets and non-classical Th2-biased inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment can contribute to immune suppression and escape of tumours from immunological detection and clearance. A key aim in the cancer field is therefore to design interventions that can break immunological tolerance and halt cancer progression, whereas on the contrary allergen immunotherapy exactly aims to induce tolerance. In this position paper, we review insights on immune tolerance derived from allergy and from cancer inflammation, focusing on what is known about the roles of key immune cells and mediators...
September 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#8
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920109/papillon-lef%C3%A3-vre-syndrome-a-series-of-three-cases-in-the-same-family-and-a-literature-review
#9
Jasbir D Upadhyaya, Dustin Pfundheller, Mohammed N Islam, Indraneel Bhattacharyya
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that exhibits palmoplantar keratosis and early severe periodontitis. The oral disease affects both the primary and permanent dentitions leading to premature exfoliation of teeth. Various etiologic factors, such as genetic mutations, immunologic alterations, and bacteria have been implicated in PLS. Genetic mutations leading to the loss of function of cathepsin C (CTSC) gene, located on chromosome 11q14, is considered pivotal in this condition...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919341/metabolic-programming-of-the-epigenome-host-and-gut-microbial-metabolite-interactions-with-host-chromatin
#10
REVIEW
Kimberly A Krautkramer, Rashpal S Dhillon, John M Denu, Hannah V Carey
The mammalian gut microbiota has been linked to host developmental, immunologic, and metabolic outcomes. This collection of trillions of microbes inhabits the gut and produces a myriad of metabolites, which are measurable in host circulation and contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases. The link between endogenous metabolite availability and chromatin regulation is a well-established and active area of investigation; however, whether microbial metabolites can elicit similar effects is less understood...
September 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918995/cutaneous-adverse-events-of-targeted-therapies-for-hematolymphoid-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Julia D Ransohoff, Bernice Y Kwong
The identification of oncogenic drivers of liquid tumors has led to the rapid development of targeted agents with distinct cutaneous adverse event (AE) profiles. The diagnosis and management of these skin toxicities has motivated a novel partnership between dermatologists and oncologists in developing supportive oncodermatology clinics. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of clinical presentation, mechanisms, and management of the most common and significant cutaneous AEs observed during treatment with targeted therapies for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#12
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918659/ureaplasma-associated-prenatal-perinatal-and-neonatal-morbidities
#13
Christine Silwedel, Christian P Speer, Kirsten Glaser
Ureaplasma species (spp.) have been acknowledged as major causative pathogens in chorioamnionitis and prematurity, but may also contribute to key morbidities in preterm infants. Several epidemiological and experimental data indicate an association of neonatal Ureaplasma colonization and/or infection with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Furthermore, a potential causal relation with other inflammation-induced morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, white matter injury, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity, has been debated...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917985/the-effect-of-particle-shape-on-cellular-interaction-and-drug-delivery-applications-of-micro-and-nanoparticles
#14
REVIEW
Anil B Jindal
Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in nanoparticles offers several benefits including improved bioavailability, site specific delivery, reduced toxicity and in vivo stability of proteins and nucleotides over conventional delivery options. These benefits are consequence of distinct in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profile of nanoparticles, which is dictated by the complex interplay of size, surface charge and surface hydrophobicity. Recently, particle shape has been identified as a new physical parameter which has exerted tremendous impact on cellular uptake and biodistribution, thereby in vivo performance of nanoparticles...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916317/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-8-hhv-8-dna-sequences-in-patients-with-lymphoproliferative-diseases-and-chronic-blood-disorders
#15
Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Maryam Esghaei, Farah Bokharaei Salim, Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari
OBJECTIVE: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), but it has also been associated with different hematologic malignancies, including plasmablastic lymphoma, Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and various atypical lymphoproliferative disorders. Patients with underlying lymphoproliferative diseases and chronic blood disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for human malignancies. This small study reported the frequency of human herpesvirus -8 in 81 Iranian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders for estimation of possible factors affecting malignancy...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#16
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915214/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#17
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nußbaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure, and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#18
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912816/review-of-current-immunologic-therapies-for-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#20
REVIEW
Victoria K Shanmugam, Nadia Meher Zaman, Sean McNish, Faye N Hant
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin which affects approximately 1-4% of the population. The disease is more common in women and patients of African American descent and approximately one-third of patients report a family history. Obesity and smoking are known risk factors, but associations with other immune disorders, especially inflammatory bowel disease, are also recognized. The pathogenesis of HS is poorly understood and host innate or adaptive immune response, defective keratinocyte function, and the microbial environment in the hair follicle and apocrine gland have all been postulated to play a role in disease activity...
2017: International Journal of Rheumatology
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