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Purinergic signalling review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434079/cell-culture-complications-due-to-mechanical-release-of-atp-and-activation-of-purinoceptors
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Gillian E Knight
There is abundant evidence that ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is released from a variety of cultured cells in response to mechanical stimulation. The release mechanism involved appears to be a combination of vesicular exocytosis and connexin and pannexin hemichannels. Purinergic receptors on cultured cells mediate both short-term purinergic signalling of secretion and long-term (trophic) signalling such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. We aim in this review to bring to the attention of non-purinergic researchers using tissue culture that the release of ATP in response to mechanical stress evoked by the unavoidable movement of the cells acting on functional purinergic receptors on the culture cells is likely to complicate the interpretation of their data...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339693/neuronal-signaling-repertoire-in-the-mammalian-sperm-functionality
#2
Alfredo Ramírez-Reveco, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil, Ilona I Concha
The common embryonic origin has been a recurrent explanation to understand the presence of "neural receptors" in sperm. However, this designation has conditioned a bias marked by the classical neurotransmission model, dismissing the possibility that neurotransmitters can play specific roles in the sperm function by themselves. For instance, the launching of acrosome reaction, a fundamental sperm function, includes several steps that recall the process of presynaptic secretion. Unlike of postsynaptic neuron, whose activation is mediated by molecular interaction between neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptors, the oocyte activation is not mediated by receptors, but by cytosolic translocation of sperm phospholipase (PLCζ)...
March 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284836/exciting-and-not-so-exciting-roles-of-pannexins
#4
REVIEW
Eliana Scemes, Jana Velíšková
It is the current view that purinergic signaling regulates many physiological functions. Pannexin1 (Panx1), a member of the gap junction family of proteins is an ATP releasing channel that plays important physio-pathological roles in various tissues, including the CNS. Upon binding to purinergic receptors expressed in neural cells, ATP triggers cellular responses including increased cell proliferation, cell morphology changes, release of cytokines, and regulation of neuronal excitability via release of glutamate, GABA and ATP itself...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223127/multidrug-resistance-in-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-role-of-the-hypoxic-microenvironment-and-adenosine-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Uribe, Ángelo Torres, José Dellis Rocha, Ignacio Niechi, Carlos Oyarzún, Luis Sobrevia, Rody San Martín, Claudia Quezada
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered the most common and aggressive tumour of the central nervous system and is characterized for being highly chemoresistant. This property is mainly due to the activation of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) mechanisms that protect cancer cells from structurally and morphologically different drugs. Overexpression and increased ABC transporters activity is one of the most important MDR mechanisms at the clinical level, and both its expression and activity are elevated in GBM cells...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210205/the-atp-gated-p2x7-receptor-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Edward Beamer, Wolfgang Fischer, Tobias Engel
Despite the progress made in the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the biggest challenges that epilepsy presents to drug development have remained unchanged for the last 80 years: finding a treatment with potential for modifying disease progression and reducing the percentage of patients resistant to all pharmacological interventions. The mechanism of action of the majority of AEDs is based on blocking Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels, promotion of GABA or inhibition of glutamate signaling. In order for further progress to be made, however, a fuller picture of epilepsy will need to be considered, including changes to blood-brain barrier permeability, synaptic plasticity, network reorganization, and gliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179257/interplay-between-renal-endothelin-and-purinergic-signaling-systems
#7
Eman Y Gohar, Malgorzata Kasztan, David M Pollock
Alterations in extracellular fluid volume regulation and sodium balance may result in the development and maintenance of salt-dependent hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous pathways contribute to the regulation of sodium excretion and blood pressure, including endothelin and purinergic signaling. Increasing evidence suggests a link between purinergic receptor activation and endothelin production within the renal collecting duct as a means of promoting natriuresis. A better understanding of the relationship between these two systems, especially in regard to sodium homeostasis, will fill a significant knowledge gap and may provide novel antihypertensive treatment options...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989503/a-purinergic-trail-for-metastases
#8
REVIEW
Davide Ferrari, Fabio Malavasi, Luca Antonioli
Nucleotides and nucleosides have emerged as important modulators of tumor biology. Recently acquired evidence shows that, when these molecules are released by cancer cells or surrounding tissues, they act as potent prometastatic factors, favoring tumor cell migration and tissue colonization. Therefore, nucleotides and nucleosides should be considered as a new class of prometastatic factors. In this review, we focus on the prometastatic roles of nucleotides and discuss future applications of purinergic signaling modulation in view of antimetastatic therapies...
March 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900516/nucleotides-and-nucleoside-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-the-epithelium-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt
#9
REVIEW
A S Martínez-Ramírez, M Díaz-Muñoz, A Butanda-Ochoa, F G Vázquez-Cuevas
The epithelium-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process of cell plasticity, consisting in the loss of epithelial identity and the gain of mesenchymal characteristics through the coordinated activity of a highly regulated informational program. Although it was originally described in the embryonic development, an important body of information supports its role in pathology, mainly in cancerous and fibrotic processes. The purinergic system of inter-cellular communication, mainly based in ATP and adenosine acting throughout their specific receptors, has emerged as a potent regulator of the EMT in several pathological entities...
March 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884379/purinergic-signalling-in-autoimmunity-a-role-for-the-p2x7r-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna Lisa Giuliani
Purinergic signalling plays a crucial role in immunity and autoimmunity. Among purinergic receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an undisputed role as it is expressed to high level by immune cells, triggers cytokine release and modulates immune cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting a possible role of the P2X7R in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884377/danger-signals-inflammasomes-and-the-intricate-intracellular-lives-of-chlamydiae
#11
REVIEW
Matthew A Pettengill, Ali Abdul-Sater, Robson Coutinho-Silva, David M Ojcius
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, and as such are sensitive to alterations in the cellular physiology of their hosts. Chlamydial infections often cause pathologic consequences due to prolonged localized inflammation. Considerable advances have been made in the last few years regarding our understanding of how two key inflammation-associated signaling pathways influence the biology of Chlamydia infections: inflammation regulating purinergic signaling pathways significantly impact intracellular chlamydial development, and inflammasome activation modulates both chlamydial growth and infection mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833914/brilliant-blue-dyes-in-daily-food-how-could-purinergic-system-be-affected
#12
REVIEW
Leonardo Gomes Braga Ferreira, Robson Xavier Faria, Natiele Carla da Silva Ferreira, Rômulo José Soares-Bezerra
Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No...
2016: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804256/urothelium-update-how-the-bladder-mucosa-measures-bladder-filling
#13
REVIEW
D A W Janssen, J A Schalken, J P F A Heesakkers
AIM: This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanoreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signalling. METHODS: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on (i) signalling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and nitric oxide and adrenergic pathway, and (ii) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signalling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793267/purinergic-signaling-during-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection
#14
REVIEW
Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Ana Carolina Morandini, Henning Ulrich, David M Ojcius, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Despite recent advances unraveling mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in innate immunity, the participation of purinergic signaling in infection-driven inflammation remains an emerging research field with many unanswered questions. As one of the most-studied oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a keystone pathogen with a central role in development of periodontal disease. This pathogen needs to evade immune-mediated defense mechanisms and tolerate inflammation in order to survive in the host...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793266/purinergic-signaling-and-infection-by-leishmania-a-new-approach-to-evasion-of-the-immune-response
#15
REVIEW
Amanda Braga de Figueiredo, Miriam Conceicao Souza-Testasicca, Luis Carlos Crocco Afonso
Infection by protozoan parasites is part of the most common Tropical Neglected Diseases. In the case of leishmaniasis, several millions of people are at risk of contracting the disease. In spite of innumerous studies that elucidated the immune response capable of killing the parasite, the understanding of the evasion mechanisms utilized by the parasite to survive within the very cell responsible for its destruction is still incomplete. In this review, we offer a new approach to the control of the immune response against the parasite...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793265/trichomoniasis-immunity-and-the-involvement-of-the-purinergic-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Camila Braz Menezes, Tiana Tasca
Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In the urogenital tract, innate immunity is accomplished by a defense physical barrier constituted by epithelial cells, mucus, and acidic pH. During infection, immune cells, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines, and adaptive immunity evolve in the reproductive tract, and a proinflammatory response is generated to eliminate the invading extracellular pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780585/purinergic-signaling-in-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Robert I Menzies, Frederick W Tam, Robert J Unwin, Matthew A Bailey
Nucleotides are key subunits for nucleic acids and provide energy for intracellular metabolism. They can also be released from cells to act physiologically as extracellular messengers or pathologically as danger signals. Extracellular nucleotides stimulate membrane receptors in the P2 and P1 family. P2X are ATP-activated cation channels; P2Y and P1 are G-protein coupled receptors activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP in the case of P2 or adenosine for P1. Renal P2 receptors influence both vascular contractility and tubular function...
October 22, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766738/structural-studies-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#18
Mengjie Lu, Beili Wu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest membrane protein family. These receptors sense a variety of signaling molecules, activate multiple intracellular signal pathways, and act as the targets of over 40% of marketed drugs. Recent progress on GPCR structural studies provides invaluable insights into the structure-function relationship of the GPCR superfamily, deepening our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of GPCR signal transduction. Here, we review recent breakthroughs on GPCR structure determination and the structural features of GPCRs, and take the structures of chemokine receptor CCR5 and purinergic receptors P2Y1 R and P2Y12 R as examples to discuss the importance of GPCR structures on functional studies and drug discovery...
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658510/purinergic-signalling-and-neurological-diseases-an-update
#19
Geoffrey Burnstock
The roles of purinergic signalling in diseases of the central nervous system and the potential use of purinergic compounds for their treatment are attracting increasing attention. In this review, the focus is on the findings reported in recent papers and reviews to update knowledge in this field.
September 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643999/purinergic-signaling-in-corneal-wound-healing-a-tale-of-2-receptors
#20
Martin S Minns, Vickery Trinkaus-Randall
Nucleotide release and purinergic signaling make up the earliest response to corneal injury and are vital for proper wound healing. In this study, we review the importance of nucleotide release in the injury response and focus on the contribution of 2 receptors that mediate purinergic signaling, P2Y2 and P2X7. These receptors mediate the early response to injury and activate downstream signaling to promote cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration. The contribution of corneal nerves to the purinergic injury response is also discussed...
October 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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