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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232252/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-and-its-related-precursors-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Nady Braidy, Ross Grant, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the biology and metabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the central nervous system. We also review recent work suggesting important neuroprotective effects that may be associated with the promotion of NAD+ levels through NAD+ precursors against Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Perturbations in the physiological homoeostatic state of the brain during the ageing process can lead to impaired cellular function, and ultimately leads to loss of brain integrity and accelerates cognitive and memory decline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231956/gender-diversity-sexual-orientation-and-bone-health-in-the-maturing-dancer
#2
REVIEW
Derrick D Brown
Gender identity forms an important aspect of still developing youths. Gender is traditionally classified into two distinct categories, female and male. Transgender is a general term that describes individuals who self-identity as male, female, both, or neither (i.e., gender fluid) and do not match the assigned at-birth gender. Adolescent transgender individuals are currently a marginal population. There are limited demographics on youths, but as of 2014 an estimate of 1.4 million adults in the USA identified as transgender...
December 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231767/high-altitude-induced-alterations-in-gut-immune-axis-a-review
#3
Kunjan Khanna, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh
High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity...
December 12, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231602/-review-on-infrared-temperature-characteristics-of-acupoints-in-recent-10-years
#4
REVIEW
Min Lin, Haiyan Wei, Ling Zhao, Jizhong Zhao, Ke Cheng, Haiping Deng, Xueyong Shen, Haimeng Zhang
In the paper, the study was reviewed on the infrared temperature characteristics of acupoints in recent 10 years. CNKI, WANFANG, VIP, SciVerse ScienceDirect and Springer databases were retrieved, with"infrared thermal imaging" and "acupoint" as the key words. The retrieving time was from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2016. Totally, 468 relevant papers were searched and 169 papers of them were read carefully on acupoint infrared temperature. In terms of physiological condition, pathological condition and the stimulation methods such as acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina, embedding therapy and cupping therapy, the general situation was reviewed on the infrared temperature characteristics of acupoints separately...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231268/circadian-rhythm-in-atopic-dermatitis-pathophysiology-and-implications-for-chronotherapy
#5
Alexandra R Vaughn, Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
Circadian rhythm is a biological clock that controls a wide range of physiological functions throughout the body, including various skin functions. A 24-h diurnal cycle, governed by an endogenous clock in the brain, largely controls cutaneous diurnal rhythm, which external factors, including temperature, humidity, diet, and stress, also modulate locally. Circadian rhythm influences cutaneous blood flow and properties of skin barrier function, such as transepidermal water loss and capacitance, and has important implications in atopic dermatitis (AD)...
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230957/an-implementation-algorithm-to-improve-skin-to-skin-practice-in-the-first-hour-after-birth
#6
Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell, Jeni Stevens, Yuki Takahashi
Evidence supporting the practice of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding soon after birth points to physiologic, social, and psychological benefits for both mother and baby. The 2009 revision of Step 4 of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" elaborated on the practice of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and her newly born baby indicating that the practice should be "immediate" and "without separation" unless documented medically justifiable reasons for delayed contact or interruption exist...
December 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#7
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230620/long-non-coding-rnas-in-metastasis
#8
Qihong Huang, Jinchun Yan, Reuven Agami
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes have recently been discovered as key regulators of developmental, physiological, and pathological processes in humans. Recent studies indicate that lncRNAs regulate every step of gene expression, and their aberrant expression can be found in the majority of cancer types. Particularly, lncRNAs were found to function in tumor development and metastasis, which is the major cause of cancer-related death. Thus, exploring key roles of lncRNAs in metastasis is predicted to enhance our knowledge of metastasis, and uncover novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of this process...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#9
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230392/non-invasive-monitoring-of-cardiac-output-in-critical-care-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Lee S Nguyen, Pierre Squara
Critically ill patients require close hemodynamic monitoring to titrate treatment on a regular basis. It allows administering fluid with parsimony and adjusting inotropes and vasoactive drugs when necessary. Although invasive monitoring is considered as the reference method, non-invasive monitoring presents the obvious advantage of being associated with fewer complications, at the expanse of accuracy, precision, and step-response change. A great many methods and devices are now used over the world, and this article focuses on several of them, providing with a brief review of related underlying physical principles and validation articles analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230328/circadian-rhythm-disturbances-in-mood-disorders-insights-into-the-role-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#11
REVIEW
Chelsea A Vadnie, Colleen A McClung
Circadian rhythm disturbances are a common symptom among individuals with mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in the ventral part of the anterior hypothalamus, orchestrates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. The SCN consists of self-sustaining oscillators and receives photic and nonphotic cues, which entrain the SCN to the external environment. In turn, through synaptic and hormonal mechanisms, the SCN can drive and synchronize circadian rhythms in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230197/exosome-mediated-genetic-information-transfer-a-missing-piece-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-communication-puzzle
#12
Pengbin Yin, Houchen Lv, Yi Li, Yuan Deng, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
The skeletal system functions and maintains itself based on communication between cells of diverse origins, especially between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), accounting for bone formation and resorption, respectively. Previously, protein-level information exchange has been the research focus, and this has been discussed in detail. The regulative effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on OB and OC ignite the question as to whether genetic information could be transferred between bone cells. Exosomes, extracellular membrane vesicles 30-100 nm in diameter, have recently been demonstrated to transfer functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and serve as mediators of intercellular communication...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230188/control-of-rest-activity-by-a-dopaminergic-ultradian-oscillator-and-the-circadian-clock
#13
REVIEW
Clément Bourguignon, Kai-Florian Storch
There is long-standing evidence for rhythms in locomotor activity, as well as various other aspects of physiology, with periods substantially shorter than 24 h in organisms ranging from fruit flies to humans. These ultradian oscillations, whose periods frequently fall between 2 and 6 h, are normally well integrated with circadian rhythms; however, they often lack the period stability and expression robustness of the latter. An adaptive advantage of ultradian rhythms has been clearly demonstrated for the common vole, suggesting that they may have evolved to confer social synchrony...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229018/prenatal-influences-on-temperament-development-the-role-of-environmental-epigenetics
#14
Maria A Gartstein, Michael K Skinner
This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social-emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease...
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228643/estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-the-modulation-of-gastrointestinal-epithelial-secretion
#15
REVIEW
Xin Yang, Yanjun Guo, Jialin He, Fenglian Zhang, Xuemei Sun, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial ion transport is physiologically important in many aspects of humans, such as in maintaining fluid balance of whole body, and also plays a role in the development and progression of common GI disease. Estrogen and estrogen receptors have been shown to modulate the activity of epithelial ion secretion in GI tract. This review aims to address the current state of knowledge about the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in modulation of GI epithelial secretion and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#16
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228188/the-impact-of-environmental-factors-on-co2-fixation-by-microalgae
#17
Marcia Morales, León Sánchez, Sergio Revah
Microalgae are among the most productive biological systems for converting sunlight into chemical energy which is used to capture and transform inorganic carbon into biomass. The efficiency of CO2 capture depends on the cultivation system configuration (photobioreactors or open systems) and can vary according to the state of the algal physiology, the chemical composition of the nutrient medium and environmental factors, such as irradiance, temperature and pH. This mini-review is focused on some of the most important environmental factors determining photosynthetic activity, CO2 biofixation, cell growth rates and biomass productivities by microalgae...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228187/extracellular-nucleic-acids-of-the-marine-bacterium-rhodovulum-sulfidophilum-and-recombinant-rna-production-technology-using-bacteria
#18
Yo Kikuchi, So Umekage
Extracellular nucleic acids of high molecular weight are detected ubiquitously in seawater. Recent studies have indicated that these nucleic acids are, at least in part, derived from active production by some bacteria. The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is one of those bacteria. Rdv. sulfidophilum is a non-sulfur phototrophic marine bacterium, which is known to form flocs, structured communities of cells, and to produce extracellular nucleic acids in culture media. Recently, it has been revealed that this bacterium produces gene transfer agent-like particles and that this particle production may be related to the extracellular nucleic acid production mechanism...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228156/feedback-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#19
Xiaohua Yan, Xiangyang Xiong, Ye-Guang Chen
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity...
December 8, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227709/a-review-study-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-baduanjin
#20
Liye Zou, Zhujun Pan, Albert Yeung, Saira Talwar, Chaoyi Wang, Yang Liu, Yankai Shu, Xiaoan Chen, Garrett Anthony Thomas
AIM: Baduanjin, a Chinese traditional Qigong exercise that focuses on a mind-body integration, is considered to be an effective exercise in promoting health. Thus, we systematically and critically evaluated the emerging literature relating to the effects of Baduanjin on health outcomes. METHODS: We used seven English-language electronic databases for the literature search. At least one health-related parameter was reported in retrievable full-text Baduanjin intervention studies...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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