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Hepatology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526690/emerging-concepts-in-biliary-repair-and-fibrosis
#1
Luca Fabris, Carlo Spirli, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Romina Fiorotto, Mario Strazzabosco
Chronic diseases of the biliary tree (cholangiopathies) represent one of the major unmet needs in clinical hepatology and a significant knowledge gap in liver pathophysiology. The common theme in cholangiopathies is that the target of the disease is the biliary tree. After damage to the biliary epithelium, inflammatory changes stimulate a reparative response with proliferation of cholangiocytes and restoration of the biliary architecture, owing to the re-activation of a variety of morphogenetic signals. Chronic damage and inflammation, will ultimately result in pathologic repair, with generation of biliary fibrosis and clinical progression of the disease...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520105/large-scale-computational-models-of-liver-metabolism-how-far-from-the-clinics
#2
REVIEW
Tanja Cvitanović, Matthias C Reichert, Miha Moškon, Miha Mraz, Frank Lammert, Damjana Rozman
Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases in general and the metabolism of drugs in particular. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modelling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analysing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally...
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507924/improved-outcomes-following-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-diagnosis-in-patients-screened-for-hcc-in-a-large-academic-liver-center-versus-patients-identified-in-the-community
#3
Nneoma Okoronkwo, Yucai Wang, Capecomorin Pitchumoni, Baburao Koneru, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Background and Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer worldwide. Knowledge and adherence to HCC surveillance guidelines has been associated with earlier detection. We sought to evaluate characteristics and outcomes following HCC diagnosis in patients screened for HCC in a large academic liver center versus patients diagnosed and referred from the community. Methods: We reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with HCC in the liver center of an academic institution from January 1999 till December 2013...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487842/dietary-primary-prevention-of-allergic-diseases-in-children-the-philippine-guidelines
#4
REVIEW
Marysia Stella T Recto, Maria Lourdes G Genuino, Mary Anne R Castor, Roxanne J Casis-Hao, Diana R Tamondong-Lachica, Maria Imelda V Sales, Marilou G Tan, Karen S Mondonedo, Regina C Dionisio-Capulong
Allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and food allergy, are preventable diseases. Primary prevention strategies of allergic diseases have been in scrutiny. Effective prevention strategies maybe started prenatally, postnatally, during infancy, and even during childhood. These guidelines have been prepared by the Philippine Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the Philippine Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the dietary primary prevention of allergic diseases in children...
April 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487442/crispr-cas9-at-the-cutting-edge-of-hepatology
#5
REVIEW
Francis P Pankowicz, Kelsey E Jarrett, William R Lagor, Karl-Dimiter Bissig
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome engineering has revolutionised biomedical science and we are standing on the cusp of medical transformation. The therapeutic potential of this technology is tremendous, however, its translation to the clinic will be challenging. In this article, we review recent progress using this genome editing technology and explore its potential uses in studying and treating diseases of the liver. We discuss the development of new research tools and animal models as well as potential clinical applications, strategies and challenges...
May 9, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#6
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#7
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321163/optimizing-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-through-pharmacist-interventions-identification-and-management-of-drug-drug-interactions
#8
Jacob A Langness, Matthew Nguyen, Amanda Wieland, Gregory T Everson, Jennifer J Kiser
AIM: To quantify drug-drug-interactions (DDIs) encountered in patients prescribed hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, the interventions made, and the time spent in this process. METHODS: As standard of care, a clinical pharmacist screened for DDIs in patients prescribed direct acting antiviral (DAA) HCV treatment between November 2013 and July 2015 at the University of Colorado Hepatology Clinic. HCV regimens prescribed included ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV), simeprevir/sofosbuvir (SIM/SOF), and sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SOF/RBV)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317399/recent-advances-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#9
Grace J Lee, John Y Kao
The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last half-century, resulting in rising interest in identifying risk factors for CD. The necessity of duodenal biopsies in the diagnosis of CD has recently been challenged. Areas covered: This review covers the recent literature regarding the role of infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and timing of gluten introduction, and the microbiota in the development of CD. Additionally, the application of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for a non-biopsy approach to the diagnosis of CD is reviewed...
March 28, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297794/-research-advances-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-2016
#10
B Li, Q X Wang, X Ma
Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of abnormal autoimmune-mediated inflammatory hepatobiliary injuries, mainly including autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), primary biliary cholangitis(PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases, an important type of non-viral liver disease, have become a prominent issue in hepatology. In 2016, many new advances have been achieved in the clinical and basic research on autoimmune liver diseases, including the phase 3 clinical trial of obeticholic acid, the proposal of UK-PBC risk score, and the research on gut microbiota associated with PSC...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293079/pediatric-gastrointestinal-bleeding-perspectives-from-the-italian-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology
#11
REVIEW
Claudio Romano, Salvatore Oliva, Stefano Martellossi, Erasmo Miele, Serena Arrigo, Maria Giovanna Graziani, Sabrina Cardile, Federica Gaiani, Gian Luigi de'Angelis, Filippo Torroni
There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in children, and this condition is not rare, having a reported incidence of 6.4%. Causes vary with age, but show considerable overlap; moreover, while many of the causes in the pediatric population are similar to those in adults, some lesions are unique to children. The diagnostic approach for pediatric GIB includes definition of the etiology, localization of the bleeding site and determination of the severity of bleeding; timely and accurate diagnosis is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286560/prevalence-of-end-of-treatment-rna-positive-sustained-viral-response-in-hcv-patients-treated-with-sofosbuvir-combination-therapies
#12
Miguel Malespin, Tamara Benyashvili, Susan L Uprichard, Alan S Perelson, Harel Dahari, Scott J Cotler
BACKGROUND: Some chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), genotype 1 infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) remain viremic at end of treatment (EOT+), yet go on to achieve sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of therapy (SVR12). The incidence of EOT+/SVR in patients with genotype 1 and other genotypes, as well as whether such patients achieve SVR24 remain in question. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency and durability of EOT+/SVR12&24 and other response categories in HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infected patients treated with DAA in clinical practice...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230608/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-clinical-report
#13
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177956/optimizing-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#14
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, David S Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic approach in celiac disease is continuously evolving as our understanding of its pathophysiology improves. This review aims to provide a summary of contemporary work that supports optimization of the diagnosis of this common yet underdiagnosed condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently updated National Institute of Clinical Excellence and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines and the contentious biopsy-free diagnostic approach will be discussed...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144156/update-on-the-clinical-management-of-wilson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Peter Hedera
Wilson's disease (WD), albeit relatively rare, is an important genetic metabolic disease because of highly effective therapies that can be lifesaving. It is a great imitator and requires a high index of suspicion for correct and timely diagnosis. Neurologic, psychiatric and hepatologic problems in WD are very nonspecific, and we discuss the most common clinical phenotypes. The diagnosis remains laboratory based, and here we review the most important challenges and pitfalls in laboratory evaluation of WD, including the emerging role of genetic testing in WD diagnosis...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107283/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-recommendations-from-the-expert-committee-on-nafld-econ-and-the-north-american-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#16
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists, and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097105/2016-reviewer-acknowledgement
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092846/status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-how-to-avoid-misdiagnosis-in-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#18
Marika Rudler, Clémence Marois, Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut, Vincent Navarro
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) in patients with cirrhosis is a rare but serious situation. Diagnosis may be difficult in emergency presentation, especially when patients present with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Misdiagnosis must be avoided since some anti-epileptic drugs aggravate HE. In this retrospective study, we therefore assessed the frequency of SE in patients with cirrhosis, evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis and determined rates of mortality. METHOD: We reviewed data from all patients hospitalized from 2005 to 2013 in the Hepatology ICU for complications of cirrhosis with an initial diagnosis of SE...
February 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073146/value-based-care-in-hepatology
#19
REVIEW
Mario Strazzabosco, John I Allen, Elizabeth O Teisberg
The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high-value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and redesign of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Because patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Because chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices...
May 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069744/coeliac-disease-screening-is-suboptimal-in-a-tertiary-gastroenterology-setting
#20
Heba Iskandar, Darrell M Gray, Hongha Vu, Faiz Mirza, Mary Katherine Rude, Kara Regan, Adil Abdalla, Srinivas Gaddam, Sami Almaskeen, Michael Mello, Evelyn Marquez, Claire Meyer, Ahmed Bolkhir, Navya Kanuri, Gregory Sayuk, C Prakash Gyawali
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coeliac disease (CD) is widely prevalent in North America, but case-finding techniques currently used may not be adequate for patient identification. We aimed to determine the adequacy of CD screening in an academic gastroenterology (GI) practice. METHODS: Consecutive initial visits to a tertiary academic GI practice were surveyed over a 3-month period as a fellow-initiated quality improvement project. All electronic records were reviewed to look for indications for CD screening according to published guidelines...
January 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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