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Hepatology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874958/endoscopic-ultrasonography-emerging-applications-in-hepatology
#1
REVIEW
Joana Magalhães, Sara Monteiro, Sofia Xavier, Sílvia Leite, Francisca Dias de Castro, José Cotter
The inspection of the liver is a valuable part of the upper endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) studies, regardless of the primary indication for the examination. The detailed images of the liver segments provided by EUS allows the use of this technique in the study of parenchymal liver disease and even in the diagnosis and classification of focal liver lesions. EUS has also emerged as an important tool in understanding the complex collateral circulation in patients with portal hypertension and their clinical and prognostic value...
August 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855099/epigenetics-in-chronic-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marie Boyle, Jelena Mann
Elucidation of the fundamental epigenetic mechanisms governing gene expression and cellular phenotype in the past decade has provided novel insights into the epigenetic modulation of chronic liver disease. While genetic factors are undoubtedly important, the opportunity afforded by exploitation of the "fine-tuning" epigenetic mechanisms promises to drive forward an unprecedented advance in precision medicine within hepatology. The current challenges remain to improve diagnostics, prognostics and develop personalised therapy...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839903/bspghan-motility-working-group-position-statement-paediatric-multichannel-intraluminal-ph-impedance-monitoring-indications-methods-and-interpretation
#3
REVIEW
Mohamed Mutalib, David Rawat, Keith Lindley, Osvaldo Borrelli, Steve Perring, Marcus K H Auth, Nikhil Thapar
BACKGROUND: Combined pH-impedance monitoring has been suggested as the investigation of choice for diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. Although it is superior to oesophageal pH monitoring in detecting all types of reflux episodes (acid, weakly acidic and alkaline) with the ability to evaluate symptom association with reflux events, it is still limited by the lack of true paediatric normal value and the high cost involved (equipment and personnel). OBJECTIVE: To produce a position statement on behalf of the Motility Working Group of the British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition on the indications and practical application of combined oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring in children...
July 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835355/efficacy-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-for-the-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Henryk Szymański, Hania Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children. Oral rehydration therapy is the key treatment. However, despite proven efficacy, it remains underused. This is because oral rehydration solution neither reduces the frequency of bowel movements and fluid loss nor shortens the duration of illness. Hence, there is interest in adjunctive treatments. According to the 2014 guidelines developed by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the use of the following probiotics may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation)...
August 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728560/patient-oriented-education-and-medication-management-intervention-for-people-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Kelly L Hayward, Jennifer H Martin, W Neil Cottrell, Antara Karmakar, Leigh U Horsfall, Preya J Patel, David D Smith, Katharine M Irvine, Elizabeth E Powell, Patricia C Valery
BACKGROUND: People with decompensated cirrhosis require complex medical care and are often prescribed an intricate and frequently changing medication and lifestyle regimen. However, many patients mismanage their medications or have poor comprehension of their disease and self-management tasks. This can lead to harm, hospitalization, and death. METHODS/DESIGN: A patient-oriented education and medication management intervention has been developed for implementation at a tertiary hospital hepatology outpatient center in Queensland, Australia...
July 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706622/patient-understanding-of-liver-cirrhosis-and-improvement-using-multimedia-education
#6
Matthew A Goldsworthy, Waleed Fateen, Helene Thygesen, Mark A Aldersley, Ian A Rowe, Rebecca L Jones
OBJECTIVE: For patients to engage with the long-term management of liver cirrhosis, sufficient understanding of their condition is essential. The aim of this study was to assess baseline patient knowledge and to test whether a condition-specific multimedia screencast could improve this. DESIGN: Service quality improvement study. SETTING: A UK tertiary liver centre. Patients were recruited during 12 general hepatology outpatient clinics. PATIENTS: Fifty-two patients with liver cirrhosis were included...
July 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625288/no-96-the-reproductive-care-of-women-living-with-hepatitis-c-infection
#7
Marc Boucher, Andrée Gruslin
OBJECTIVE: hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an increasingly important public health problem worldwide. Health care workers providing care to women of childbearing age are uniquely placed in their practices to identify a significant proportion of at-risk patients and to provide appropriate screening and counselling. The primary objective of this guideline is to provide accurate, current information to those offering reproductive care to women living with HCV. This document is also intended to raise awareness of HCV in both the medical and general populations...
July 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624578/accuracy-in-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-without-biopsies-in%C3%A2-clinical-practice
#8
Katharina J Werkstetter, Ilma R Korponay-Szabó, Alina Popp, Vincenzo Villanacci, Marianna Salemme, Gabriele Heilig, Søren Thue Lillevang, Maria Luisa Mearin, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Adrian Thomas, Riccardo Troncone, Birgit Filipiak, Markku Mäki, Judit Gyimesi, Mehri Najafi, Jernej Dolinšek, Stine Dydensborg Sander, Renata Auricchio, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Andreas Vécsei, Peter Szitanyi, Ester Donat, Rafaella Nenna, Philippe Alliet, Francesca Penagini, Hélène Garnier-Lengliné, Gemma Castillejo, Kalle Kurppa, Ranaan Shamir, Almuthe Christine Hauer, Françoise Smets, Susana Corujeira, Myriam van Winckel, Stefan Buderus, Sonny Chong, Steffen Husby, Sibylle Koletzko
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition allow for diagnosis of celiac disease without biopsies in children with symptoms and levels of immunoglobulin A against tissue-transglutaminase (TGA-IgA) 10-fold or more the upper limit of normal (ULN), confirmed by detection of endomysium antibodies (EMA) and positivity for HLA-DQ2/DQ8. We performed a large, international prospective study to validate this approach. METHODS: We collected data from consecutive pediatric patients (18 years or younger) on a gluten-containing diet who tested positive for TGA-IgA from November 2011 through May 2014, seen at 33 pediatric gastroenterology units in 21 countries...
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604510/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-push-endoscopic-technique-in-the-management-of-esophageal-food-bolus-impactions-in-children
#9
Jamal Kriem, Riad Rahhal
OBJECTIVES: Adult-based guidelines support the use of the pull (extraction) endoscopic technique in managing esophageal food bolus impactions (FBIs) but allow the consideration of the push (advancement) technique with caution based on available published literature. The North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines mention the use of gentle endoscopic pushing for disimpaction but elaborate that this technique has not been studied in children...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579060/human-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-e3-deficiency-novel-insights-into-the-structural-basis-and-molecular-pathomechanism
#10
REVIEW
Attila Ambrus, Vera Adam-Vizi
This review summarizes our present view on the molecular pathogenesis of human (h) E3-deficiency caused by a variety of genetic alterations with a special emphasis on the moonlighting biochemical phenomena related to the affected (dihydro)lipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3, gene: dld), in particular the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). E3-deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder frequently presenting with a neonatal onset and premature death; the highest carrier rate of a single pathogenic dld mutation (1:94-1:110) was found among Ashkenazi Jews...
June 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553196/diagnostic-imaging-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-pictorial-essay
#11
Tomasz K Nowicki, Karolina Markiet, Edyta Szurowska
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer, which develops mostly in the setting of chronic liver disease. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) prepared guidelines for screening, follow-up and diagnosis of HCC to facilitate decision making and optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. The review briefly describes etiology, epidemiology and histopathology of HCC and presents EASL-EORTC guidelines for surveillance and diagnosis of HCC...
May 2017: Current Medical Imaging Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541262/joint-espghan-naspghan-guidelines-for-the-management-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-children-and-adolescents-update-2016
#12
Nicola L Jones, Sibylle Koletzko, Karen Goodman, Patrick Bontems, Samy Cadranel, Thomas Casswall, Steve Czinn, Benjamin D Gold, Jeannette Guarner, Yoram Elitsur, Matjaž Homan, Nicolas Kalach, Michal Kori, Armando Madrazo, Francis Megraud, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Marion Rowland
BACKGROUND: Because of the changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and low efficacy of currently recommended therapies, an update of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition/North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations for the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children and adolescents is required. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (time period: 2009-2014) was performed...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526690/emerging-concepts-in-biliary-repair-and-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Luca Fabris, Carlo Spirli, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Romina Fiorotto, Mario Strazzabosco
Chronic diseases of the biliary tree (cholangiopathies) represent one of the major unmet needs in clinical hepatology and a significant knowledge gap in liver pathophysiology. The common theme in cholangiopathies is that the target of the disease is the biliary tree. After damage to the biliary epithelium, inflammatory changes stimulate a reparative response with proliferation of cholangiocytes and restoration of the biliary architecture, owing to the reactivation of a variety of morphogenetic signals. Chronic damage and inflammation will ultimately result in pathological repair with generation of biliary fibrosis and clinical progression of the disease...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520105/large-scale-computational-models-of-liver-metabolism-how-far-from-the-clinics
#14
REVIEW
Tanja Cvitanović, Matthias C Reichert, Miha Moškon, Miha Mraz, Frank Lammert, Damjana Rozman
Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modeling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analyzing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally...
October 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507924/improved-outcomes-following-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-diagnosis-in-patients-screened-for-hcc-in-a-large-academic-liver-center-versus-patients-identified-in-the-community
#15
Nneoma Okoronkwo, Yucai Wang, Capecomorin Pitchumoni, Baburao Koneru, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Background and Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer worldwide. Knowledge and adherence to HCC surveillance guidelines has been associated with earlier detection. We sought to evaluate characteristics and outcomes following HCC diagnosis in patients screened for HCC in a large academic liver center versus patients diagnosed and referred from the community. Methods: We reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with HCC in the liver center of an academic institution from January 1999 till December 2013...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487842/dietary-primary-prevention-of-allergic-diseases-in-children-the-philippine-guidelines
#16
REVIEW
Marysia Stella T Recto, Maria Lourdes G Genuino, Mary Anne R Castor, Roxanne J Casis-Hao, Diana R Tamondong-Lachica, Maria Imelda V Sales, Marilou G Tan, Karen S Mondonedo, Regina C Dionisio-Capulong
Allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and food allergy, are preventable diseases. Primary prevention strategies of allergic diseases have been in scrutiny. Effective prevention strategies maybe started prenatally, postnatally, during infancy, and even during childhood. These guidelines have been prepared by the Philippine Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the Philippine Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the dietary primary prevention of allergic diseases in children...
April 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487442/crispr-cas9-at-the-cutting-edge-of-hepatology
#17
REVIEW
Francis P Pankowicz, Kelsey E Jarrett, William R Lagor, Karl-Dimiter Bissig
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome engineering has revolutionised biomedical science and we are standing on the cusp of medical transformation. The therapeutic potential of this technology is tremendous, however, its translation to the clinic will be challenging. In this article, we review recent progress using this genome editing technology and explore its potential uses in studying and treating diseases of the liver. We discuss the development of new research tools and animal models as well as potential clinical applications, strategies and challenges...
July 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#18
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#19
REVIEW
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Mayo End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321163/optimizing-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-through-pharmacist-interventions-identification-and-management-of-drug-drug-interactions
#20
Jacob A Langness, Matthew Nguyen, Amanda Wieland, Gregory T Everson, Jennifer J Kiser
AIM: To quantify drug-drug-interactions (DDIs) encountered in patients prescribed hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, the interventions made, and the time spent in this process. METHODS: As standard of care, a clinical pharmacist screened for DDIs in patients prescribed direct acting antiviral (DAA) HCV treatment between November 2013 and July 2015 at the University of Colorado Hepatology Clinic. HCV regimens prescribed included ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV), simeprevir/sofosbuvir (SIM/SOF), and sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SOF/RBV)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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