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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679756/myh9-structure-functions-and-role-of-non-muscle-myosin-iia-in-human-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alessandro Pecci, Xuefei Ma, Anna Savoia, Robert S Adelstein
The MYH9 gene encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA, a widely expressed cytoplasmic myosin that participates in a variety of processes requiring the generation of intracellular chemomechanical force and translocation of the actin cytoskeleton. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions are regulated by phosphorylation of its 20 kDa light chain, of the heavy chain, and by interactions with other proteins. Variants of MYH9 cause an autosomal-dominant disorder, termed MYH9-related disease, and may be involved in other conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, non-syndromic deafness, and cancer...
April 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679502/new-paradigms-in-adenosine-receptor-pharmacology-allostery-oligomerization-and-biased-agonism
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Vecchio, Jo-Anne Baltos, Anh T N Nguyen, Arthur Christopoulos, Paul J White, Lauren T May
Adenosine receptors (ARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) containing four subtypes (A1 AR, A2A AR, A2B AR and A3 AR), all of which bind the ubiquitous nucleoside adenosine. ARs play an important role in physiology and pathophysiology and therefore represent attractive drug targets for a range of conditions. The theoretical framework surrounding AR drug action now extends beyond the notion of prototypical agonism and antagonism to encompass more complex pharmacological concepts. New paradigms include allostery, whereby ligands bind a topographically distinct receptor site from that of the endogenous agonist, homomeric or heteromeric interactions across receptor oligomers and biased agonism; that is, ligand-dependent differential intracellular signalling...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#3
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679102/fungi-short-chain-carboxylate-transporter-shift-from-microbe-hereditary-functional-component-to-metabolic-engineering-target
#4
REVIEW
Hongwei Guo, Tianqiu Huang, Jun Zhao, Hongwen Chen, Guo Chen
Short-chain carboxylic acids and their derivatives are widely utilized in all aspects of our daily life. Given their specific functional groups, these molecules are also utilized in fine chemical synthesis. The traditional petroleum-based carboxylate production methods are restricted by petrol shortage and environmental pollution. Renowned for their more sustainable processes than traditional methods, biotechnological methods are preferred alternatives and have attracted increasing attention. However, the industrial application of biotechnological methods is currently limited by low factors: low productivity and low yield...
April 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679070/the-role-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-brain-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tomohisa Toda, Sarah L Parylak, Sara B Linker, Fred H Gage
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is highly regulated by a number of environmental and cell-intrinsic factors to adapt to environmental changes. Accumulating evidence suggests that adult-born neurons may play distinct physiological roles in hippocampus-dependent functions, such as memory encoding and mood regulation. In addition, several brain diseases, such as neurological diseases and mood disorders, have deleterious effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and some symptoms of those diseases can be partially explained by the dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678959/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-content-in-bioactive-lipid-mediators-more-than-a-sack-of-microrna
#6
Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678735/recent-developments-of-nanotherapeutics-for-targeted-and-long-acting-combination-hiv-chemotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Yu Gao, John C Kraft, Danni Yu, Rodney J Y Ho
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) given orally has transformed HIV from a terminal illness to a manageable chronic disease. Yet despite the recent development of newer and more potent drugs for cART and suppression of virus in blood to undetectable levels, residual virus remains in tissues. Upon stopping cART, virus rebounds and progresses to AIDS. Current oral cART regimens have several drawbacks including (1) challenges in patient adherence due to pill fatigue or side-effects, (2) the requirement of life-long daily drug intake, and (3) limited penetration and retention in cells within lymph nodes...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678724/thyroid-hormone-actions-on-male-reproductive-system-of-teleost-fish
#8
REVIEW
Aldo Tovo-Neto, Maira da Silva Rodrigues, Hamid R Habibi, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega
Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...
April 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678668/the-effect-of-music-on-postoperative-recovery-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Karolien S K Dons, Rineke Smilde, Erik Heineman, Barbara L van Leeuwen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is an important part of the treatment modalities offered to older patients with cancer. Natural ageing processes lead to deterioration of organ function, making older patients more vulnerable and at risk for experiencing less-favourable outcomes and complications after surgery. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as music, may be preferable to medical interventions in older people, who are at risk for adverse effects and drug interactions due to altered physiology and drug metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678665/the-impact-of-pericytes-on-the-brain-and-approaches-for-their-morphological-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Yaroslav Kolinko, Milena Kralickova, Zbynek Tonar
The interest in investigating brain pericytes is growing due to their diverse influences on neuronal function. While numerous studies have investigated the particular properties and functions of pericytes, complex insight into their functional histology is often lacking. In this work, we review and combine the current knowledge regarding brain pericyte function in normal physiology and its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and tumorigenesis. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the components of the neurovascular unit...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678289/pathophysiology-of-melanocortin-receptors-and-their-accessory-proteins
#11
REVIEW
T V Novoselova, L F Chan, A J L Clark
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and their accessory proteins (MRAPs) are involved in regulation of a diverse range of endocrine pathways. Genetic variants of these components result in phenotypic variation and disease. The MC1R is expressed in skin and variants in the MC1R gene are associated with ginger hair color. The MC2R mediates the action of ACTH in the adrenal gland to stimulate glucocorticoid production and MC2R mutations result in familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD). MC3R and MC4R are involved in metabolic regulation and their gene variants are associated with severe pediatric obesity, whereas the function of MC5R remains to be fully elucidated...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677694/3s-systematic-systemic-and-systems-biology-and-toxicology
#12
Lena Smirnova, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Raffaella Corvi, Andre Levchenko, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Thomas Hartung
A biological system is more than the sum of its parts - it accomplishes many functions via synergy. Deconstructing the system down to the molecular mechanism level necessitates the complement of reconstructing functions on all levels, i.e., in our conceptualization of biology and its perturbations, our experimental models and computer modelling. Toxicology contains the somewhat arbitrary subclass "systemic toxicities"; however, there is no relevant toxic insult or general disease that is not systemic...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677595/bioherbicides-current-knowledge-on-weed-control-mechanism
#13
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides...
April 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#14
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#15
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676173/biomolecular-basis-of-matrix-metallo-proteinase-9-activity
#16
Rayala Swetha, Chandrim Gayen, Devendra Kumar, Tryambak Deo Singh, Gyan Modi, Sushil Kumar Singh
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are structurally related endopeptidases. They are also known as metzincins due to their interaction with zinc ion of the conserved methionine (Met) at the active site. MMPs play an important role in physiological and signaling processes of wound healing, bone resorption and angiogenesis. The structure of MMPs consists of signal peptide, propeptide, catalytic domain, hinge region and hemopexin-like domain. MMP-9 shares high structural and functional similarities with MMP-2, therefore designing selective MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs) is challenging...
April 20, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675827/significant-increase-of-lymphatic-vessels-in-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis
#17
Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Kentaro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ishii, Hisako Kushima, Masaki Fujita, Kazuki Nabeshima
AIMS: Some investigators have detected fibrinous exudate or immature organization in the alveolar spaces prior to the development of subpleural elastofibrosis in patients with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). We hypothesized that PPFE progress is associated with an impaired lymphatic drainage system, resulting in the failed resolution of intra-alveolar exudate. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed our medical records from 1995 to 2017 and selected autopsied or surgically biopsied patients with PPFE (n=18), pulmonary apical cap (n=18), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=26)...
April 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675407/pancreatic-aquaporin-7-a-novel-target-for-anti-diabetic-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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