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Cardiovascular review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684674/natural-products-targeting-er-stress-pathway-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ker Woon Choy, Dharmani Murugan, Mohd Rais Mustafa
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main organelle for the synthesis, folding, and processing of secretory and transmembrane proteins. Pathological stimuli including hypoxia, ischaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress interrupt the homeostatic function of ER, leading to accumulation of unfolded proteins, a condition referred to as ER stress. ER stress triggers a complex signalling network referred as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Extensive studies have demonstrated that ER stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684673/exercise-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-to-optimize-fetal-weight
#2
REVIEW
Laura M Reyes, Margie H Davenport
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease suggest the in utero environment programs offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is a need to implement safe therapeutic interventions that do not involve the intake of medications or biological products during pregnancy that can improve maternal and fetal health. Prenatal exercise is established to promote maternal and fetal health. It is generally recommended that women accumulate at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity exercise...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684641/methodological-considerations-for-the-identification-of-choline-and-carnitine-degrading-bacteria-in-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Eleanor Jameson, Mussa Quareshy, Yin Chen
The bacterial formation of trimethylamine (TMA) has been linked to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the methods employed to investigate the identity of the bacteria responsible for the formation of TMA from dietary choline and carnitine in the human gut. Recent studies have revealed the metabolic pathways responsible for bacterial TMA production, primarily the anaerobic glycyl radical-containing, choline-TMA lyase, CutC and the aerobic carnitine monooxygenase, CntA. Identification of these enzymes has enabled bioinformatics approaches to screen both human-associated bacterial isolate genomes and whole gut metagenomes to determine which bacteria are responsible for TMA formation in the human gut...
April 19, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684619/preventing-type-2-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-the-evidence-and-potential-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Graziano Di Cianni, Emilia Lacaria, Cristina Lencioni, Veronica Resi
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is a condition strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes later in life, although the risk and the onset have not been fully identified yet. Although glucose tolerance returns to normal levels after delivery in the majority of women with GDM, this condition represents an early stage in the natural history of T2DM. In addition, women with previous GDM exhibit an increased cardiovascular risk profile and a raised incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions might be able to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in pGDM women, although results are still not conclusive...
April 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683925/short-term-8-weeks-high-intensity-interval-training-in-diseased-cohorts
#5
James E M Blackwell, Brett Doleman, Philip J J Herrod, Samuel Ricketts, Bethan E Phillips, Jonathan N Lund, John P Williams
BACKGROUND & AIM: Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (<8 weeks) HIIT vs...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683435/phospholipid-signaling-in-innate-immune-cells
#6
Valerie B O'Donnell, Jamie Rossjohn, Michael Jo Wakelam
Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. Importantly, their complex metabolism represents a highly controlled cellular signaling network that is essential for mounting an effective innate immune response. Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to activation status. Along with their metabolic products, they regulate multiple aspects of innate immune cell biology, including shape change, aggregation, blood clotting, and degranulation...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683293/psoriasis-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-updates-and-algorithmic-approach
#7
Emanuele Cozzani, Gianmarco Rosa, Martina Burlando, Aurora Parodi
Although psoriasis is predominantly a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, it has been known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Patients with psoriasis, particularly with moderate to severe forms, present an increased rate of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke. However the pathophysiology of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk and comorbidities has not yet completely known. Chronic inflammation may be considered a solid link between psoriasis and related cardiovascular events...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683100/pioglitazone-therapy-and-fractures-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Velichka Pavlova, Elena Filipova, Katya Uzunova, Krassimir Kalinov, Toni Vekov
INTRODUCTION: Thiazolidinediones are group of synthetic medications used in type 2 diabetes treatment. Among available thiazolidinediones pioglitazone is gaining increased attention due to its lower cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus sufferers and seems a promising future therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that diabetic patients may exert bone fractures due to such treatments. Simultaneously, female population is thought to be at greater risk. Still the safety outcomes of pioglitazone treatment especially in terms of fractures are questionable and need to be clarified...
April 23, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683098/untargeted-metabolomics-in-the-discovery-of-novel-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Vi T Dang, Aric Huang, Geoff H Werstuck
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Four out of five CVD deaths are due to myocardial infarction or stroke. Despite many initiatives that have been established for CVD prevention and risk management, and new therapies to treat existing CVD, patients continue to die from cardiac events. Clearly, we need to identify new therapeutic targets and strategies. Early diagnosis of CVDs and identification of patients at high risk of developing adverse events would allow for timely intervention that prevents serious consequences or death...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682731/neutrophils-as-effectors-of-vascular-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Diego Gómez-Moreno, José María Adrover, Andrés Hidalgo
Vascular inflammation underlies most forms of cardiovascular disease, which remains a prevalent cause of death among the global population. Advances in the biology of neutrophils, as well as insights into their dynamics in tissues, have revealed that these cells are prominent drivers of vascular inflammation though derailed activation within blood vessels. The development of powerful imaging techniques, as well as identification of cells and molecules that regulate their activation within vessels, including platelets and catecholamines, have been instrumental to better understand the mechanisms through which neutrophils protect or damage the organism...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682559/hemodynamic-instability-during-dialysis-the-potential-role-of-intradialytic-exercise
#11
REVIEW
Scott McGuire, Elizabeth Jane Horton, Derek Renshaw, Alofonso Jimenez, Nithya Krishnan, Gordon McGregor
Acute haemodynamic instability is a natural consequence of disordered cardiovascular physiology during haemodialysis (HD). Prevalence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) can be as high as 20-30%, contributing to subclinical, transient myocardial ischemia. In the long term, this results in progressive, maladaptive cardiac remodeling and impairment of left ventricular function. This is thought to be a major contributor to increased cardiovascular mortality in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Medical strategies to acutely attenuate haemodynamic instability during HD are suboptimal...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682533/bilateral-hip-arthroplasty-when-is-it-safe-to-operate-the-second-hip-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Meilyn Muskus, Jorge Rojas, Camilo Gutiérrez, Juan Guio, Guillermo Bonilla, Adolfo Llinás
Introduction: Patients with degenerative hip disease frequently present with bilateral involvement that requires surgical management. The main goal when treating these patients is to achieve the maximum efficiency without increasing risk of perioperative complications; therefore, the decision regarding the best moment to operate the second hip becomes relevant. Although studies have addressed this topic, whether a simultaneous or staged surgery should be performed remains controversial...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#13
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682475/malperfusion-syndromes-in-type-a-aortic-dissection-what-we-have-learned-from-irad
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Berretta, Santi Trimarchi, Himanshu J Patel, Thomas G Gleason, Kim A Eagle, Marco Di Eusanio
Patients presenting with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD) complicated by malperfusion syndromes represent one of the highest surgical risk cohorts for cardiovascular surgeons. In the setting of aortic dissection, end-organ ischemia may involve any of the major arterial side branches resulting in myocardial, cerebral, spinal cord, visceral and/or limb ischemia. In TAAD patients with malperfusion, notwithstanding continuous improvement in diagnostic and management strategies, surgical and clinical outcomes remain poor and the optimal therapy is controversial...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682219/cardiovascular-disease-related-mirnas-expression-potential-role-as-biomarkers-and-effects-of-training-exercise
#15
REVIEW
Simona Ultimo, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide, therefore the need of effective preventive strategies is imperative. Aging is associated with significant changes in both cardiovascular structure and function that lower the threshold for clinical signs and symptoms, making older people more susceptible to CVDs morbidity and mortality. microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level and increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs are involved in cardiovascular physiology and in the pathogenesis of CVDs...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682215/oxidative-stress-role-of-physical-exercise-and-antioxidant-nutraceuticals-in-adulthood-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, Gianni Sacchetti, Arianna Gonelli, Luca M Neri
Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682103/cardiovascular-disease-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
Kazuya Fujihara, Hirohito Sone
Individuals with diabetes have a two- to four-fold increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and higher mortality rates than those without diabetes. Because not only microvascular but also macrovascular disease in patients with diabetes are known to predispose patients to a lower quality of life as well as lead to higher mortality rates, identifying and managing risk factors of CAD is of clinical relevance in diabetes care. A number of antihyperglycemic drugs are currently approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with several new drugs having been developed during the last decade...
March 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681975/mind-body-therapies-for-african-american-women-at-risk-for-cardiometabolic-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Candace C Johnson, Karen M Sheffield, Roy E Brown
Background: A major determinant in cardiometabolic health is metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of symptoms that portend the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As mind-body therapies are thought to help in lowering physiological and environmental CVD risk factors including blood pressure and psychological stress, they may also be beneficial for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives: To synthesize and summarize existing knowledge on the effectiveness of mind-body therapies on MetS outcomes in African-American (AA) women, a US subpopulation at high risk for CVD...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681905/il-19-and-other-il-20-family-member-cytokines-in-vascular-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Michael V Autieri
Cardiovascular disease remains a major medical and socioeconomic burden in developed and developing countries and will increase with an aging and increasingly sedentary society. Many vascular diseases and atherosclerotic vascular disease, in particular, are essentially inflammatory disorders, involving multiple cell types. Communication between these cells is initiated and sustained by a complex network of cytokines and their receptors. The interleukin (IL)-20 family members, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, initiate, sustain, and drive the progression of vascular disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681621/circulating-cell-free-nucleic-acids-characteristics-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Ondrej Pös, Orsolya Biró, Tomas Szemes, Bálint Nagy
Liquid biopsy is becoming a very popular sample obtaining procedure, replacing the invasive sampling methods for the diagnostic protocols. The advantages of this method include the possibility to isolate cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) for diagnostic or screening purposes. A comprehensive review combining all current and perspective applications of cell-free nucleic acids is missing. Published articles are dealing with one type of cfNAs, or discuss them from the perspective of single disorder. We collected here all known types of cfNAs which are known to be present in biological fluids and could be involved in further studies to find out the exact biological role of them in normal physiological and pathological conditions...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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