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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908405/objective-predictors-of-early-tolerance-to-ventral-intermediate-nucleus-of-thalamus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-essential-tremor-patients
#1
Shabbir Hussain Merchant, Sheng-Han Kuo, Yu Qiping, Linda Winfield, Guy McKhann, Sameer Sheth, Seth L Pullman, Blair Ford
OBJECTIVE: To identify pre-operative clinical and computerized spiral analysis characteristics that may help ascertain which patients with Essential Tremor (ET) will exhibit 'early tolerance' to ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus (Vim) deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS: Identification of comparative characteristics of defined cases of 'early tolerance' versus patients with sustained satisfactory response treated with Vim DBS surgery for medically-refractory ET, based on retrospective chart review by a clinician blinded to the findings of computerized spiral analysis...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908207/sumo1-sentrin-smt3-specific-peptidase-2-modulates-target-molecules-and-its-corresponding-functions
#2
REVIEW
Shan-Ling Liu, Feng-Hou Gao
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMOylation) is a reversible post-translational modification, which plays important roles in numerous biological processes. SUMO could be covalently attached to target proteins in an isopeptide bond manner that occurs via a lysine ε-amino group on the target proteins and the glycine on SUMO C-terminus. This covalent binding could affect the subcellular localization and stability of target proteins. SUMO modification can be reversed by members of the Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) family, which are highly evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human...
June 13, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908201/back-to-homeostasis-negative-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-immune-signaling-in-insects
#3
REVIEW
Fei Wang, Qingyou Xia
Maintenance of homeostasis requires prompt activation and down-regulation of immune signaling pathways. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge regarding the negative regulation of two NF-κB signaling pathways in insects, Toll and IMD pathway, which are mostly essential for host defense against bacteria and fungus. Various types of negative regulators and their mechanisms are discussed here with the emphasis on the prominent roles of ubiquitination. The counterbalance between these two pathways, the crosstalk with other physiological pathways, and the difference in their repertoires of negative regulators are also discussed...
June 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908127/sphingolipid-metabolism-an-ambiguous-regulator-of-autophagy-in-the-brain
#4
Gerhild van Echten-Deckert, Shah Alam
In mammals, the brain exhibits the highest lipid content in the body next to adipose tissue. Complex sphingolipids are characteristic compounds of neuronal membranes. Vital neural functions including information flux and transduction occur along these membranes. It is therefore not surprising that neuronal function and survival is dependent on the metabolism of these lipids. Autophagy is a critical factor for the survival of post-mitotic neurons. On one hand it fulfils homeostatic and waste-recycling functions and on the other hand it constitutes an effective strategy to eliminate harmful proteins that cause neuronal death...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908126/transglutaminase-type-2-in-the-regulation-of-proteostasis
#5
Manuela D'Eletto, Federica Rossin, Olga Fedorova, Maria Grazia Farrace, Mauro Piacentini
The maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that is essential for the survival of organisms under a variety of environmental and/or intracellular stress conditions. Acute and/or persistent stress exceeding the capacity of the intracellular homeostatic systems results in protein aggregation and/or damaged organelles that leads to pathological cellular states often resulting in cell death. These events are continuously suppressed by a complex macromolecular machinery that uses different intracellular pathways to maintain the proteome integrity in the various subcellular compartments ensuring a healthy cellular life span...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907890/impact-of-mast-cells-in-depression-disorder-inhibitory-effect-of-il-37-new-frontiers
#6
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Alessandro Caraffa, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Chiara M Conti, Spiros K Kritas, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Lucia Tettamanti, Theoharis C Theoharides
The purpose of this article is to study the involvement of inflammatory mast cells (MCs) in depression which may be inhibited by IL-37. We evaluate mast cells in depression on the basis of our previous experimental data, and using the most relevant studies reported in the literature. Dysfunction of mood, feelings, and thoughts is a major risk factor for several metabolic diseases and may influence the physiology of the body leading to depression. Depression, present in mastocytosis, is an important endogenous process that promotes the activation of meningeal cell receptors through a low-grade neurogenic chronic inflammation, and MCs...
June 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907457/what-may-the-future-hold-for-sports-cardiology
#7
REVIEW
André La Gerche, Aaron Baggish, Hein Heidbuchel, Benjamin D Levine, Dhrubo Rakhit
The field of sports cardiology has advanced significantly over recent times. It has incorporated clinical and research advances in cardiac imaging, electrophysiology and exercise physiology to enable better diagnostic and therapeutic management of our patients. One important endeavour has been to try and better differentiate athletic cardiac remodelling from inherited cardiomyopathies and other pathologies. Whilst our diagnostic tools have improved, there have also been errors resulting from assumptions that the pathological traits observed in the general population would be generalisable to athletic populations...
June 6, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907450/altered-maternal-and-placental-lipid-metabolism-and-fetal-fat-development-in-obesity-current-knowledge-and-advances-in-non-invasive-assessment
#8
Flavien Delhaes, Stephanie A Giza, Tianna Koreman, Genevieve Eastabrook, Charles A McKenzie, Samantha Bedell, Timothy R H Regnault, Barbra de Vrijer
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with maternal obesity and/or the consumption of a high-fat diet effecting maternal lipid profiles and metabolism have also been documented to specifically affect placental function and may underlie changes in fetal development and life course disease risk...
May 26, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907276/device-management-and-flow-optimization-on-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#9
REVIEW
Inna Tchoukina, Melissa C Smallfield, Keyur B Shah
The authors discuss principles of continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) operation, basic differences between the axial and centrifugal flow designs and hemodynamic performance, normal LVAD physiology, and device interaction with the heart. Systematic interpretation of LVAD parameters and recognition of abnormal patterns of flow and pulsatility on the device interrogation are necessary for clinical assessment of the patient. Optimization of pump flow using LVAD parameters and echocardiographic and hemodynamics guidance are reviewed...
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907247/climate-change-and-temperature-extremes-a-review-of-heat-and-cold-related-morbidity-and-mortality-concerns-of-municipalities
#10
REVIEW
Carina J Gronlund, Kyle P Sullivan, Yonathan Kefelegn, Lorraine Cameron, Marie S O'Neill
Cold and hot weather are associated with mortality and morbidity. Although the burden of temperature-associated mortality may shift towards high temperatures in the future, cold temperatures may represent a greater current-day problem in temperate cities. Hot and cold temperature vulnerabilities may coincide across several personal and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting opportunities for increasing present and future resilience to extreme temperatures. We present a narrative literature review encompassing the epidemiology of cold- and heat-related mortality and morbidity, related physiologic and environmental mechanisms, and municipal responses to hot and cold weather, illustrated by Detroit, Michigan, USA, a financially burdened city in an economically diverse metropolitan area...
August 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906484/the-contributions-of-diet-genes-and-physical-activity-to-the-etiology-of-obesity-contrary-evidence-and-consilience
#11
REVIEW
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905892/physiological-and-unappreciated-roles-of-camkii-in-the-heart
#12
REVIEW
Jan Beckendorf, Maarten M G van den Hoogenhof, Johannes Backs
In the cardiomyocyte, CaMKII has been identified as a nodal influencer of excitation-contraction and also excitation-transcription coupling. Its activity can be regulated in response to changes in intracellular calcium content as well as after several post-translational modifications. Some of the effects mediated by CaMKII may be considered adaptive, while effects of sustained CaMKII activity may turn into the opposite and are detrimental to cardiac integrity and function. As such, CaMKII has long been noted as a promising target for pharmacological inhibition, but the ubiquitous nature of CaMKII has made it difficult to target CaMKII specifically where it is detrimental...
June 15, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905867/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-an-expanding-repertoire
#13
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905851/immune-regulation-by-cd169-macrophages
#14
Kenichi Asano, Kenta Kikuchi, Masato Tanaka
Tissue macrophages comprise heterogeneous subsets that differ in localization, phenotype, and ontogeny. They acquire tissue-specific phenotype in order to maintain normal tissue physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the functions of CD169-positive macrophage subset residing in the lymphoid organs and intestinal tract. Strategically positioned at the interface between tissue and circulating fluid, CD169+ macrophages in the lymphoid organs capture blood- and lymph-borne particulate materials...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905835/glucocorticoids-and-bone-consequences-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-excess-and-replacement-therapy
#15
Rowan S Hardy, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Mark S Cooper
Osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy remains a common and serious bone disease. In addition, in recent years it has become clear that more subtle states of endogenous glucocorticoid excess may have a major impact on bone health. Adverse effects can be seen with mild systemic glucocorticoid excess but there is also evidence of tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action within bone as a mechanism of disease. This review article will examine a) the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in normal bone physiology, b) the skeletal effects of endogenous glucocorticoid excess in the context of endocrine conditions such as Cushing's disease/syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion (subclinical Cushing's syndrome), and c) the actions of therapeutic (exogenous) glucocorticoids on bone...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905358/-molecular-understanding-of-hearing-how-does-this-matter-to-the-hearing-impaired
#16
Tobias Moser
This review addresses the advances of our molecular understanding of hearing and how this benefits the hearing impaired. Classical biochemical methods usually fall short in contributing to the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of hearing e. g. in the cochlea, the auditory part of the inner ear, due to the scarcity of the cells of interest. Genetics, molecular cell biology, and physiology, on the other hand, have elucidated the intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms that bring about the outstanding performance of the auditory system...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904918/t-cell-development-and-the-physiological-role-of-o-glcnac
#17
REVIEW
Lara K Abramowitz, John A Hanover
O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification important for integrating metabolism with cell physiology. Using diverse model systems, studies of this evolutionarily conserved intracellular glycosylation have highlighted its role in stem cell maintenance, lineage specification and disease. Although discovered over 30 years ago, the study of O-GlcNAc continues to evolve and uncover surprising roles for O-GlcNAc and the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA)...
June 14, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904633/physiology-of-hyperuricemia-and-urate-lowering-treatments
#18
REVIEW
Caroline L Benn, Pinky Dua, Rachel Gurrell, Peter Loudon, Andrew Pike, R Ian Storer, Ciara Vangjeli
Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and is a multifactorial disease typically characterized by hyperuricemia and monosodium urate crystal deposition predominantly in, but not limited to, the joints and the urinary tract. The prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased in developed countries over the past two decades and research into the area has become progressively more active. We review the current field of knowledge with emphasis on active areas of hyperuricemia research including the underlying physiology, genetics and epidemiology, with a focus on studies which suggest association of hyperuricemia with common comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904388/niches-for-the-long-term-maintenance-of-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells
#19
REVIEW
Shiki Takamura
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are a population of immune cells that reside in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs without recirculation through the blood. These important cells occupy and utilize unique anatomical and physiological niches that are distinct from those for other memory T cell populations, such as central memory T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs and effector memory T cells that circulate through the tissues. CD8+ TRM cells typically localize in the epithelial layers of barrier tissues where they are optimally positioned to act as sentinels to trigger antigen-specific protection against reinfection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903893/living-without-a-pulse-the-vascular-implications-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#20
Suneet N Purohit, William K Cornwell, Jay D Pal, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Amrut V Ambardekar
Pulsatility seems to have a teleological role because evolutionary hierarchy favors higher ordered animals with more complex, multichamber circulatory systems that generate higher pulse pressure compared with lower ordered animals. Yet despite years of such natural selection, the modern generation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) that have been increasingly used for the last decade have created a unique physiology characterized by a nonpulsatile, nonlaminar blood flow profile with the absence of the usual large elastic artery Windkessel effect during diastole...
June 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
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