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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#1
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821953/astrocyte-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Zhiyou Cai, Cheng-Qun Wan, Zhou Liu
The past several decades have given rise to more insights into the role of astrocytes in normal brain function and diseases. Astrocytes elicit an effect which may be neuroprotective or deleterious in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairments in astrocytes and their other functions, as well as physiological reactions of astrocytes to external injury, can trigger or exacerbate hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathologies, leading to the formation of both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821525/point-of-care-washing-of-allogeneic-red-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-transfusion-related-respiratory-complications-war-prc-a-protocol-for-a-multicenter-randomised-clinical-trial-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#3
Matthew A Warner, Ian J Welsby, Phillip J Norris, Christopher C Silliman, Sarah Armour, Erica D Wittwer, Paula J Santrach, Laurie A Meade, Lavonne M Liedl, Chelsea M Nieuwenkamp, Brian Douthit, Camille M van Buskirk, Phillip J Schulte, Rickey E Carter, Daryl J Kor
INTRODUCTION: The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821007/measurement-tools-for-mental-health-problems-and-mental-well-being-in-people-with-severe-or-profound-intellectual-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Samantha Flynn, Leen Vereenooghe, Richard P Hastings, Dawn Adams, Sally-Ann Cooper, Nick Gore, Chris Hatton, Kerry Hood, Andrew Jahoda, Peter E Langdon, Rachel McNamara, Chris Oliver, Ashok Roy, Vasiliki Totsika, Jane Waite
Mental health problems affect people with intellectual disabilities (ID) at rates similar to or in excess of the non-ID population. People with severe ID are likely to have persistent mental health problems. In this systematic review (PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015024469), we identify and evaluate the methodological quality of available measures of mental health problems or well-being in individuals with severe or profound ID. Electronic searches of ten databases identified relevant publications. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved records (n=41,232) and full-text articles (n=573)...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#5
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820743/sleep-apnea-a-review-of-diagnostic-sensors-algorithms-and-therapies
#6
Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Chris Fernandez, Emily Carroll, Fa Wang, Jake Levin, Sam Rusk, Nick Glattard, Ashley Mulchrone, Xuan Zhang, Ailiang Xie, Mihaela Teodorescu, Jerome Dempsey, John Webster
While public awareness of sleep related disorders is growing, sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) remains a public health and economic challenge. Over the last two decades, extensive controlled epidemiologic research has clarified the incidence, risk factors including the obesity epidemic, and global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as establishing a growing body of literature linking OSA with cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, metabolic dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. The US Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine estimates that 50-70 million US adults have sleep or wakefulness disorders...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820286/autophagy-monitoring-and-autophagy-deficient-mice
#7
Akiko Kuma, Masaaki Komatsu, Noboru Mizushima
Discovery of yeast autophagy-related (ATG) genes and subsequent identification of their homologs in other organisms have enabled researchers to investigate physiological functions of macroautophagy/autophagy using genetic techniques. Specific identification of autophagy-related structures is important to evaluate autophagic activity, and specific ablation of autophagy-related genes is a critical means to determine the requirements of autophagy. Here, we review currently available mouse models, particularly focusing on autophagy (and mitophagy) indicator models and systemic autophagy-related gene-knockout mouse models...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#8
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#9
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820059/histone-modifications-in-aging%C3%AF-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-implications
#10
Yuan Wang, Quan Yuan, Liang Xie
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic alteration during aging, among which histone methylation and histone acetylation are emerging as two well-documented modification methods...
August 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819917/polyglandular-autoimmune-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
G J Kahaly, L Frommer
BACKGROUND: In recent years, scientific knowledge pertaining to the rare ORPHAN polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (registered code ORPHA 282196) has accumulated. OBJECTIVE: To offer current demographic, clinical, serological and immunogenic data on PAS. METHODS: Review of the pertinent and current literature. RESULTS: Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are multifactorial diseases with at least two coexisting autoimmune-mediated endocrinopathies...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819546/oxidative-stress-harms-and-benefits-for-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Oxidative stress is a phenomenon caused by an imbalance between production and accumulation of oxygen reactive species (ROS) in cells and tissues and the ability of a biological system to detoxify these reactive products. ROS can play, and in fact they do it, several physiological roles (i.e., cell signaling), and they are normally generated as by-products of oxygen metabolism; despite this, environmental stressors (i.e., UV, ionizing radiations, pollutants, and heavy metals) and xenobiotics (i.e., antiblastic drugs) contribute to greatly increase ROS production, therefore causing the imbalance that leads to cell and tissue damage (oxidative stress)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819354/mediating-roles-of-ppars-in-the-effects-of-environmental-chemicals-on-sex-steroids
#13
REVIEW
Qiansheng Huang, Qionghua Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that are widely involved in various physiological functions. They are widely expressed through the reproductive system. Their roles in the metabolism and function of sex steroids and thus the etiology of reproductive disorders receive great concern. Various kinds of exogenous chemicals, especially environmental pollutants, exert their adverse impact on the reproductive system through disturbing the PPAR signaling pathway...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819204/prognostic-factors-and-outcomes-of-unplanned-extubation
#14
Chien-Ming Chao, Mei-I Sung, Kuo-Chen Cheng, Chih-Cheng Lai, Khee-Siang Chan, Ai-Chin Cheng, Shu-Chen Hsing, Chin-Ming Chen
This study investigated the prognostic factors and outcomes of unplanned extubation (UE) in patients in a medical center's 6 intensive care units (ICUs) and calculated their mortality risk. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult patients in Chi Mei Medical Center who underwent UE between 2009 and 2015. During the study period, there were 305 episodes of UE in 295 ICU patients (men: 199 [67.5%]; mean age: 65.7 years; age range: 18-94 years). The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 16...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819004/acute-oxygen-sensing-by-the-carotid-body-from-mitochondria-to-plasma-membrane
#15
Andy J Chang
Maintaining oxygen homeostasis is crucial to the survival of animals. Mammals respond acutely to changes in blood oxygen levels by modulating cardiopulmonary function. The major sensor of blood oxygen that regulates breathing is the carotid body (CB), a small chemosensory organ located at the carotid bifurcation. When arterial blood oxygen levels drop in hypoxia, neuroendocrine cells in the CB called glomus cells are activated to signal to afferent nerves that project to the brainstem. The mechanism by which hypoxia stimulates CB sensory activity has been the subject of many studies over the last 90 years...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819001/epigenomics-and-human-adaptation-to-high-altitude
#16
Colleen Glyde Julian
Over the past decade, major technological and analytical advancements have propelled efforts towards identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern human adaptation to high altitude. Despite remarkable progress with respect to the identification of adaptive genomic signals that are strongly associated with the 'hypoxia-tolerant' physiological characteristics of high-altitude populations, many questions regarding the fundamental biological processes underlying human adaptation remain unanswered. Vital to address these enduring questions will be to determine the role of epigenetic processes, or non-sequence based features of the genome, that are not only critical for the regulation of transcriptional responses to hypoxia but heritable across generations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818818/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-approach-to-in-situ-cognitive-fatigue-assessment
#17
Edward Price, George Moore, Leo Galway, Mark Linden
BACKGROUND: Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818457/relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-childhood-obesity-systematic-review-including-the-potential-underlying-mechanisms
#18
R Felső, S Lohner, K Hollódy, É Erhardt, D Molnár
AIM: The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818303/nkcc1-chloride-importer-antagonists-attenuate-many-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Yehezkel Ben-Ari
In physiological conditions, adult neurons have low intracellular Cl(-) [(Cl(-))I] levels underlying the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory drive. In contrast, neurons have high (Cl(-))I levels and excitatory GABA actions in a wide range of pathological conditions including spinal cord lesions, chronic pain, brain trauma, cerebrovascular infarcts, autism, Rett and Down syndrome, various types of epilepsies, and other genetic or environmental insults. The diuretic highly specific NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide (PubChem CID: 2461) efficiently restores low (Cl(-))I levels and attenuates many disorders in experimental conditions and in some clinical trials...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818258/imaging-of-high-risk-carotid-plaques-ultrasound
#20
Rafael S Cires-Drouet, Mahvash Mozafarian, Amir Ali, Siddhartha Sikdar, Brajesh K Lal
Duplex ultrasonography has a well-established role in the assessment of the degree of stenosis caused by carotid atherosclerosis. This assessment is derived from Doppler velocity changes induced by the narrowing lumen of the artery. New research into the mechanisms for plaque rupture and atheroembolic stroke indicates that the degree of narrowing is an imperfect predictor of stroke risk, and that other factors, such as plaque composition and remodeling and biomechanical forces acting on the plaque, can play a role...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
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