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Hepatology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#1
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#2
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321163/optimizing-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-through-pharmacist-interventions-identification-and-management-of-drug-drug-interactions
#3
Jacob A Langness, Matthew Nguyen, Amanda Wieland, Gregory T Everson, Jennifer J Kiser
AIM: To quantify drug-drug-interactions (DDIs) encountered in patients prescribed hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, the interventions made, and the time spent in this process. METHODS: As standard of care, a clinical pharmacist screened for DDIs in patients prescribed direct acting antiviral (DAA) HCV treatment between November 2013 and July 2015 at the University of Colorado Hepatology Clinic. HCV regimens prescribed included ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV), simeprevir/sofosbuvir (SIM/SOF), and sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SOF/RBV)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317399/recent-advances-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#4
Grace J Lee, John Y Kao
The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last half-century, resulting in rising interest in identifying risk factors for CD. The necessity of duodenal biopsies in the diagnosis of CD has recently been challenged. Areas covered: This review covers the recent literature regarding the role of infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and timing of gluten introduction, and the microbiota in the development of CD. Additionally, the application of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for a non-biopsy approach to the diagnosis of CD is reviewed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297794/-research-advances-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-2016
#5
B Li, Q X Wang, X Ma
Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of abnormal autoimmune-mediated inflammatory hepatobiliary injuries, mainly including autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), primary biliary cholangitis(PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases, an important type of non-viral liver disease, have become a prominent issue in hepatology. In 2016, many new advances have been achieved in the clinical and basic research on autoimmune liver diseases, including the phase 3 clinical trial of obeticholic acid, the proposal of UK-PBC risk score, and the research on gut microbiota associated with PSC...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293079/pediatric-gastrointestinal-bleeding-perspectives-from-the-italian-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology
#6
REVIEW
Claudio Romano, Salvatore Oliva, Stefano Martellossi, Erasmo Miele, Serena Arrigo, Maria Giovanna Graziani, Sabrina Cardile, Federica Gaiani, Gian Luigi de'Angelis, Filippo Torroni
There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in children, and this condition is not rare, having a reported incidence of 6.4%. Causes vary with age, but show considerable overlap; moreover, while many of the causes in the pediatric population are similar to those in adults, some lesions are unique to children. The diagnostic approach for pediatric GIB includes definition of the etiology, localization of the bleeding site and determination of the severity of bleeding; timely and accurate diagnosis is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286560/prevalence-of-end-of-treatment-rna-positive-sustained-viral-response-in-hcv-patients-treated-with-sofosbuvir-combination-therapies
#7
Miguel Malespin, Tamara Benyashvili, Susan L Uprichard, Alan S Perelson, Harel Dahari, Scott J Cotler
BACKGROUND: Some chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), genotype 1 infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) remain viremic at end of treatment (EOT+), yet go on to achieve sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of therapy (SVR12). The incidence of EOT+/SVR in patients with genotype 1 and other genotypes, as well as whether such patients achieve SVR24 remain in question. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency and durability of EOT+/SVR12&24 and other response categories in HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infected patients treated with DAA in clinical practice...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230608/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-clinical-report
#8
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177956/optimizing-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#9
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, David S Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic approach in celiac disease is continuously evolving as our understanding of its pathophysiology improves. This review aims to provide a summary of contemporary work that supports optimization of the diagnosis of this common yet underdiagnosed condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently updated National Institute of Clinical Excellence and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines and the contentious biopsy-free diagnostic approach will be discussed...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144156/update-on-the-clinical-management-of-wilson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Peter Hedera
Wilson's disease (WD), albeit relatively rare, is an important genetic metabolic disease because of highly effective therapies that can be lifesaving. It is a great imitator and requires a high index of suspicion for correct and timely diagnosis. Neurologic, psychiatric and hepatologic problems in WD are very nonspecific, and we discuss the most common clinical phenotypes. The diagnosis remains laboratory based, and here we review the most important challenges and pitfalls in laboratory evaluation of WD, including the emerging role of genetic testing in WD diagnosis...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107283/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-recommendations-from-the-expert-committee-on-nafld-econ-and-the-north-american-society-of-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#11
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists, and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097105/2016-reviewer-acknowledgement
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092846/status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-how-to-avoid-misdiagnosis-in-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Marika Rudler, Clémence Marois, Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut, Vincent Navarro
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) in patients with cirrhosis is a rare but serious situation. Diagnosis may be difficult in emergency presentation, especially when patients present with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Misdiagnosis must be avoided since some anti-epileptic drugs aggravate HE. In this retrospective study, we therefore assessed the frequency of SE in patients with cirrhosis, evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis and determined rates of mortality. METHOD: We reviewed data from all patients hospitalized from 2005 to 2013 in the Hepatology ICU for complications of cirrhosis with an initial diagnosis of SE...
February 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073146/value-based-care-in-hepatology
#14
REVIEW
Mario Strazzabosco, John I Allen, Elizabeth O Teisberg
The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high-value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and redesign of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Because patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Because chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices...
May 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069744/coeliac-disease-screening-is-suboptimal-in-a-tertiary-gastroenterology-setting
#15
Heba Iskandar, Darrell M Gray, Hongha Vu, Faiz Mirza, Mary Katherine Rude, Kara Regan, Adil Abdalla, Srinivas Gaddam, Sami Almaskeen, Michael Mello, Evelyn Marquez, Claire Meyer, Ahmed Bolkhir, Navya Kanuri, Gregory Sayuk, C Prakash Gyawali
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coeliac disease (CD) is widely prevalent in North America, but case-finding techniques currently used may not be adequate for patient identification. We aimed to determine the adequacy of CD screening in an academic gastroenterology (GI) practice. METHODS: Consecutive initial visits to a tertiary academic GI practice were surveyed over a 3-month period as a fellow-initiated quality improvement project. All electronic records were reviewed to look for indications for CD screening according to published guidelines...
January 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064017/vitamin-d-in-liver-disease-current-evidence-and-potential-directions
#16
REVIEW
Harendran Elangovan, Sarinder Chahal, Jenny E Gunton
Consistent with its multifaceted nature, growing evidence links vitamin D with hepatic disease. In this review, we summarise the roles of vitamin D in different liver pathologies and explore the clinical utility of vitamin D-based treatments in hepatology. We find that the small number of clinical trials coupled with the profound heterogeneity of study protocols limits the strength of evidence needed to ascribe definite clinical value to the hormone in liver disease. Nevertheless, the experimental data is promising and further bench and bedside studies will likely define a clearer role in hepatic therapeutics...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063505/alternative-treatment-methods-attenuate-the-development-of-nafld-a-review-of-resveratrol-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-trials
#17
REVIEW
Tomasz Charytoniuk, Krzysztof Drygalski, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka, Klaudia Berk, Adrian Chabowski
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be one of the most common liver pathologies that occur widely among societies with a predominance of the Western dietary pattern. NAFLD may progress from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), subsequently leading to cirrhosis and becoming a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus its prevention and therapy play an important role in hepatology. To our knowledge, there is no effective treatment for patients with NAFLD. The aim of this review was to summarize the results of recent alternative treatment studies conducted both on cell cultures and in vivo that concern molecular effects of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in the treatment of NAFLD...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062872/hepatotoxicity-by-herbs-a-practical-review-of-a-neglected-disease
#18
Jean A Donet, Kay Sornmayura, Matthew Gulau, Eugene Schiff
Herbs are commonly used worldwide for the treatment of various diseases, constituting a multi-billion dollar market. Unfortunately, hepatotoxicity induced by herbs is also common. The true incidence and prevalence are not known. There is need for more strict regulations andexperimental and pre-clinical studies regarding its efficacy and safety. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of herbs-induced liver injury (HILI) and it constitutes a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, whereestablishing causality could be cumbersome...
October 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027215/complementary-feeding-a-position-paper-by-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-espghan-committee-on-nutrition
#19
Mary Fewtrell, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas Embleton, Nataša Fidler Mis, Iva Hojsak, Jessie M Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Christian Molgaard
This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984347/hepatic-issues-and-complications-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-clinical-report-from-the-naspghan-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-hepatology-committees
#20
Lawrence J Saubermann, Mark Deneau, Richard A Falcone, Karen F Murray, Sabina Ali, Rohit Kohli, Udeme D Ekong, Pamela L Valentino, Andrew B Grossman, Elizabeth B Rand, Maureen M Jonas, Shehzad A Saeed, Binita M Kamath
Hepatobiliary disorders are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and persistent abnormal liver function tests are found in approximately 20% to 30% of individuals with IBD. In most cases, the cause of these elevations will fall into 1 of 3 main categories. They can be as a result of extraintestinal manifestations of the disease process, related to medication toxicity, or the result of an underlying primary hepatic disorder unrelated to IBD. This latter possibility is beyond the scope of this review article, but does need to be considered in anyone with elevated liver function tests...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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