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Cardiovascular review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929107/in-utero-programming-and-early-detection-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-offspring-of-mothers-with-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929012/non-coding-rnas-in-lipid-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Xinbo Zhang, Nathan L Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world, begins with lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. Alterations in lipid metabolism result in increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders, and treatment of lipid disorders remains the most common strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of CVD. Work done over the past decade has identified numerous classes of non-coding RNA molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and CVD, mostly acting at post-transcriptional level...
June 18, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928990/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-adma-as-an-important-risk-factor-for-the-increased-cardiovascular-diseases-and-heart-failure-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Xiaoong Liu, Xin Xu, Ruru Shang, Yingjie Chen
Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been recognized that the traditional cardiovascular risk factors could only partially explain the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethy l-arginine (L-NMMA) are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases that attenuate nitric oxide production and enhance reactive oxidative specie generation. Increased plasma ADMA and/or L-NMMA are strong and independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, and various cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and heart failure...
June 18, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928383/research-progress-on-common-adverse-events-caused-by-targeted-therapy-for-colorectal-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Bo Zhang, Chenyan Fang, Dehou Deng, Liang Xia
As targeted drug therapy is increasingly applied in the treatment of colon cancer, understanding and managing the adverse reactions of patients is becoming increasingly important. The present review examines the mechanisms of and adverse reactions to the most commonly used targeted drugs for colon cancer, and discusses methods of coping with these adverse reactions. Approved targeted drugs for metastatic colon cancer include monoclonal antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), including bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept and regorafenib, and monoclonal antibodies targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), including cetuximab and panitumumab...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928137/success-of-nutrition-therapy-interventions-in-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-challenges-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Marion J Franz, Janice MacLeod
A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB) nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928118/inhaled-glycopyrrolate-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
REVIEW
Donald P Tashkin, Nicholas J Gross
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting β2 -agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928112/chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-are-associated-with-reduced-cardiovascular-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Dan Liu, Xiaodan Li, Yonggang Zhang, Joey Sum-Wing Kwong, Ling Li, Yiyi Zhang, Chang Xu, Qianrui Li, Xin Sun, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li
Background and aims: Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are widely used in patients with rheumatic diseases, but their effects on the cardiovascular system remain unclear. We aimed to assess whether CQ/HCQ could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, and the ClinicalTrials.gov for studies investigating the association between CQ/HCQ and the risk of CVD from inception to 20 December 2017...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926844/zinc-deficiency-and-cellular-oxidative-stress-prognostic-implications-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Sangyong Choi, Xian Liu, Zui Pan
Zinc is an essential nutrient for human health and has anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory functions. The association between zinc deficiency and the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been supported by numerous studies. Supplementing zinc can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and protect against myocardial infarction and ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this review we summarize the evidence in the literature, to consolidate the current knowledge on the dysregulation of zinc homeostasis in CVDs, and to explore the significant roles of the zinc homeostasis-regulatory proteins in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology...
June 21, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926475/workplace-interventions-for-reducing-sitting-at-work
#9
REVIEW
Nipun Shrestha, Katriina T Kukkonen-Harjula, Jos H Verbeek, Sharea Ijaz, Veerle Hermans, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, OSH UPDATE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926285/cardiovascular-and-renal-outcomes-of-newer-anti-diabetic-medications-in-high-risk-patients
#10
REVIEW
Lima Lawrence, Venu Menon, Sangeeta Kashyap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the cardiovascular and renal outcomes and safety of newer anti-diabetic medications in high-risk patients. We examine the outcomes of the IRIS, EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS, LEADER, SAVOR-TIMI 53, and EXAMINE trials demonstrating the cardiovascular and renal benefits of thiazolidinediones, SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetes mellitus is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease with rising prevalence and disease burden...
June 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926076/-research-progress-of-the-relationship-between-liver-x-receptor-and-inflammatory-related-diseases
#11
Bi-Cong Gao, Quan Chen, Ting Sun, De-Ming Wang, Ji Xiao
The liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activated LXRs have a variety of biological functions, for instance they can not only regulate the metabolism of cholesterol, fatty acids and glucose, but also play an important role in immune inflammatory response. Massive studies have shown that LXRs are involved in the occurrence and progress of inflammatory-related diseases, and can inhibit the inflammation of some inflammatory-related diseases in the nervous system, the respiratory system, and the cardiovascular system...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926074/-research-advance-in-the-effects-of-androgen-and-its-receptor-on-the-development-of-obesity-obesity-related-diseases-and-disorders-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#12
Li-Jun Yin, Xiao-Hui Wang
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the roles of androgen in the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis (AS), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. Androgen exerts its biological role mainly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), one of the nuclear receptors widely expressed in multiple tissues such as the skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue and brain. Low testosterone and AR deficiency result in obesity, obesity-related diseases and metabolic disorders...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926073/-research-advances-in-the-regulation-of-cardiovascular-metabolic-disorders-and-its-related-risk-factors-by-c1q-tnf-related-proteins
#13
Shi-Han Zhang, Yun-Hui DU, Hai-Cun Yu, Yu-Ming Li, Hui-Rong Liu
The complement C1q/TNF related protein (CTRP) family is rapidly growing and currently comprises 15 members. Although CTRP proteins share a common structure composed of four distinct domains: a signal peptide at the N terminus, a short variable region, a collagenous domain, and a C-terminal globular domain, which is homologous to adiponectin, each CTRP has a unique tissue expression profile and varied function. In this review we focus on the biochemistry and pleiotropic functions of CTRPs as new molecular mediators regulating cardiovascular metabolic disorders and its related risk factors diseases...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925802/possible-molecular-targets-of-novel-ruthenium-complexes-in-antiplatelet-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Themmila Khamrang, Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Chih-Wei Hsia, Manjunath Manubolu, Joen-Rong Sheu
In oncotherapy, ruthenium (Ru) complexes are reflected as potential alternatives for platinum compounds and have been proved as encouraging anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are mutually considered as the number one killer globally, and thrombosis is liable for the majority of CVD-related deaths. Platelets, an anuclear and small circulating blood cell, play key roles in hemostasis by inhibiting unnecessary blood loss of vascular damage by making blood clot...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925765/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-resveratrol-mechanistic-insights
#15
REVIEW
Diego de Sá Coutinho, Maria Talita Pacheco, Rudimar Luiz Frozza, Andressa Bernardi
Inflammation is the principal response invoked by the body to address injuries. Despite inflammation constituting a crucial component of tissue repair, it is well known that unchecked or chronic inflammation becomes deleterious, leading to progressive tissue damage. Studies over the past years focused on foods rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, since inflammation was recognized to play a central role in several diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of resveratrol, the most widely investigated polyphenol, on cancer and neurodegenerative, respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925723/regenerative-therapy-for-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Naritaka Kimura
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting 1 in 100 babies. Among CHDs, single ventricle (SV) physiologies, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome and tricuspid atresia, are particularly severe conditions that require multiple palliative surgeries, including the Fontan procedure. Although the management strategies for SV patients have markedly improved, the prevalence of ventricular dysfunction continues to increase over time, especially after the Fontan procedure. At present, the final treatment for SV patients who develop heart failure is heart transplantation; however, transplantation is difficult to achieve because of severe donor shortages...
June 19, 2018: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925356/integration-of-care-for-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-scoping-review-assessing-the-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-evaluating-reporting
#17
Kristy C Yiu, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: With the rise in pre-mature mortality rate from non-communicable disease (NCD), there is a need for evidence-based interventions. We evaluated existing systematic reviews on effectiveness of integration of healthcare services, in particular with focus on delivery of care designed to improve health and process outcomes in people with multi-morbidity, where at least one of the conditions was diabetes or hypertension. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Health Evidence to November 8, 2016 and consulted experts...
June 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924943/peptidylarginine-deiminase-4-a-nuclear-button-triggering-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-aging
#18
Siu Ling Wong, Denisa D Wagner
Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a nuclear citrullinating enzyme that is critically involved in the release of decondensed chromatin from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs, together with fibrin, are implicated in host defense against pathogens; however, the formation of NETs (NETosis) has injurious effects that may outweigh their protective role. For example, PAD4 activity produces citrullinated neoantigens that promote autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, to which PAD4 is genetically linked and where NETosis is prominent...
June 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924435/the-role-of-senescence-telomere-dysfunction-and-shelterin-in-vascular-aging
#19
Yu Liu, Samuel I Bloom, Anthony J Donato
In the United States and other westernized nations, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in adults over 65 years of age. Large artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are increased with age and age-associated arterial dysfunction is an important antecedent of CVDs. One age-associated change that may contribute to vascular dysfunction and CVD risk is an increase in the number of resident senescence cells in the vasculature. Senescent cells display a pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory phenotype known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
June 20, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924011/clinical-inertia-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Tal Milman, Raed A Joundi, Naif M Alotaibi, Gustavo Saposnik
BACKGROUND: Clinical Inertia is defined as "failure of health care providers to initiate or intensify therapy according to current guidelines". This phenomenon is gaining increasing attention as a major cause of clinicians' failure to adequately manage hypertension, thus leading to an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine whether interventions aimed at reducing clinical inertia in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension improve blood pressure (BP) control...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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