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Cardiovascular review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432761/protein-s-sulfhydration-by-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cardiovascular-system
#1
REVIEW
Guoliang Meng, Shuang Zhao, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independent on any specific transporters, plays a number of biological effects on cardiovascular systems. However, the detailed mechanism of H2 S is not yet clear until now. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is a chemical modification on specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for S-sulfhydration detection, such as modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432737/outcome-reporting-across-randomised-controlled-trials-evaluating-therapeutic-interventions-for-pre-eclampsia-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
James M N Duffy, Martin Hirsch, Anusuya Kawsar, Chris Gale, Louise Pealing, Maria N Plana, Marian Showell, Paula R Williamson, Khalid S Khan, Sue Ziebland, Richard J McManus
BACKGROUND: Standardising outcome collection and reporting in pre-eclampsia trials requires an appraisal of current outcome reporting. OBJECTIVES: To map maternal and offspring outcome reporting across randomised trials evaluating therapeutic interventions for pre-eclampsia. SEARCH STRATEGY: Randomised trials were identified by searching bibliographical databases from inception to January 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials...
April 22, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432726/combination-therapy-with-glp-1-receptor-agonist-and-sglt2-inhibitor
#3
REVIEW
Ralph A DeFronzo
The SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLTi) and glucagon-like-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) effectively reduce HbA1c, but via very different mechanisms, making them an effective duet for combination therapy. Recently, drugs in both of these antidiabetic classes have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events, most likely by different mechanisms. SGLT2i appear to exert their CV protective actions by hemodynamic effects, while GLP-1 RAs work via anti-atherogenic/anti-inflammatory mechanisms, raising the possibility that combined therapy with these two classes may produce additive CV benefits...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432663/the-vascular-wall-a-plastic-hub-of-activity-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize recent findings regarding the plasticity and fate switching among somatic and progenitor cells residing in the vascular wall of blood vessels in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell lineage tracing methods have identified multiple origins of stem cells, macrophages, and matrix-producing cells that become mobilized after acute or chronic injury of cardiovascular tissues. These studies also revealed that in the disease environment, resident somatic cells become plastic, thereby changing their stereotypical identities to adopt proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotypes...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432662/targeting-ldl-cholesterol-beyond-absolute-goals-toward-personalized-risk
#5
REVIEW
Morton Leibowitz, Chandra Cohen-Stavi, Sanjay Basu, Ran D Balicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [<70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L)], greater percent reductions of LDL-C (≥50%), or more intense treatment to achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432658/does-supplementation-with-omega-3-pufas-add-to-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Evangelos C Rizos, Moses S Elisaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Omega-3 fatty acids are increasingly used for the protection of cardiovascular disease. The main but not the sole mechanism of action is the reduction of triglyceride levels. In this review, we summarize the effect of omega-3 supplements on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke from the relevant randomized controlled trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials assessed omega-3 supplementation on mortality and cardiovascular-related outcomes...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432636/what-is-the-current-knowledge-about-the-cardiovascular-risk-for-users-of-cannabis-based-products-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Emilie Jouanjus, Valentin Raymond, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Valérie Wolff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study was to examine the published evidence on the cardiovascular risk related to the use of cannabis-based products by performing a systematic review of recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that cannabis use represents a risky behavior as it may lead to many adverse effects, and in particular, cardiovascular effects. A systematic review of articles published between January 1, 2011 and May 31, 2016 was performed in agreement with the PRISMA statement...
June 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432635/role-of-inflammation-in-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Lily F Shirazi, Joe Bissett, Francesco Romeo, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to discuss the interactions between inflammatory cytokines, immune cells, and heart failure (HF). The association of heart failure with inflammation has led to multiple studies on anti-inflammatory agents in acute and chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings have implicated leukocytes subclasses and multiple inflammatory mediators in the progression of heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Studies have discovered further details on the interaction between immune cells-particularly macrophages and lymphocytes-and inflammation...
June 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432604/phosphate-imbalance-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432600/potentially-inappropriate-antihypertensive-prescriptions-to-elderly-patients-results-of-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Paola H Ponte Márquez, Olga H Torres, Anonio San-José, Xavier Vidal, Antonia Agustí, Francesc Formiga, Alfonso López-Soto, Nieves Ramírez-Duque, Antonio Fernández-Moyano, Juana Garcia-Moreno, Juan A Arroyo, Domingo Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of antihypertensive treatment of older patients have focused on blood pressure control, cardiovascular risk or adherence, whereas data on inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients. METHODS: An observational, prospective multicentric study was conducted to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of antihypertensive drugs, in patients aged 75 years and older with arterial hypertension (HTN), in the month prior to hospital admission, using four instruments: Beers, Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment (START) and Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders 3 (ACOVE-3)...
April 21, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432573/clinical-outcomes-in-trials-evaluating-lipid-lowering-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Julie Butters, Alex Brown, Liddy Griffith, Susan Kim, Stephen J Nicholls
While statins have formed the cornerstone of strategies for cardiovascular prevention, the residual risk related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipoprotein factors provides a landscape for development of new therapies. However, a number of lipid-modifying therapies have failed to reduce cardiovascular event rates in contemporary clinical trials of statin-treated patients. The factors considered in outcome measure selection for clinical trials of novel lipid-lowering therapies are reviewed...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432201/mg53-biological-function-and-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#13
Yan Zhang, Hong-Kun Wu, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao
MG53 (also known as TRIM72) is a cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific TRIM-family protein that exhibits multiple biological functions. First, MG53 participates in plasma membrane repair of the heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues. Second, MG53 is essentially involved in the cardioprotection of cardiac ischemic, pre-conditioning and post-conditioning, by activating the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and ERK1/2 survival signaling pathways. Moreover, systemic delivery of recombinant MG53 protein ameliorates the impact of a range of injury insults on heart, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, skin and brain...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431770/aortic-stenosis-and-non-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Chun Shing Kwok, Rodrigo Bagur, Muhammad Rashid, Ronit Lavi, Mario Cibelli, Mark A de Belder, Neil Moat, David Hildick-Smith, Peter Ludman, Mamas A Mamas
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) poses a perioperative management dilemma to physicians looking after patients who require non-cardiac surgery. The objective of this review is to investigate mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with and without AS who underwent non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies that evaluated mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with and without AS who underwent non-cardiac surgery...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431638/triglycerides-revisited-to-the-serial
#15
Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili, Brenda da Silva, Gabriela E Hirsch, Fernando G Porto, Mariana M Parisi, Alison R Castanho, Michele Wender, Jonatas Z Klafke
This review discusses the role of triglycerides (TGs) in the normal cardiovascular system as well as in the development and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular diseases. Regulation of TGs at the enzymatic and genetic level, in addition to their possible relevance as preclinical and clinical biomarkers, is discussed, culminating with a description of available and emerging treatments. Due to the high complexity of the subject and the vast amount of material in the literature, the objective of this review was not to exhaust the subject, but rather to compile the information to facilitate and improve the understanding of those interested in this topic...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431593/high-on-treatment-platelet-reactivity-to-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-in-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Aidonio Fiolaki, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Athanassios P Kyritsis, Styliani Papadaki, Maria Kosmidou, Iraklis C Moschonas, Alexandros D Tselepis, Sotirios Giannopoulos
Emerging studies highlight high on-treatment of platelet reactivity (HTPR) as a major hindrance to the secondary prevention of cardiovascular ischemic events. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the prevalence of HTPR in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and reveal a possible relation with a higher risk of cerebrovascular event recurrence. Studies were selected if they reported absolute numbers or percentages of HTPR with ASA or clopidogrel in IS/TIA patients at any time point after the cerebrovascular event onset and assessed with any type of platelet function tests...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431476/a-consensus-statement-for-the-clinical-use-of-the-renal-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
A Avogaro, A Giaccari, P Fioretto, S Genovese, F Purrello, F Giorgino, S Del Prato
The present review developed a clinical consensus based on a Delphi method on Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2-I) in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Areas covered: Panel members, using a 5-point scale, were asked to rate 9 statements on pharmakodinamic, mode of action on glycaemic and extra-glycaemic effects, and safety of dapaglifozin, Members also aimed to identify the patient most susceptible to the treatment with dapagliflozin ...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430755/differentiating-delirium-from-sedative-hypnotic-related-iatrogenic-withdrawal-syndrome-lack-of-specificity-in-pediatric-critical-care-assessment-tools
#18
Kate Madden, Michele M Burns, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430622/serious-adverse-events-of-cell-therapy-for-respiratory-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Runzhen Zhao, Zhenlei Su, Jing Wu, Hong-Long Ji
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy holds the most promising for acute and chronic deleterious respiratory diseases. However, the safety and tolerance for lung disorders are controversy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analyses of all 23 clinical studies of cell therapy. The outcomes were odds ratio (OR), risk difference (RD), Peto OR, relative risk, and mean difference of serious adverse events. RESULTS: 342 systemic infusions and 57 bronchial instillations (204 recipients) of cells were analyzed for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, silicosis, sarcoidosis, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430359/sulfur-containing-gaseous-signal-molecules-ion-channels-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Wen Yu, Hongfang Jin, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Zhiren Zhang
Sulfur-containing gaseous signal molecules including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) were previously recognized as toxic gases. However, extensive studies have revealed that they can be generated in the cardiovascular system via a sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway, playing an important part in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins present in the membrane of all biological cells; functions include establishing a resting membrane potential and controlling action potentials and other electrical signals by conducting ions across the cell membrane...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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