Read by QxMD icon Read

Hepatology review

Benjamin Wooden, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
Technologies such as genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, proteomic and metabolomic analyses, electronic medical records, and patient-reported health information have produced large amounts of data, from various populations, cell types, and disorders (big data). However, these data must be integrated and analyzed if they are to produce models or concepts about physiologic function or mechanisms of pathogenesis. Many of these data are available to the public, allowing researchers anywhere to search for markers of specific biologic processes or therapeutic targets for specific diseases or patient types...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
L Rodriguez, M Sood, C Di Lorenzo, M Saps
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, the study of the colon and anorectal function has experienced great technical advances that have facilitated the performance of the tests and have allowed a more detailed characterization of reflexes and motor patterns. As a result, we have achieved a much better understanding of the pathophysiology of children with defecation problems. Anorectal and colonic manometry are now commonly used in all major pediatric referral centers as diagnostic tools and to guide the management of children with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence, particularly when a surgical intervention is being considered...
October 9, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
R Todd Stravitz, Yaron Ilan
The progression of liver disease may be unique among organ system diseases in that progressive fibrosis compromises not only the sufficiency of hepatocyte mass but also impairs blood flow to the liver, resulting in porto-systemic shunting. Although liver biopsy as an assessment of fibrosis has become the key biomarker of and target for new therapies, it is invasive and subject to sampling error, and cannot quantitate metabolic function or porto-systemic shunting. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient accommodates some of the deficiencies of biopsy but requires expertise not widely available and misses minor changes in hepatocellular mass and thereby information about metabolic function...
October 8, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Zannis Almpanis, Maria Demonakou, Dina Tiniakos
Hepatic fibrogenesis may gradually result to cirrhosis due to the accumulation of extracellular matrix components as a response to liver injury. Thus, therapeutic decisions in chronic liver disease, regardless of the cause, should first and foremost be guided by an accurate quantification of hepatic fibrosis. Detection and assessment of the extent of hepatic fibrosis represent a challenge in modern Hepatology. Although traditional histological staging systems remain the "best standard", they are not able to quantify liver fibrosis as a dynamic process and may not accurately substage cirrhosis...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Giorgio Maria Saracco, Andrea Evangelista, Sharmila Fagoonee, Giovannino Ciccone, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Maria Lorena Abate, Mario Rizzetto, Rinaldo Pellicano, Antonina Smedile
AIM: To assess the etiology of chronic liver diseases (CLD) from 1998 to 2014 at the outpatient clinic of Gastroenterology of the main hospital in Northwest of Italy among those dedicated to hepatology. METHODS: A random sample of charts of patients referred to for increased liver enzymes between January 1998 and December 2006, and between January 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed. Etiology search included testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Wilson's disease and hereditary hemocromatosis...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Pengfei Liu, Yuanyu Qiu, Yuting Qian, Xiao Chen, Yiran Wang, Jin Cui, Xiao Zhai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To appraise the current reporting methodological quality of meta-analyses in five leading gastroenterology and hepatology journals, and to identify the variables associated with the reporting quality. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature of meta-analyses in Gastroenterology, Gut, Hepatology, Journal of Hepatology (J HEPATOL) and American Journal of Gastroenterology (AM J GASTROENTEROL) from 2006 to 2008 and from 2012 to 2014. Characteristics were extracted based on the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR tool...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Karin M Vissers, Edith J M Feskens, Johannes B van Goudoever, Arieke J Janse
BACKGROUND: In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) both developed recommendations for the start of complementary feeding for term-born infants. However, these guidelines cannot be directly translated to preterm infants...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Albert Feng, Sara M O'hara, Resmi Gupta, Lin Fei, Tom K Lin
OBJECTIVE: The normal diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHD) in children has been poorly studied. Prior studies have enrolled small subject numbers, have studied only specific pediatric age groups or have potential bias due to loosely defined exclusion criteria. We sought to establish parameters for the normal diameter of the EHD in children from birth to late adolescence, including premature infants. METHODS: A 12½ month IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective chart review of all transabdominal ultrasounds performed on children (<18 years old) was conducted at a single pediatric tertiary referral center...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rima Fawaz, Ulrich Baumann, Udeme Ekong, Björn Fischler, Nedim Hadzic, Cara L Mack, Valérie A McLin, Jean P Molleston, Ezequiel Neimark, Vicky Lee Ng, Saul J Karpen
Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (BA, 25-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), plus many unknown or multifactorial (e...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Basile Njei, Albert Do, Thomas R McCarty, Brett E Fortune
INTRODUCTION: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with alcoholic hepatitis, a consensus or generally accepted therapeutic strategy has not yet been reached. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of corticosteroids and pentoxifylline on short-term mortality, incidence of hepatorenal syndrome, and sepsis in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of the Cochrane library, PUBMED, Scopus, EMBASE, and published proceedings from major hepatology and gastrointestinal meetings from January 1970 to June 2015...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jatinder Bhatia
Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Naim Alkhouri, Nizar N Zein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Haolu Wang, Xiaowen Liang, Germain Gravot, Camilla A Thorling, Darrell H G Crawford, Zhi Ping Xu, Xin Liu, Michael S Roberts
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become increasingly popular and widely used in both basic and clinical liver studies over the past few years. This technology provides insights into deep live tissues with less photobleaching and phototoxicity, which helps us to better understand the cellular morphology, microenvironment, immune responses and spatiotemporal dynamics of drugs and therapeutic cells in the healthy and diseased liver. This review summarizes the principles, opportunities, applications and limitations of MPM in hepatology...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Guido Torzilli, Luca Viganò, Felice Giuliante, Antonio Daniele Pinna
During the last decades, liver surgery had an extraordinary evolution and diffusion thanks to a drastic reduction of operative mortality and morbidity rates. A debate is ongoing about the need for centralization of liver resections in tertiary referral centers. Robust evidences showed that complex surgical procedures have lower mortality rates when performed in high-volume centers. The present expert group reviewed the literature data and proposed guidelines to identify surgical units that should be entitled to perform liver surgery in Italy...
June 2016: Updates in Surgery
Aloysious D Aravinthan, Graeme J M Alexander
Cellular senescence is a fundamental, complex mechanism with an important protective role present from embryogenesis to late life across all species. It limits the proliferative potential of damaged cells thus protecting against malignant change, but at the expense of substantial alterations to the microenvironment and tissue homeostasis, driving inflammation, fibrosis and paradoxically, malignant disease if the process is sustained. Cellular senescence has attracted considerable recent interest with recognition of pathways linking aging, malignancy and insulin resistance and the current focus on therapeutic interventions to extend health-span...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
James F Trotter
The state of liver transplantation continues to evolve. This article focuses on 3 separate yet important issues within this field. First, there is a proposal to change the allocation of donor livers in the United States. The fundamental premise of this proposal is to equalize access to donor livers across the country. To accomplish this goal, the proposal is to increase the geographic area of liver allocation. As might be expected, there is a great deal of controversy surrounding the possibility of a major change in liver allocation and distribution...
April 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michael Camilleri, David A Katzka
BACKGROUNG & AIMS: The objective of this review is to identify common areas in gastroenterology practice where studies performed provide an opportunity for enhancing value or lowering costs. METHODS: We provide examples of topics in gastroenterology where clinicians could enhance value by either using less invasive testing, choosing a single best test, or by using patient symptoms to guide additional testing. RESULTS: The topics selected for review are selected in esophageal, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer; functional gastrointestinal diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth, constipation); immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases; and pancreaticobiliary pathology...
October 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Lingyao Du, Hong Tang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) consists of envelope proteins, core proteins, and genome RNA.  The structural genes and non-structural genes in the open reading frame of its genome encode functional proteins essential to viral life cycles, ranging from virus attachment to progeny virus secretion. After infection, the host cells suffer damage from virus-induced oxidative stress, steatosis, and activation of proto-oncogenes. Every process during the viral life cycle can be considered as targets for direct acting antivirals...
May 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Amanda J Chaney, Denise M Harnois, Kaitlyn R Musto, Justin H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are increasingly utilized in health care. However, their roles in liver transplantation (LT) have not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the employment and development of NPs and PAs and their impact on our deceased-donor LT (DDLT) program. RESULTS: We found a safe and efficient way to utilize NPs and PAs in a DDLT program. Since the beginning of our program, Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores have increased significantly, suggesting patients are sicker at the time of transplant, and wait times of patients have become longer...
March 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Vinod S Hegade, R Alexander Speight, Rachel E Etherington, David E J Jones
Recent developments in understanding the role of bile acids (BAs) as signalling molecules in human metabolism and inflammation have opened new avenues in the field of hepatology research. BAs are no longer considered as simple molecules helping in fat digestion but as agents with real therapeutic value in treating complex autoimmune and metabolic liver diseases. BAs and their receptors such as farnesoid X receptor, transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor have been identified as novel targets for drug development...
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"