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Hepatology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906797/non-cirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#1
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant Bihari Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari Sharma, Seema Alam
BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age < 18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data was evaluated...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869776/complementary-feeding-strategies-to-facilitate-acceptance-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#2
Sophie Nicklaus
Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861252/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-in-portugal
#3
Mário J Silva, João Valente, Tiago Capela, Pedro Russo, Filipe Calinas
The epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal is insufficiently characterized. We aimed to review the epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal since 1980. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, Scielo, Web of Science, and the Portuguese Scientific Repository for studies containing 'Hepatitis B' and 'Portugal' published from 1980 to June 2016. The initial search was complemented by abstract books from national gastroenterology and hepatology meetings and reports from the Service for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependences, the Portuguese Blood Institute, and Directorate-General of Health...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#4
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829652/pediatric-gastroenterology-in-cuba-evolution-and-challenges
#5
Carlos Castañeda-Guillot
INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773806/using-big-data-to-discover-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-for%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-and-liver-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin Wooden, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
Technologies such as genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, proteomic and metabolomic analyses, electronic medical records, and patient-reported health information have produced large amounts of data from various populations, cell types, and disorders (big data). However, these data must be integrated and analyzed if they are to produce models or concepts about physiological function or mechanisms of pathogenesis. Many of these data are available to the public, allowing researchers anywhere to search for markers of specific biological processes or therapeutic targets for specific diseases or patient types...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723185/an-anms-naspghan-consensus-document-on-anorectal-and-colonic-manometry-in-children
#7
L Rodriguez, M Sood, C Di Lorenzo, M Saps
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, the study of the colon and anorectal function has experienced great technical advances that have facilitated the performance of the tests and have allowed a more detailed characterization of reflexes and motor patterns. As a result, we have achieved a much better understanding of the pathophysiology of children with defecation problems. Anorectal and colonic manometry are now commonly used in all major pediatric referral centers as diagnostic tools and to guide the management of children with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence, particularly when a surgical intervention is being considered...
October 9, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718326/potential-use-of-metabolic-breath-tests-to-assess-liver-disease-and-prognosis-has-the-time-arrived-for-routine-use-in-the-clinic
#8
REVIEW
R Todd Stravitz, Yaron Ilan
The progression of liver disease may be unique among organ system diseases in that progressive fibrosis compromises not only the sufficiency of hepatocyte mass but also impairs blood flow to the liver, resulting in porto-systemic shunting. Although liver biopsy as an assessment of fibrosis has become the key biomarker of and target for new therapies, it is invasive and subject to sampling error, and cannot quantify metabolic function or porto-systemic shunting. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient accommodates some of the deficiencies of biopsy but requires expertise not widely available and misses minor changes in hepatocellular mass and thereby information about metabolic function...
October 8, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708509/evaluation-of-liver-fibrosis-something-old-something-new%C3%A2
#9
Zannis Almpanis, Maria Demonakou, Dina Tiniakos
Hepatic fibrogenesis may gradually result to cirrhosis due to the accumulation of extracellular matrix components as a response to liver injury. Thus, therapeutic decisions in chronic liver disease, regardless of the cause, should first and foremost be guided by an accurate quantification of hepatic fibrosis. Detection and assessment of the extent of hepatic fibrosis represent a challenge in modern Hepatology. Although traditional histological staging systems remain the "best standard", they are not able to quantify liver fibrosis as a dynamic process and may not accurately substage cirrhosis...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688660/etiology-of-chronic-liver-diseases-in-the-northwest-of-italy-1998-through-2014
#10
Giorgio Maria Saracco, Andrea Evangelista, Sharmila Fagoonee, Giovannino Ciccone, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Maria Lorena Abate, Mario Rizzetto, Rinaldo Pellicano, Antonina Smedile
AIM: To assess the etiology of chronic liver diseases (CLD) from 1998 to 2014 at the outpatient clinic of Gastroenterology of the main hospital in Northwest of Italy among those dedicated to hepatology. METHODS: A random sample of charts of patients referred to for increased liver enzymes between January 1998 and December 2006, and between January 2012 and December 2014 were reviewed. Etiology search included testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Wilson's disease and hereditary hemocromatosis...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600190/quality-of-meta-analyses-in-major-leading-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-journals-a-systematic-review
#11
Pengfei Liu, Yuanyu Qiu, Yuting Qian, Xiao Chen, Yiran Wang, Jin Cui, Xiao Zhai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To appraise the current reporting methodological quality of meta-analyses in five leading gastroenterology and hepatology journals, and to identify the variables associated with the reporting quality. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature of meta-analyses in Gastroenterology, Gut, Hepatology, Journal of Hepatology (J HEPATOL) and American Journal of Gastroenterology (AM J GASTROENTEROL) from 2006 to 2008 and from 2012 to 2014. Characteristics were extracted based on the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR tool...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589863/the-timing-of-complementary-feeding-in-preterm-infants-and-the-effect-on-overweight-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#12
Karin M Vissers, Edith J M Feskens, Johannes B van Goudoever, Arieke J Janse
BACKGROUND: In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) both developed recommendations for the start of complementary feeding for term-born infants. However, these guidelines cannot be directly translated to preterm infants...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513696/normograms-for-the-extrahepatic-bile-duct-diameter-in-children
#13
Albert Feng, Sara M O'hara, Resmi Gupta, Lin Fei, Tom K Lin
OBJECTIVE: The normal diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHD) in children has been poorly studied. Prior studies have enrolled small subject numbers, have studied only specific pediatric age groups or have potential bias due to loosely defined exclusion criteria. We sought to establish parameters for the normal diameter of the EHD in children from birth to late adolescence, including premature infants. METHODS: A 12½ month IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective chart review of all transabdominal ultrasounds performed on children (<18 years old) was conducted at a single pediatric tertiary referral center...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429428/guideline-for-the-evaluation-of-cholestatic-jaundice-in-infants-joint-recommendations-of-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-naspghan-and-the-european-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#14
Rima Fawaz, Ulrich Baumann, Udeme Ekong, Björn Fischler, Nedim Hadzic, Cara L Mack, Valérie A McLin, Jean P Molleston, Ezequiel Neimark, Vicky Lee Ng, Saul J Karpen
Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (BA, 25-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), plus many unknown or multifactorial (e...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404293/corticosteroids-versus-pentoxifylline-for-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Basile Njei, Albert Do, Thomas R McCarty, Brett E Fortune
INTRODUCTION: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with alcoholic hepatitis, a consensus or generally accepted therapeutic strategy has not yet been reached. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of corticosteroids and pentoxifylline on short-term mortality, incidence of hepatorenal syndrome, and sepsis in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of the Cochrane library, PUBMED, Scopus, EMBASE, and published proceedings from major hepatology and gastrointestinal meetings from January 1970 to June 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347886/human-milk-for-preterm-infants-and-fortification
#16
Jatinder Bhatia
Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328182/three-dimensional-printing-and-pediatric-liver-disease
#17
Naim Alkhouri, Nizar N Zein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312349/visualizing-liver-anatomy-physiology-and-pharmacology-using-multiphoton-microscopy
#18
Haolu Wang, Xiaowen Liang, Germain Gravot, Camilla A Thorling, Darrell H G Crawford, Zhi Ping Xu, Xin Liu, Michael S Roberts
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become increasingly popular and widely used in both basic and clinical liver studies over the past few years. This technology provides insights into deep live tissues with less photobleaching and phototoxicity, which helps us to better understand the cellular morphology, microenvironment, immune responses and spatiotemporal dynamics of drugs and therapeutic cells in the healthy and diseased liver. This review summarizes the principles, opportunities, applications and limitations of MPM in hepatology...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294278/liver-surgery-in-italy-criteria-to-identify-the-hospital-units-and-the-tertiary-referral-centers%C3%A2-entitled-to-perform-it
#19
Guido Torzilli, Luca Viganò, Felice Giuliante, Antonio Daniele Pinna
During the last decades, liver surgery had an extraordinary evolution and diffusion thanks to a drastic reduction of operative mortality and morbidity rates. A debate is ongoing about the need for centralization of liver resections in tertiary referral centers. Robust evidences showed that complex surgical procedures have lower mortality rates when performed in high-volume centers. The present expert group reviewed the literature data and proposed guidelines to identify surgical units that should be entitled to perform liver surgery in Italy...
June 2016: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245432/senescence-in-chronic-liver-disease-is-the-future-in-aging
#20
REVIEW
Aloysious D Aravinthan, Graeme J M Alexander
Cellular senescence is a fundamental, complex mechanism with an important protective role present from embryogenesis to late life across all species. It limits the proliferative potential of damaged cells thus protecting against malignant change, but at the expense of substantial alterations to the microenvironment and tissue homeostasis, driving inflammation, fibrosis and paradoxically, malignant disease if the process is sustained. Cellular senescence has attracted considerable recent interest with recognition of pathways linking aging, malignancy and insulin resistance and the current focus on therapeutic interventions to extend health-span...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
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