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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#1
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as posttranscriptional modifications are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109062/fibroblasts-as-maestros-orchestrating-tissue-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Raquel Soares, Pedro L Granja
Fibroblasts constitute a dynamic and versatile population of cells of mesenchymal origin, implicated in both regenerative strategies and pathological conditions. Despite being frequently associated to disease development, particularly through the establishment of fibrotic tissue, fibroblasts hold great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. They are responsible for synthesizing and depositing extracellular matrix components, allowing other cells to settle and migrate along a three-dimensional support and thereby generating an organ-specific architecture...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108925/soil-compaction-effects-on-soil-health-and-cropproductivity-an-overview
#3
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Babar Shahzad, Guozheng Yang, Shah Fahad, Saif Ali, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Abdul Hafeez, Biangkham Souliyanonh
Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction. It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter, animal trampling, engine vibrations, and tillage at high moisture contents. Soil compaction increases soil bulk density and soil strength, while decreases porosity, aggregate stability index, soil hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus reduces soil health...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108895/chronic-wound-healing-a-review-of-current-management-and-treatments
#4
REVIEW
George Han, Roger Ceilley
Wound healing is a complex, highly regulated process that is critical in maintaining the barrier function of skin. With numerous disease processes, the cascade of events involved in wound healing can be affected, resulting in chronic, non-healing wounds that subject the patient to significant discomfort and distress while draining the medical system of an enormous amount of resources. The healing of a superficial wound requires many factors to work in concert, and wound dressings and treatments have evolved considerably to address possible barriers to wound healing, ranging from infection to hypoxia...
January 21, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108416/symptoms-and-the-body-taking-the-inferential-leap
#5
REVIEW
Omer Van den Bergh, Michael Witthöft, Sibylle Petersen, Richard J Brown
The relationship between the conscious experience of physical symptoms and indicators of objective physiological dysfunction is highly variable and depends on characteristics of the person, the context and their interaction. This relationship often breaks down entirely in the case of "medically unexplained" or functional somatic symptoms, violating the basic assumption in medicine that physical symptoms have physiological causes. In this paper, we describe the prevailing theoretical approach to this problem and review the evidence pertaining to it...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107981/recent-progress-challenges-and-trends-in-trace-determination-of-drug-analysis-using-molecularly-imprinted-solid-phase-microextraction-technology
#6
REVIEW
Saeedeh Ansari, Majid Karimi
The quantification of drugs in biological samples is a significant task for determination of the physiological efficiency in evaluated drugs in the drug discovery. To analysis of the chemical compounds at the trace and ultratrace levels, adequate analytical procedures should be applied. Therefore, sample preparation method undoubtedly is the most important stage in the trace determination process. In spite of the great growth of analytical instrumentation during the recent years, sample preparation is still nowadays considered the impasse of the all analytical procedure, especially in drugs analysis...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106778/methylglyoxal-glyoxalase-1-balance-the-root-of-vascular-damage
#7
REVIEW
Cecilia Nigro, Alessia Leone, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Michele Longo, Paola Mirra, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Claudia Miele
The highly reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) is mainly formed as byproduct of glycolysis. Therefore, high blood glucose levels determine increased MGO accumulation. Nonetheless, MGO levels are also increased as consequence of the ineffective action of its main detoxification pathway, the glyoxalase system, of which glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is the rate-limiting enzyme. Indeed, a physiological decrease of Glo1 transcription and activity occurs not only in chronic hyperglycaemia but also with ageing, during which MGO accumulation occurs...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106670/reward-motivation-and-emotion-of-pain-and-its-relief
#8
Frank Porreca, Edita Navratilova
The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#9
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106311/potential-applications-of-non-thermal-plasmas-against-biofilm-associated-microorganisms-in-vitro
#10
REVIEW
Pradeep Puligundla, Chulkyoon Mok
Biofilms as complex microbial communities attached to surfaces are posing several challenges in different sectors, ranging from food and healthcare to desalination and power generation. Biofilms survive in hostile environments due to a distinct physiology and behavior in comparison to their planktonic counterparts. They are ubiquitous, resilient, and difficult to eradicate due to their resistant phenotype. Several chemical-based cleaning and disinfection regimens are conventionally used against biofilm-dwelling microorganisms in vitro...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105985/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#11
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105791/the-future-of-pleiotropic-therapy-in-heart-failure-lessons-from-the-benefits-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-function
#12
REVIEW
Gilles W De Keulenaer, Vincent F M Segers, Faiez Zannad, Dirk L Brutsaert
A novel generation of drugs is introduced in the treatment of heart failure (HF). These drugs, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators, share the feature that their action is either endothelial-mediated or substitutes for endothelial pathways, in particular the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, thereby influencing homeostatic balances in virtually each organ system in a pleiotropic fashion. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials with some of these drugs have shown disappointing results, at least in the setting of HF with a preserved ejection fraction...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105333/animal-models-for-the-study-of-primary-and-secondary-hypertension-in-humans
#13
Hiu Yu Lin, Yee Ting Lee, Yin Wah Chan, Gary Tse
Hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) >140 and 90 mmHg, respectively. Individuals with an SBP between 120 and 139, or DBP between 80 and 89 mmHg, are said to exhibit pre-hypertension. Hypertension can have primary or secondary causes. Primary or essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by interacting environmental and polygenic factors. Secondary causes are renovascular hypertension, renal disease, endocrine disorders and other medical conditions...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105197/mitochondria-targeting-nano-agents-in-cancer-therapeutics
#14
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Mitochondria have emerged as noteworthy therapeutic targets as their physiological functions are often altered in pathological conditions such as cancer. The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were searched for recent studies reporting the importance of mitochondria targeting nanoagents in cancer therapeutics. The concluding remarks of the above papers mostly confirmed the growing potential of these novel nanoagents in the area of anticancer research. Furthermore, numerous studies demonstrated the immense potential of nanocarriers in delivering mitochondria-acting compounds to their target site...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105196/nanotechnology-for-multimodality-treatment-of-cancer
#15
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Nanotechnology is the latest evolving field and its applications in medicine in recent decades has shown great potential. It has also given a new face to the therapeutics against cancer in recent years. The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed were searched for recent studies, reporting the importance of nanomedicine. The concluding remarks of the above papers mostly confirmed the growing potential of nanomedicine, particularly in the field of cancer. Furthermore, nanomedicine has been observed to promote the therapeutic effect of agents by formulating them into nanocarriers...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104575/modulation-of-proteostasis-by-transcription-factor-nrf2-and-impact-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Marta Pajares, Antonio Cuadrado, Ana I Rojo
Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to the accumulation of specific protein aggregates, suggesting an intimate connection between injured brain and loss of proteostasis. Proteostasis refers to all the processes by which cells control the abundance and folding of the proteome thanks to a wide network that integrates the regulation of signaling pathways, gene expression and protein degradation systems. This review attempts to summarize the most relevant findings about the transcriptional modulation of proteostasis exerted by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2)...
January 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104466/age-related-differences-pre-intra-and-postcholecystectomy
#17
Hadia Maqsood, Kalpesh Patel, Hamid Ferdosi, Anne M Sill, Bin Wu, Thomas Buddensick, Amanda Sautter, Haroon Shaukat, Gisela Sulkowski, Dusty Marie Narducci, Mustafa Siddique, Farin Kamangar, Gopal C Kowdley, Steven C Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy (CCY) is increasingly performed in older individuals. We sought to examine age-related differences in pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors at a community hospital, using a very large, single-institution cholecystectomy database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 6868 patients who underwent CCY from 2001 to 2013 was performed. ROC analysis identified the optimal age cutoff when complications reached a significant inflection point (<55 and >55 years)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103744/strategies-to-enhance-implantation-and-survival-of-stem-cells-after-their-injection-in-ischemic-neural-tissue
#18
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Anna Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches aimed to improve regeneration of injured neural tissue by injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm", which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103497/host-microbiota-interactions-epigenomic-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Vivienne Woo, Theresa Alenghat
The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their commensal microbiota has led to the development of complex symbiotic relationships between resident microbes and mammalian cells. Epigenomic modifications enable host cells to alter gene expression without modifying the genetic code, and therefore represent potent mechanisms by which mammalian cells can transcriptionally respond, transiently or stably, to environmental cues. Advances in genome-wide approaches are accelerating our appreciation of microbial influences on host physiology, and increasing evidence highlights that epigenomics represent a level of regulation by which the host integrates and responds to microbial signals...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102992/environmental-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-scoping-review-for-the-years-2003-2013
#20
M Ng, J G de Montigny, M Ofner, M T Do
INTRODUCTION: The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been rapidly rising in the past decade. The etiology of this disorder, however, is largely unknown, although the environmental relative to the genetic contribution is substantial. We conducted a scoping review to comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the environmental factors present from preconception to early life associated with ASD, and to identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ERIC for articles on potential risk factors or protective factors from the physical and social environments associated with ASD and its subclassifications published between 1 January, 2003, and 12 July, 2013...
January 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
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