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Hepatology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280782/management-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-the-pediatric-population-a-clinical-report-from-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-pancreas-committee
#1
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Soma Kumar, Jose Antonio Quiros, Keshawadhana Balakrishnan, Bradley Barth, Samuel Bitton, John F Eisses, Elsie Jazmin Foglio, Victor Fox, Denease Francis, Alvin Jay Freeman, Tanja Gonska, Amit S Grover, Sohail Z Husain, Rakesh Kumar, Sameer Lapsia, Tom Lin, Quin Y Liu, Asim Maqbool, Zachary M Sellers, Flora Szabo, Aliye Uc, Steven L Werlin, Veronique D Morinville
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children is increasing, management recommendations rely on adult published guidelines. Pediatric-specific recommendations are needed. METHODS: The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Pancreas committee performed a MEDLINE review using several preselected key terms relating to management considerations in adult and pediatric AP. The literature was summarized, quality of evidence reviewed, and statements of recommendations developed...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258813/novel-ultrasound-based-methods-to-assess-liver-disease-the-game-has-just-begun
#2
REVIEW
Annalisa Berzigotti, Giovanna Ferraioli, Simona Bota, Odd Helge Gilja, Christoph F Dietrich
In the last 10 years the availability of ultrasound elastography allowed to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis in a non-invasive way and changed the clinical practice of hepatology. Newer ultrasound-based techniques to evaluate properties of the liver tissue other than fibrosis are emerging and will lead to a more complete characterization of the full spectrum of diffuse and focal liver disease. Since these methods are currently undergoing validation and go beyond elastography for liver tissue evaluation, they were not included in the recent guidelines regarding elastography issued by the European Federation of Societies in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology...
December 5, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226109/2017-reviewer-acknowledgement
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210919/the-role-of-combination-therapy-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-a-clinical-report-from-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#4
Andrew S Day, Ajay S Gulati, Nishaben Patel, Brendan Boyle, K T Park, Shehzad A Saeed
The treatment goal for children suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been evolving with biologic therapies like anti-TNF agents assuming a more central role in treatment of more aggressive and extensive phenotype. Earlier introduction of anti-TNF agents have shown to be more effective and may even alter the natural history of IBD. However, development of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) limits long term usage and leads to dose adjustment in almost half of patients treated with these medications. One of the strategies to minimize the development of ADA has been concomitant use of immunomodulator (IM) medications, resulting in fewer infusion reactions and sustained trough levels, potentially lowering the need for dose adjustments...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199921/developing-a-community-hcv-service-project-ittreat-integrated-community-based-test-stage-treat-service-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
Ahmed Hashim, Margaret O'Sullivan, Hugh Williams, Sumita Verma
Background and aims Majority of the individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in England are people who inject drugs, a vulnerable and disenfranchised cohort with poor engagement with secondary care. Our aim is to describe our experiences in setting up a successful nurse led HCV service at a substance misuse service (SMS). METHODS: We justify the need for a community HCV service and review the different community based models. Our experiences in engaging with stakeholders, obtaining funding, service set up, challenges faced and key recommendations are discussed...
December 4, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178261/an-anms-naspghan-consensus-document-on-esophageal-and-antroduodenal-manometry-in-children
#6
REVIEW
R Rosen, J M Garza, N Tipnis, S Nurko
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in children are common and motility disorders are considered in the differential diagnosis. High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the study of esophageal physiology, and the addition of impedance has provided new insights into esophageal function. Antroduodenal motility has provided insight into gastric and small bowel function. PURPOSE: This review highlights some of the recent advances in pediatric esophageal and antroduodenal motility testing including indications, preparation, performance, and interpretation of the tests...
November 27, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163974/major-advances-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-over-the-last-25-years-review-of-25th-ueg-week-anniversary-session
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152039/hepatic-hydrothorax-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko, Nikolay Olegovich Arefyev
This review considers the modern concepts of pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment principles of hepatic hydrothorax (HH). HH is the excessive (> 500 mL) accumulation of transudate in the pleural cavity in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis but without cardiopulmonary and pleural diseases. It causes respiratory failure which aggravates the clinical course of liver cirrhosis, and the emergence of spontaneous bacterial pleural empyema may be the cause of death. The information was collected from the PubMed database, the Google Scholar retrieval system, the Cochrane reviews, and the reference lists from relevant publications for 1994-2016 using the keywords: "liver cirrhosis", "portal hypertension", "hepatic hydrothorax", "pathogenesis", "diagnostics", and "treatment"...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142479/medication-beliefs-predict-medication-adherence-in-ambulatory-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#9
Kelly L Hayward, Patricia C Valery, Jennifer H Martin, Antara Karmakar, Preya J Patel, Leigh U Horsfall, Caroline J Tallis, Katherine A Stuart, Penny L Wright, David D Smith, Katharine M Irvine, Elizabeth E Powell, W Neil Cottrell
AIM: To investigate the impact of medication beliefs, illness perceptions and quality of life on medication adherence in people with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: One hundred adults with decompensated cirrhosis completed a structured questionnaire when they attended for routine outpatient hepatology review. Measures of self-reported medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), beliefs surrounding medications (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire), perceptions of illness and medicines (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire), and quality of life (Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire) were examined...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132759/hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa-strategies-to-achieve-the-2030-elimination-targets
#10
REVIEW
C Wendy Spearman, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Chris Kassianides, Michael Kew, Philip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olusegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Mark W Sonderup
The WHO global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, created in May, 2016, aims to achieve a 90% reduction in new cases of chronic hepatitis B and C and a 65% reduction in mortality due to hepatitis B and C by 2030. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy, the estimated overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains high at 6·1% (95% uncertainty interval 4·6-8·5). In this Series paper, we have reviewed the literature to examine the epidemiology, burden of liver disease, and elimination strategies of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095351/young-child-formula-a-position-paper-by-the-espghan-committee-on-nutrition
#11
Iva Hojsak, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas Embleton, Nataša Fidler Mis, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080241/next-generation-sequencing-in-pediatric-hepatology-and-liver-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Emanuele Nicastro, Lorenzo D'Antiga
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the analysis of human genetic variations, offering a highly cost-effective way to diagnose monogenic diseases (MDs). Since nearly half of children with chronic liver disorders have a genetic cause and approximately 20% of pediatric liver transplants are performed in children with MDs, NGS offers the opportunity to significantly improve the diagnostic yield in this field. Among the NGS strategies, the use of targeted gene panels has proven useful to rapidly and reliably confirm a clinical suspicion, whereas the whole exome sequencing (WES) with variants filtering has been adopted to assist the diagnostic work up in unclear clinical scenarios...
October 28, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045808/kaplan-meier-survival-analysis-overestimates-cumulative-incidence-of-health-related-events-in-the-presence-of-competing-risks-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Lacny, Todd Wilson, Fiona Clement, Derek J Roberts, Peter Faris, William A Ghali, Deborah A Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis may overestimate cumulative incidence in competing risks (CR) settings. The clinical significance of this overestimation has been questioned and CR methods are infrequently used. This meta-analysis compares the Kaplan-Meier method to the cumulative incidence function (CIF), a CR method. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science (1992-2016), and article bibliographies for studies estimating cumulative incidence using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIF...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977116/variceal-bleeding-update-of-recommendations-from-the-brazilian-association-of-hepatology
#14
Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt, Edna Strauss, Alberto Queiroz Farias, Angelo Alves de Mattos, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes
Since the publication of the Brazilian Association of Hepatology recommendations for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding in 2010, new evidence-based data were reported in the literature. This has changed our current management for portal hypertension. This review updates the previous recommendations. It takes the new prognostic staging of cirrhosis into account allowing tailored treatment for advanced fibrosis, compensated or decompensated cirrhosis. An organizing panel of five experts reviewed all recommendations according to available data, which were subsequently scrutinized by all members of the Brazilian Association of Hepatology using a web-based approach...
December 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968008/-profile-of-gastrointestinal-diseases-in-a-pediatric-gastroenterology-center-in-colombia-15-years-of-follow-up
#15
Wilson Daza, Silvana Dadan, Michelle Higuera
INTRODUCTION: The profile of gastrointestinal diseases is constantly changing globally and locally affecting suspected diagnosis and medical methods. OBJECTIVE: To establish the main diagnoses in a gastroenterology, hepatology, and pediatric nutrition unit in Bogota between 2009 and 2013, and to compare with findings from the same unit during the two prior five-year periods (1997 to 2006). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874958/endoscopic-ultrasonography-emerging-applications-in-hepatology
#16
REVIEW
Joana Magalhães, Sara Monteiro, Sofia Xavier, Sílvia Leite, Francisca Dias de Castro, José Cotter
The inspection of the liver is a valuable part of the upper endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) studies, regardless of the primary indication for the examination. The detailed images of the liver segments provided by EUS allows the use of this technique in the study of parenchymal liver disease and even in the diagnosis and classification of focal liver lesions. EUS has also emerged as an important tool in understanding the complex collateral circulation in patients with portal hypertension and their clinical and prognostic value...
August 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855099/epigenetics-in-chronic-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Marie Boyle, Jelena Mann
Elucidation of the fundamental epigenetic mechanisms governing gene expression and cellular phenotype in the past decade has provided novel insights into the epigenetic modulation of chronic liver disease. While genetic factors are undoubtedly important, the opportunity afforded by exploitation of the "fine-tuning" epigenetic mechanisms promises to drive forward an unprecedented advance in precision medicine within hepatology. The current challenges remain to improve diagnostics, prognostics and develop personalised therapy...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839903/bspghan-motility-working-group-position-statement-paediatric-multichannel-intraluminal-ph-impedance-monitoring-indications-methods-and-interpretation
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed Mutalib, David Rawat, Keith Lindley, Osvaldo Borrelli, Steve Perring, Marcus K H Auth, Nikhil Thapar
BACKGROUND: Combined pH-impedance monitoring has been suggested as the investigation of choice for diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. Although it is superior to oesophageal pH monitoring in detecting all types of reflux episodes (acid, weakly acidic and alkaline) with the ability to evaluate symptom association with reflux events, it is still limited by the lack of true paediatric normal value and the high cost involved (equipment and personnel). OBJECTIVE: To produce a position statement on behalf of the Motility Working Group of the British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition on the indications and practical application of combined oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring in children...
July 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835355/efficacy-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-for-the-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Henryk Szymański, Hania Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children. Oral rehydration therapy is the key treatment. However, despite proven efficacy, it remains underused. This is because oral rehydration solution neither reduces the frequency of bowel movements and fluid loss nor shortens the duration of illness. Hence, there is interest in adjunctive treatments. According to the 2014 guidelines developed by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the use of the following probiotics may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation)...
August 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728560/patient-oriented-education-and-medication-management-intervention-for-people-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Kelly L Hayward, Jennifer H Martin, W Neil Cottrell, Antara Karmakar, Leigh U Horsfall, Preya J Patel, David D Smith, Katharine M Irvine, Elizabeth E Powell, Patricia C Valery
BACKGROUND: People with decompensated cirrhosis require complex medical care and are often prescribed an intricate and frequently changing medication and lifestyle regimen. However, many patients mismanage their medications or have poor comprehension of their disease and self-management tasks. This can lead to harm, hospitalization, and death. METHODS/DESIGN: A patient-oriented education and medication management intervention has been developed for implementation at a tertiary hospital hepatology outpatient center in Queensland, Australia...
July 20, 2017: Trials
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